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THE 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 



OR A VIEW OF THE 



HISTORY, 
POLITICS, 



AND 



LITERATURE, 

For the YEAR 1775- 



THE FIFTH EDITION. 





LONDON: 
Printed for J. Dodsley, in Pall-Mall, 1791 



D 

a 



PREFACE. 

IT was not without regret that we found 
the diflentions between this country 
and its colonies at length ripened into a 
civil war. The perfon to whofe lot it falls 
to defcribe the tranfadions of domeftic 
hoftility, and the fteps which lead to it, 
has a painful, and generally unthankful 
office. People can fcarcely judge \vith 
temper of fuch an hiftory in a century after 
the events. It is a perilous fituation when 
we are to be tried by prefent paffions. In- 
terefted as we are in this conteft in coni^ 
mon with all Englifhmen, and affeded as 
we muft be in comrnon with all men of 
humanity, we have never been tempted to 
depart from the fteady courfe of impartiality, 
which we have always obferved, and in 
which the public has hitherto fupported 
us. It indeed little becomes us to be dog- 
matical and decided in our opinions in this 
3 matter, 



PREFACE. 

matter, when the public, even on this fide 
of the water, is fo much divided ; and 
when the firft names of the country have 
differed fo greatly in their fentiments. It 
is no longer our tafk to defcribe devaftation 
in Poland, or flaughter on the Danube. 
The evil is at home/ 

We are as truly fenfible of the import- 
ance as of the delicacy of the fubjedl. The 
fenfe of that importance, which is fome- 
thing more than was generally apprehended 
even when the tranfaftions in parliament 
were palling, has obliged us to a much 
greater length than ufual. We have given 
every thing as fully as we were enabled to 
do from any materials we could obtain. 
However we may have failed in the at- 
tempt, neither application nor labour were 
wanting on our fide, nor expence confi- 
dered on that of the publifiier, in endea- 
vouring to render the work worthy of the 
acceptance of the public. 



THE 



THE 

ANNUAL REGISTER 

For the YEAR 1775. 

THE 

HISTORY 

O F 

EUROPE. 

.»— 1 ..,. >( ,,. 

C H A P. 1. 

^etroJpeSli've fvieiu of affairs in the colonies in the year 1764. General effe^ 
of the late lanjos. Impeachment of Mr .Oli'ver. Affembly of Majfachujett^ s 
Bay dijfolved. General Gage arrives at Bojlon. Great conjlernation on 
receiving the Bojlon port bill. Neixj affemhly meet at Bojlon, and are ad- 
journed to Salem. Provincial and tovjn meetings. Affemhly of T/irginia 
diffolved. Philadelphia. Kev) Tork. Addrefs from gentlemen, l^c. of 
Bojlon to the new governor. Addrefs from the council rejeSied. Trajif-^ 
ail ions of the houfe of reprefentatives at Salem. The affemhly dijfolved, 
Addrefs from the tovjn of Salem. General ie>nper and dijpofition of the 
people throughout the continent. Solemn league and covenant. Proclama^ 
tion againjl it. Meafures relative to the holding of a general congrefs. Refo- 
iutions paffed in different places, Addrefs from thejujlices of Plymouth county. 
Uneafnefs excited hy the arrival of troops. Falfe alarm, Proclamatioti 
for the encQuragement of piety and virtue, l3c. Hojlile appearances, Neva 
judges incapable of aSiing. New counfellors compelled to renounce thiir 
*ffces» Fortification on Bofton Neck. Provincial magazines feized. Ths 
people in a violent ferment. Company of cadets difhand themfelves, and 
Uturn the Jldndard. Sundry refolut ions paffed by the delegates of the county 
Vol. XVIir. 1775. [^J •/ 



] 



HISTORY OF^ EUROPE. 



'if Suffolk. Remonfirance. Jnpwer, Writs for holding ^ general affem- 
tly countermanded by proclamation, The reprefentatinjes meet notnvith' 
fianding at Salem ; njote themjel'ves into a pro-vincial congre/s, and adjourn 
to the tonvn of Concord, Remonfirance from the pronjincial congrefs ; go- 
<vernor*5 anfwtr. State of affairs at Bofion. Further proceedings of tht 
pro<vincial congrefs, Proclamatio?i, 



IT happens moft unfortunately 
this year, that our own public 
affairs not only take the lead 
among thofe of Europe, but have 
in a great degree abforbed all other 
matter of political fpeculation. [ A 
ceflation feems to take place in the 
animolities and defigns of other 
Hates. The great difturbers of 
mankind appear to forget their ra- 
pacity and ambition, whilft they 
contemplate the new and unthought- 
of fpeftacle we exhibit to the world, 
and perhaps eagerly predict the ad- 
vantages which they may derive 
from its fatal confequences. ^" 

It need fcarcely be mentioned, 
that the unhappy conteft in which 
we are involved with our colonies, 
is the event which has thus excited 
the attention of mankind. Thofe 
colonies, which were fo long our 
llrength and our glory, whofe ra- 
pid growth and allonifhing increafe 
mocked the calculations of politi- 
cians, and outftripped the fpecula- 
tions of philofophers ; thofe colo- 
nies, which equally excited the ap- 
prehenlions of our enemies, and 
tjie envy of our friends, ftill attraft 
the eyes of the world, to them and 
to us, as to a common center ; but 
prefent a very different appearance 
of things to obfervation. Happy 
will it be, if this general attention 
is produ6Uve of no other fentiment, 
than the admiration which arifes 
from novelty, or the generous fym- 
pathy which feels for the miferies 
•f mankind. 



The penal laws, which we faw 
paffed, in the laft feffion of the lall 
parliament, relative to the colony of 
Maffachufett's Bay, and which were 
intended to operate both as a chaf- 
tifement for paft, and a preventa- 
tive of future mifdemeanors in that 
province, were unfortunately pro- 
ductive of effedls very different from 
thofe which the fanguine promoters 
of thole bills had hoped, and which 
adminiftration had held out to the 
nation. Other purpofes were ex- 
pelled from them beiides punifh- 
ment and prevention. It was ex- 
pelled, that the fhutting up of the 
port of Bofton would have been na- 
turally a gratification to the neigh- 
bouring towns, from the great be- 
nefits which would accrue to them, 
by the fplitting and removing of its 
commerce ; and that this would 
prove a fruitful fource of jealoufy 
and dilunion within the province. 
It was alfo thought, that the parti- 
cular punifhraent of that province 
would not only operate as an exam- 
ple of terror to the other colonies, 
but that from the felfifhnefs and 
malignancy incident to mankind," as 
well as from their common jealou- 
fies, they would quietly refign it to 
its fate, and enjoy with pleafure 
any benefits they could derive from 
its misfortunes. Thus it was hoped, 
that befides their direfl operation, 
thefe bills would eventually prove 
a means of diffolving that band of 
union, whichfeemedoFlate too much 
to prevail a mongft the colonies. 

6 ^ Tht 



iiiS TORY OF Eli ROPE. 



tj 



The aa called the Military Bill, 
which accompanied thefe laws, and 
which was formed to fupport and 
encourage the fold'itry in beating 
down all poiTible reiiftance to the 
other ads, it was iinagined, would 
compleat the deiign, and bring the 
colonies to a pcrfcd fubmiffion. In 
confidence of the perfedllon of this 
plan of terrors, punifhniints, and 
regulations, and of the large force 
by fea and land (as it was then 
thought) which was fent toftrength- 
cn the hands of government, admi- 
niftration repofed in the moft per- 
fect fecuriry ; and ended the felTion 
in the moft triumphant manner, 
and with the mutual congratula- 
tions of all concerned in thofe ads, 
which may be well remembered, 
and which we have defcribed in cur 
laft volume. 

The event, in all thefe cafes, 
was however very different. The 
neighbouring towns difdained every 
idea of profiting in any degree by 
the misfortunes of their friends in 
Bollon. The people of the pro- 
vince, inftead of being fhaken by 
the coercive means which were ufed 
for their fubjugation, joined the 
more firmly together to brave the 
ftorm ; and feeing that their an- 
cient conftitution wa? dellroyedi 
^d that it was determined to de- 
prive them of thofe rights, which 
they had ever been taught to revere 
as facred, and to deem more valu- 
able than life itfelf, they deter- 
mined at all events to preferve them, 
or to perifh in the common ruin, 
in the fame manner, the other co- 
lonies, inftead of abandoning, clung 
the clofer to their devoted fifter as 
the danger increafed ; and their af- 
fedion and fympathy feemed to 
fife in proportion to her misfortunes 
aad fuffe rings. 



In a word, thefe bills, (as had 
been too truly foretold by their op- 
pofers at home} inftead of anfwering 
the purpofes for whicli they were 
intended, fpread a general alarm 
from one end to the other of the 
continent, and became the cement 
of a ftri^ and clofe union between all 
the old colonies. They faid it was 
now vifible, that charters, grants, 
and eftablifhed ufages, were nd 
longer a protedion or defence; that 
all rights, immunities, and civil 
fecurities, muft vanifh at the breath 
of an ad of parliament. They were 
all fenfible, th^t they had beeii 
guilty, in a greater or leffer degree; 
of thofe unpardonable fins which 
had drawn down fire upon Ebfton ; 
th^ believed, that vengeance, tho* 
delayed, wis not remitted ; and 
that all the mercy, the moft fa- 
voured or the leaft culpable could 
exped, was to be the laft that 
would be devoured. 

It may be remember(>d in the 
laft feffion, that the niinifter had an- 
nounced in the Houfe of Commons, 
the appointment of General Gage 
to the government of the province 
of Maftachufett's Bay, and to the 
command in chief of the army i« 
North-America. As this gentle- 
man had borne feveral commands 
with reputation in that part of the 
world ; had lived many years there, 
and had fufficierit opportnnities of 
acquiring a thorough knowledge of 
the peoplcj and was befides well 
approved of by them, great hopes 
were formed of the happy efteds 
which would have refulted from 
his adminiftration ; and it is little 
to be doubted, if his appointment 
had been at a happier time, and his 
government free from the neceflity 
of enforcing meafures which were 
generallv odious to tht people, bot 

[^J a theit 



4] 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, 



ihefe expeftaiions would have been 
anfvvered. 

The jealoufy and ill blood be- 
tween the governors and governed 
in the province of Mafiachufett's 
Bay, which we have formerly ta- 
ken notice of, had ever fince con- 
tinued. The Houfe of Reprefen- 
tatives had prcfented a petition and 
remonftrance to the Governor, eSrly 
in the fpring, for the removal of 
Peter Oliver, Efq; Chief JulHce of 
the Superior Court of Judicature, 
from his office ; this requeft not 
being complied with, they exhi- 
bited articles of impeachment a- 
gainll him, of high crimes and mif- 
demeanors, in their own name and 
that of the province, which they 
carried up to the Council-board, 
and gave the governor notice to at- 
tend as judge upon the trial. The 
charge againll the Chief Juilice was, 
the betraying of his trull, and of 
the chartered rights of the pro- 
vince, by accepting a falary from 
the crown, in consideration of his 
official fervices, inftead of the cuf- 
tomary grant from the Houfe of 
Reprefentatives. The refolution 
for carrying up this impeachment 
was carried by a majority of 92 to 
S ; from whence fome judgment 
may be formed of the general tem- 
per of the province, and their una- 
nimity, even in this Urong and 
extraordinary meafure. 

The Governor refufed to receive 
the articles, and totally difclaimed 
all authority in himfelf and the 
Council to aft as a judicatory, for 
the trial of any crimes or mifde- 
meanors whatever. The Houfe of 
Reprefentatives, far from giving up 
the matter, only changed their 
mode of attack ; and the Governor 
finding that they would perfjrt in a 
jprofecution under fome form or 



other, and that every new attempt 
would only ferve to involve things 
in flill greater difficulty, or at leall 
to increafe the animofity, thought 
it necelTary, at the conclufion of 
the month of March, to dilTolve 
the AfTembly. 

Such was the flate of things in 
the province of MafTachufett's Bay, 
when Gen Gage ar- ^ 

rived m his govern- -^ ^ ' 
ment. The hopes that ^774- 
might have been formed upon a 
change of adminiflration, and the 
joy that generally attends the com- 
ing of a new Governor, were, how- 
ever, nipped in the bud, by the ar- 
rival juft before of a fhip from 
London, which brought a copy of 
the Bofton Port Bill ; and a Town- 
Meeting was fitting to coniider of 
it, at the very time he arrived in 
the harbour. As this fatal news 
was totally unexpefted, the con- 
llernation which it caufed among 
all orders of people was inexpref- 
fible. The firll meafure was the 
holding of the Town-meeting we 
have mentioned, at which refolu- 
tions were palled, and ordered to 
be immediately tranfmitted to the 
other colonies, inviting them to 
enter into an agreement to Hop all ^ 

imports and exports to and from 
Great-Britain and Ireland, and 
every part of the Weft-Indies, until 
the adl was repealed, as the only 
means (they faid) that were left 
for the falvation of North- America 
and her liberties. They befides 
expatiated on the impolicy, injuf- 
tice, inhumanity, and cruelty of 
the a6l, and appealed from it to 
God and the world. 

In the mean time, copies of the 
aft were multiplied with incredible 
expedition, and difpatched to every 
part of the continent with equal j 
celerity. I 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



is 



eelerlty. Thefe had the efFe6l 
which the poets afcribe to the Fu- 
ry's torch ; they let the countries 
in a flame through which they paf- 
icd. At Boilon and New Yoilc, 
the populace had copies of the bill 
printed upon mourning paptr with 
a black border, which they cried 
about the Itreets under the title of 
a barbarous, cruel, bloody, and 
inhuman murder. In otner places, 
great bodies of the people wen. c.l- 
led together by public adv rtife- 
ment, ap.d the obnoxious law burn- 
ed with great folcmnity. 

There was, however, a very Air- 
prifing mixture ,ot fobriety ^.ith 
this fury ; and a degree of modera- 
tion was blended with the ex"cefs 
into which the people were hur- 
ried. 

This extraordinary combuftion in 
the minds of all ranks of the people 
did iiot prevent the Governor's be- 
ing received with the ufual honours 
at Bofton. The new AfTembly of 
the province met of courle a few 
days after, the Council, for the 
laft time, being chofen according 
to their charter. The Governor 
at their meeting laid nothing more 
before them than the common bu- 
fincfs of the province ; but gave 
them notice of their removal to the 
town of Salem, on the firlt of June, 
in purfuance of the late a6t of par- 
liament. The Affembly, to evade 
this meafure, were hurrying through 
the neceffary bufinefs of the fuppljes 
with the greateft expedition, that 
they might then adjourn themfelves 
to fuch time as they thought pro- 
per ; but the Governor having ob- 
tained fomc intelligence of their 
intention, adjourned them unex- 
pectedly to the 7 th of June, then to 
meet at Salem. Previous to this 
adjournment, they had prefentcd a 



petition to the Governor, for ap- 
poituing a day of get.eral prayer 
and faftmg, which he did not thii^ 
proper to comply with- 
in the mean time. Provincial or 
Town meetings were held in every 
part of the continent ; in which, 
tho' fome were much more temperate 
than others, they all concurred in 
exprefling the greateft difapproba- 
tion of the meafures which were 
purfued againft Bofton, an abhor- 
rence of the new atl, and a con- 
demnation of the principles on 
which it was fbnnded, with a refo- 
lution to oppofe its effects in every 
manner, and to lupport their dif- 
trefied brethren, who were to be 
the immediate viftims. 

The Houfe of Burgeffes, of the 
province of Virginia, appointed the 
I ft of June, the day on which the 
Eofton Port Bill took place, to be 
fet apart for faftine, prayer, and 
humiliation, to implore the Divine 
interpofition to avert the heavy 
calamity, which threatened deftruc- 
tion to their civil rights, with the 
evils of a civil war ; and to give 
one heart and one mind to the 
people, firmly to oppofe every in- 
jury to the American rights. This 
example was either followed, or a 
fimilar refolution adopted, almoft 
every where, and the ift of June 
became a general day of prayer and 
humiliation throughout the conti- 
nent. 

This meafure, however, procured 
the immediate diflblution of the 
Alfembly of Virginia ; but before 
their feparation, an afibciation was 
entered into and figned by 89 of 
the members, in which they de- 
clared, that an attack made upon 
one colony, to compel fubmiflioa to 
arbitrary taxes, was an attack on all 
Britilh America, and threatened 
l^] 3 ruia 



«3 



H I S T O !l Y O F EUROPE. 



ruin to the rights of all, unlefs the 
united vvifdora of the whole was 
applied in prevention. They there- 
fore recommended to the committee 
of correfpondence, to communicate 
With the feveral committees of the 
other provinces, on the expediency 
of appointing deputies from' the 
different colonies, to meet annually 
in GeneralCongrefs, and to deli- 
berate on thofe general meafures, 
which the united interefls of Ame- 
rica might, from time to time, rcn- 
iler neceffary. They concluded 
with ^ declaration, that a tender 
regard' for the interefts of their 
fellovv-fubjedls the merchants and 
juanufadurerers of Great-Britain, 
prevented them from going further 
at that lime. 

At Philadelphia, about 300 of 
the inhabitants immediately ract> 
and appointed a committee to wpite 
to the town of Bollon. Their let- 
ter was temperate, but firm. They 
acknowledged the difficulty of of- 
fering advice upon that fad occa- 
iion ; wiflied firii to have the feufe 
of. the province in general ; ob- 
ferved, that all lenient applications 
for obtaining redrefs ll)ould be tried 
before recourfe was had tp extre- 
niitles ; that it might perhaps be 
right to take the i^cn(eof a General 
Congref-, before the defperate mea- 
fure of putting an entire flop .to 
commerce was adopted ; and that 
it might be right, at any rate, to 
referve that meafure as the laft re- 
fource, when all other means had 
failed. They obferved, that if the 
making of rel]itution to the Eaft- 
Ihdia Company for their teas, would 
J)ut an end to the unhappy contro- 
verfy, and leave the people of Bof- 
ton upon their ancient footing of 
conllitutional liberty, it could not 
^dmi^ of a moment's doubt what 



part they Hiould aft; but it y/aj 
not the value of the tea, it was the 
indefeafible right of giving and 
granting their own money, a right 
from which they could never re- 
cede, that was now the matter in 
qon fide ration. 

A Town- meeting was alfo held 
at New-Yoik, and a committee of 
correfpondence appointed; Out they 
were as yet, in general, yejy tenqt- 
perate in their condud ; and Go- 
vernjiient had a much ftronger in.- 
tereft i/i. that colony than in any 
other. The cafe was far different 
at Annapolis in Maryland, where 
the people of that city, though un- 
der a proprietary government, ex- 
ceeded the other colonies in the 
violence of their refolutions ; oae 
of which was to prevent the carry- 
ing on of any fuits in the courts of 
the prevince, for the debts which 
were owing from them in Great- 
Britain. This refolution, how- 
ever", w9s neither adopted nor con- 
firiped by the Provincial meeting 
which was held foon after ; nor was 
it any where carried into praftice. 

In general, as might have becii 
expefted in fuch great commercial 
countries, the propofal for fiiutting 
up the pores (former refolutions o{ 
this kind having been much abufed 
for the private gain of individuals) 
was received with great ferioufhefs, 
hefitation, and coldnefs ; and con- 
fidered as the lafc defperate refort, 
when all other means of redrefs 
fhoujd fail. In other refpefts, upon 
the arrivalof the news from Bofton, 
moderation was little thought of any 
vyhere, and the behavioqr of the 
people was nearly iimilar in all 
places. At the numberlefs public 
meetings which were held upon 
that occaiion, throughout the conti* 
nent, thpy i^aiTed evory, refolution, 
^ ^ '■ ' ■ • ■ - ■ - ■ ; '• and 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[7 



and adopted every meafure they 
could for the prefent think of, to 
fhew their utmoft deteftation of the 
Bofton Port Bill, and to cxprefs 
their determination of oppofing its 
effefts in every poflible manner. 

In this ftate of general difTatis- 
fadtion, complaint, and oppofition. 
General Gage had the temporary 
fatisfadtion of receiving an addrefs 
of congratulation, figned by 127 
gentlemen, merchants and inhabi- 
tants of Bofton, who were either 
the beft addidled to government, 
the moll moderate, or to whom the 
prefent meafures feemed the leaft 
obnoxious. Befides the compli- 
ments cuftomary upon thefe occa- 
fions, a declaration of the ftrong 
hopes, which they had founded up- 
on the General's public and private 
character, and a difavowal, as to 
themfelves, of all lawlefs violences, 
they lamented, that a difcretionary 
power was not lodged m his hands, 
to reftore trade to its former courfe, 
immediately upon the terms of the 
late law being fully complied with ; 
and ihewed, that as the adl flood at 
prefent, hotwithftanding the moil 
immediate compliance, fo much 
time would be loft, before his fa- 
vourable account of their condudl 
could reach the King and Council, 
and produce the wilhed-for effeft, 
as would involve them in unfpeak- 
able mifery, and they feared in to- 
tal ruin. 

A few days after, an addrefs from 
the Council was prel^nted to the Go- 
vernor, which contained fome very 
fevere refledlions on his two imme- 
diate predeceffors, to whofe ma- 
chinations, both in concert and 
apart, that body attributed the 
origin and progrefs of the difunion 
between Great-Britain and her co- 
lonies, an4 all th^ calamities that 



afHifted that province. They de- 
clared, that the people claimed no 
more than the rights of Englifti- 
men, without diminution or abridge 
ment ; and thefe, as it was the in* 
difpenfable duty of that board, fo 
it fhould be their conftant endeavour 
to maintain, to the utmoft of their 
power, in perfeft confiftence, how- 
ever, with the trueft loyalty to the 
crown, thejuft prerogatives of which 
they would ever be zealous to fup- 
port. 

This addrefs was rejefted by th« 
Governor, who would not fuffer the 
chairman of the committee to pro- 
ceed any further, when he had reaci 
the part which reflected on his pre- 
deceffors. He afterwards returned 
an anfwer to the Council in writing, 
in which he informed them, that 
he could not receive an addrefs 
which contained indecent reflec- 
tions on his predeceffors, who had 
been tried and honourably acquit- 
ted by the Privy Council, and their 
conduft approved by the King. 
That he confidered the addrefs as 
an infiilt upon his Majefty, and the 
Lords of his Privy Council, and aa 
affront to himfelf. 

The Houfe of Reprefentatives, 
upon their meeting at Salem, paffed 
a refolution, in which they declared 
the expediency of a general meet- 
ing of committees from the feveral 
colonies, and fpqcified the purpofes 
which rendered fuch meeting ne- 
ceffary. By another, they ap- 
pointed five gentlemen, of thofe 
who had been the moft remarkable 
in oppofition, as a committee to 
reprefent that province. And by 
a third, they voted the fum of 500I. 
to the faid committee, to enable 
them to difcharge the important 
trull to which they were appoint- 



8] 



HISTORY OF Europe, 



As neither this appointment, nor 
dlfpofal of the public money, could 
be at all agreeable to the Governor, 
he accordingly refufed his concur- 
rence to the latter J upon which the af* 
iembly palTed a refolution, to recom- 
mend to the ("pvcral towns and dil- 
trids within the province, to raife the 
faid5ool. by equitable proportions, 
according to the laft provincial tax. 
A recommendation, which, at pre- 
fent, had all the force of a law. 

The AfTembly forefeeing that 
their diflblution was at hand, were 
determined to give the people a 
public teftimony of their opinions, 
and under the title of recommenda- 
tions to prefcribe rules for their 
condufl, which they knew would 
be more punctually complied with, 
than the pofitive injunctions of 
laws. They accordingly palTed a 
declaratory refolution, expreffive of 
thejr fenfe of the flate of public af- 
fairs, and of the defigns of govern- 
ment, in which they advanced, 
that they, with the other American 
colonies, had long been llruggling 
under the heavy hand of power; 
and that their dutiful petitions for 
the redrefs of intolerable grievances 
had not only been difregarded ; but 
that the defign totally to alter the 
free conllitution and civil govern- 
ment in Britifh America, to efta- 
bliih arbitrary governments, and 
to reduce the inhabitants to flavery, 
appeared more and more to be fixed 
and determined. They then re- 
commended in the llrongell terms 
to the inhabitants of the province, 
totally to renounce the confump- 
tion of India teas, and, as far as in 
them lay, to difcontinue the ufe of 
all gopds imported from the Eafl- 
Injiies and Great Britain, until the 
public grievances of America Ihould 
be radically and totally redrelTed. 



And the more fully to carry thig 
effential purpofe into effed, it was 
ilrongly recommended, that they 
fhould give every poiTibie encou- 
ragement to the manufadures of 
America. 

Though the committee, that was 
appointed to condudl this bufinefs, 
endeavoured to carry it on with the 
greateft privacy, the Governor, 
notwithftanding, obtained fome in- 
telligence of it, and on the very 
day upon which they made their 
report, he fent his Secretary to 
pronounce their immediate difTolu- 
tion. The Secretary, upon his ar- 
rival, finding, the door locked, fent 
the Houfe-mefTenger to acquaint 
the Speaker, that he had a meffage 
from the Governor, and defired 
admittance to deliver it. The 
Speaker, in fome time, returned for 
anfwer, that he had acquainted the ^ 
Houfe with the meffage which he % 
had received, and that their orders 
were to keep the door faft. Upon 
this refufal of admittance, the -Se-» 
cretary caufed proclamation to be 
made, upon the flairs, j , 

ofthedifTolutionof the )'^^ y?^^- 
General AfTembly. Such was the 
iffue of the final contefl between the 
Governor of MafTachufett's Bay, 
and the laft AfTembly which was 
holden in that province, upon th? 
principles of its charter. 

The day after the difTolution of 
the AfTembly, a moft pathetic, bu^ 
at the fame Ume firm and manly 
addrefs, was prefented from the 
merchants and freeholders of the 
town of Salem to the Governor. 
We cannot forget, that this town 
was now become the temporary ca- 
pital of the province, in the place 
of . Boflon ; and that the General 
Afiembly, the Courts of Juflice, the 
Cuitom-Houfe, and fo fas as it 

could 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[9 



could be done by power, the trade 
of that port were removed thither; 
ib that they were already in poflTef- 
iion of a principal ihare of thofe 
fpoils, which it was fuppofed would 
have efreduaily influenced the con- 
duft of that people, and thereby 
have bred fuch incurable envy, 
jcaloufy and anitnofity, between 
the gainers and fufferers, that the 
refradlory capital finding herfelf 
abandoned, and being left alone to 
ruminate upon her forlorn fituation, 
would foon be reclaimed, and 
brought to as full a fenfe of her 
duty, as of her puni(hment. 

Whether this opinion was found- 
ed upon a thorough knowledge of 
human nature in general, or took 
its rife from particular inftances, 
which were extended in fpeculation 
to the whole, may perhaps, in a 
certain degree, be determined from 
the following generous fentiments 
of the inhabitants of Salem. They 
fay, ** We are deeply afHided with 
a fenfe of our public c-'^lamities ; 
but the miferies that are now ra- 
pidly hafl^ening on our brethren in 
the capital of the province, greatly 
excite our commiferaiion : and we 
Jiope your excellency will ufe your 
endeavours to prevent a further ac- 
cumulation of evils on th-it already 

forely diltrefl'cd people.*' '• By 

fhutting up the port of Boilon, 
fome imagine that the courle of 
trade might be turned hither, and 
to our benefit ; but nature, in the 
formation of our harbour, forbids 
our becoming rivals in commerce 
with that convenient mart. And 
were it otherwife, we mull be dead 
to evt^ry idea of juftice, loll to all 
feelings of humanity, could we in- 
dulge one thought to feize on 
wealth, and raife our fortunes on 



the ruin of our fufFering neigh- 
bours." 

Thi*^ whole addrefs is remark-* 
able for the propriety with which 
it is conduced, and the juftnefs of 
its fentiments. They treat the 
governor with the higheft refpeft, 
and hope much from his general 
character, as well as from his con- 
duft in a former government ; they 
exprefs the llrongeft attachment to 
the mother country, the deeptft 
concern for the prefent unhappy 
troubles, and themoft fervent wiflies 
f'^r a fpeedy and happy reconcilia- 
tion, to obtain which, they are wil- 
ling to facrifice every thing, com- 
patible with the fafety and dignity 
of Britifh lubjeds. 

'The general had formed confi- 
dcr.'ible hopes upon the conduft of 
the merchants ; who he expeded 
would have entered into the fpirit 
of the late law, and by removing 
their commerce along with the cu^ 
tom-houje to Salem, have thereby 
the fooner induced the capital to 
the compliance? which were wifhcd 
by government. In thefe expefta- 
tions he was difappointed. It is 
probable, that the merchants 
thought it fit and neceffary to keep 
fair with government, and in ge- 
neral dlAipproved oi all violences ; 
but it feems evident, that they did 
not enter heartily into the new 
meafures. It feems alfo probable, 
that he believed the friends of the 
fyllem of government now adopt- 
ed, to be llronger and more nume- 
rous than they really were. An 
experiment was however made, 
which fet this matter in a clear 
light. The friends of government 
attended a town-meeting at BoiK>n» 
^and attempted to pafs refolutions 
for the payment of the tea, and for 
dilTolving 



lo] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



diffolving the committee of corre- 
fpondence ; but they found them- 
felves loil in a prodigious majo- 
rity ; and had no other refcurce, 
than the drawing up of a proteil 
againft the proceedings of that af- 
fembly. 

In the mean time, rough draughts 
of the two remaining bills relative 
to the province of MafTachufett's- 
Bay, as well as of that for quarter- 
ing the troops in America, all of 
which were in agitation in Eng- 
land, at the time that the laft ftiips 
failed from thence, were received in 
Boflon, and immediately circulated 
throughout the continent. The 
knowledge of thefe bills filled up 
whatever was wanting before, of 
violence and indignation in moll 
of the colonies. Even thofe who 
were moderate, or feemed waver- 
ing, now became fanguine. The 
idea of fhutting up the ports be- 
came common language, and to be 
confidered as a matter of neceffity. 
Nothing was to be heard of, but 
meetings and refolutions. Liberal 
contributions for the relief of their 
diftrefTed brethren in Bofton were 
levery where recommended, and 
ibon reduced into pradice. IsTum- 
berlefs letters were written from 
towns, diftridl^, and provinces, to 
^he people of Bolton, in which, be- 
iides every expreflian of fympatby 
and tendenieis, they were highly 
flattered for their paft condu£l, and 
ftrongly exhorted to a perfeverance 
p that virtue, which brought on 
their fuffe rings. 

The people of America at this 
^iqae, with refped to political opi- 
nions, might in general bs divided 
^nto two great clalTes. Of thefe, 
pne was for rulhing headlong into 
|he greateft extremities ; they would 



put an immediate Hop to trade, 
without waiting till other meafures 
were tried, or receiving the general 
f^nfe of the colonies upon a fub- 
jedt of fuch alarming importance ; 
and though they were eager for the 
holding of a congrefs, they would 
leave it nothing to do, but to pro- 
fecute the violences which they had 
begun. The other, if lefs nume- 
rous, was not ]e(s refpedtable, and 
though more moderate, were per- 
haps equally firm. Thefe were 
averfe to any violent meafures being 
adopted until all other means were 
ineffeftually tried ; they wiihed 
further applications to be made to 
Great-Britain ; and the grievances 
they complained of, with the 
rights which they claimed, to be 
clearly Hated, and properly pre- 
fented. This, theyfaid, could only 
be done effedually by a general 
congrefs, as in any other manner 
it might be liable to the objedion 
of being only the adt of a few men, 
or of a particular colony. We, 
however, acknowledge a third 
party, which were the friends to 
the adminiftration in England, or 
more properly, thofe who did not 
totally difapprove of its meafures ; 
but their Hill fmall voice was fo 
low, that except in a very few par- 
ticular places, it could fcarcely be , 
diftinguifhed. 

The more violent, who had not 
patience to wait for the refult of 
a congrefs, entered into other mea- 
fures. An agreement was framed 
by the committee of correfpon- 
dence at Boflon, which they enti- 
tled a folemn league and covenant, 
wherein the fubfcribers bound them- 
felves in the moft folemn manner, 
and in the prefence of God, to 
fufpend all commercial intercourfc 

with 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[" 



witlx Great-Britain, from the laft 
day of the enfuing monih of Aa- 
guit, until the Bofton Port-Bill, 
and the other late obnoxious laws 
were repealed, and the colony of 
Maffachufett's-Bay fully rettored to 
its chartered rights. They alfo 
ijound themfelvcs in the fame man- 
»er, not to confume, or to purchafe 
from any other, any goods what- 
ever, which arrived after the fpe- 
eified time, and to break off ali 
commerce, trade, and dealings, 
with any who did, as well as with 
the importers of fuch goods. They 
renounced in the lame manner, all 
future intercourfe and connexion 
with thofe who Ihould refufe to 
jfubfcribe to that covenant, or to 
Wind themfelvcs By feme fimilar 
agreement, with the dangerous 
penalty annexed, of having their 
names publifhed to the world. 

The covenant, accompanied with 
a letter from the committee at 
Bofton, was circulated with the ufual 
aftivity, and the people, not only 
in the New England govern- 
ments, but in the other provinces, 
entered into this new league with 
the greateft eagernefs. It feems, 
however, that (imilar agreements 
had been entered into about the 
fame time, in various parts of the 
continent, and without any pre- 
vious concert with each other, 'any 
more than with thofe at Bollon. 

General Gage was much alarm- 
ed at this proceeding ; to which 
Its name, as well as its tendency, 
might poffibly contribute. He ac- 

1 . cordinely publiftied a 

June 2Qth. a ** "^ '^ 1 

r ^ Itrong proclamation 

againft it, in which it was ftiled 
an unlawful, hoftile, and traiterous 
combination, contrary to the al- 
legiance due to the king, deflruc- 
iivc of the lawful authority of the 



Britifti parliament, and of the 
peace, good order, and fafety of 
the community, j^ll perfons were 
warned againft incurring the pains 
and penalties due to fuch aggrava- 
ted and dangerous offences, and all 
maglflrates charged to apprehend, 
and fecure for trial, fuch as fliould 
have any fhare in the publilhing, 
fubfcribing, aiding, or abetting 
the foregoing, pr any fimilsir cove- 
nant. 

This proclapiation had no oth(?r 
effe6l than to exercife the pens and 
the judgment of thofe who were 
verfed in legal knowledge, by en- 
deavouring to {hew, that the aflb- 
ciation did not come within any 
of the tre^fon-laws, and that the 
charges made by the governor wer^ - 
confcquently erroneous, unjuft, and 
highly injurious. They faid h^ 
had affumed a power, which the 
conftiiution denied even to the 
fovereign, the power of making 
thofe things to be treafon, which, 
were not confidered as fuch by the 
lavys ; that the people had a right 
to aiferable to confider of their 
common grievances, and to form 
aflbciations for their general con- 
duilE towards the remedy of thofi^^ 
grievances ; and that the procla- 
mation was'equally arbitrary, odi- 
ous, and illegal. 

Meafures were now every whercj 
taken for the holding of a general 
congrefs ; and Philadelphia, froni 
the convenience of its fituation, as 
well as its fecurity, was fixed upoir 
as the place, and the beginning of 
September the time, for meeting! 
Where an affembly happened to bq 
fitting, as in the cafe of MafTa- 
chufett*s-Bay, they appointed de- 
puties to feprefent the province ici 
the congrefs. But as this happen- 
ed to be the cafe in very few in^ 

fiances^ 



12] HISTORY OFEUROPE. 



ftances, the general method was, 
for the people to eled their ulual 
riDmber of repreientatives, and 
thefe, at a general meeting, chofe 
deputies from among themielves ; 
the number of which, in general, 
bore fome proportion to the extent 
and importance of the province ; 
two being the lealt, and ieven the 
greatell number, that reprefented 
any colony. But whatever the 
number of reprefentatives were, 
each colony had no more than a 
fingle vote. 

At thefe county or provincial 
meetings, a number of refolutions 
were conftantly paffed, among 
which a declaration that the Bollon 
Port- Aft was oppreilive, unjull, 
anconftitutional in its principles, 
and dangerous to the liberties of 
America, was always among the 
foremoft. At Philadelphia, a peti- 
tion figned by near 900 freeholders 
was prefented to Mr. Penn, the 
Governor, intreating him to call a 
general afTembly as foon as poflible. 
This requeH being refufed, the 
province proceeded to the eleftion 
J , T, <^^ deputies, who foon 
juiyiStft- after met at Philadel- 
phia. As the refolutions palled at 
this meeting carry more the marks 
of cool and temperate deliberation, 
as well as of affedion to the mo- 
ther country, than thofe of many 
others, and are at the fame time 
equally firm in the determination 
of fupporting what they thought 
their rights, ♦ve fhall be th:; more 
particular in our notice of them. 

They fet out with the ftrongeft 
profefSons of duty and allegiance 
to the fovereign, which could be 
well devifed ; and declare their ab- 
horrence of every idea of an un- 
conftitutional independence on the 
parent ilate ; upon which account^ 



they fay, that they view the lat© 
differences between Great-Britain 
and the colonilb with the deepeft 
dillrefs and anxiety of mind, as, 
fruitlefs to her, grievous to them, 
and deilrudive of the bell intereils 
of both. They then, after cx- 
prefling the moil ardent wiflies for 
a reftoration of the former harmony,, 
declare that the colonills are en- ; 
titled to the fame rights and liber- ! 
ties within the colonies, that the 
fubjedls born in England are with- 
in that realm. 

They reprobated in the ftrongcH 
terms the late bills relative to the 
province of Mafiachufett's-bay, and 
declare that they confider their bre- 
thren at Bofton, as fufFering in the 
common caufe of all the colonies.. 
They alfo declare the abfolute -ne- 
ceffity of a congrefs, to confult toge- 
ther, and to form a general plan of 
conduct to be obferved by all the co- 
lonies, for the purpofes of procuring 
relief for their fuffering brethren, 
obtaining redrefs of their general 
grievances, preventing future dif- 
fentions, firmly eilablifhing their 
rights, and the reftoration of har- 
mony between Great-Britain and 
her colonies upon a conliitutional 
foundation. 

They acknowledge, that a fuf- 
penfion of the commerce of that 
large trading province with Great- 
Britain, would greatly dillrefs mul- 
titudes of their indultrious inhabi- 
tants ; but declare that they are ready 
to offer that facrifice, and a much 
greater, for the prefervation of 
their liberties ; that, however, ia 
regard to the people of Great- 
Britain, as well as of their own 
country, and in hopes that their 
jufl remonllrances miglrt at length 
have efFedl, it was their earnell de- 
fire, that the congrefs fhould firl^^ 

uy 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



0'3 



try the gentle mode of ftating their 
grievances, and making a firm and 
decent claim of redrefs. They 
conclude with warning dealers not 
to raife the price of their mer- 
chandife beyond the ufual rates, 
on account of any refolutions that 
might be taken with refped to im- 
portation ; and by a declaration, 
that that province would break off 
all dealing and commercial inter- 
courfe whatfoever, with any town, 
city, or colony on the continent, 
or with any individuals in them, 
who fhould refufe, decline, or ne- 
glefl to adopt and carry into exe- 
cution fuch general plan as Ihould 
be agreed upon in the congrefs. 

feveral coaniies of Virginia at Wil- 
liamfburgh, which lafted for fix 
days, befides profeflions of alle- 
giance and loyalty, of regard and 
affedion for their fellow- fubjeds in 
Great-Britain, equally ftrongly ex- 
preflcd with thole which we have 
mentioned, and feveral refolutions 
in common with the other colonies, 
they pafTed others which were pe- 
culiar, and confidering the Hate 
and circumftances of that province, 
with its 'immediate dependence on 
the mother country for the difpofal 
of its only ftaple commodity, muft 
be confidered very dcferving of at- 
tention, becaufe ftrongly indicating 
the true fpirit of that people. 

Among thefe, they refolved rot 
to purchafe any more flaves from 
Africa, the Weft Indies, cr any 
other place ; that their non-impor- 
tation agreement (hould take place 
on the firft of the following No- 
vember; and that if the American 
grievances were not redrfiTed by 
the loth of Auguft 177c, they 
would export, after that ume, no 



tobacco, nor any other goods what- 
ever, to Great-Britain ; and to 
render this laft refolution the more 
efFedual, they ftrongly recommend- 
ed the cultivation of fuch articles of 
hufbandry, inftead of tobacco, as 
might form a proper bafis for ma- 
nufaftures of all forts ; and par- 
ticularly to improve the breed of 
their ftieep, to multiply them, and 
to kill as few of them as poffible. 
They alfo refolved to declare thofe 
enemies to their country, who 
Ihould break through the non-im- 
portation refolution. The people 
of Maryland, the other great 
tobacco colony, were not behind- 
hand with thofe of Virginia ia 
their determinations; and the two 
Carolinas, whofe exiftence feemcd 
to depend upon their exportation, 
were by no means among the leaH 
violent. 

Thus the Bofton Port-Bill and 
its companions had even exceeded 
the prognoftications of their moft 
violent opponents. They had 
raifed a flame from one end to the 
other of the continent of America, 
and united all the old colonies in 
one common caufe. A fimilar lan- 
guage was every where held ; or if 
there was any difference in the 
language, the mealures that were 
adopted were every where dire<^ed 
to the fame objeft. They all agreed 
in the main points, of holding a, 
congrefs, of not fubmitting to the 
payment of any internal taxes, that 
were not, as ufual, impofed by 
their own afTemhlits, and of fuf- 
pending all commerce with the mo- 
ther country, until the American 
grievances in general, and thofe of 
MafTachufett's - Bay in particular, 
were fully redreffed. 

The people, as is always thf 

cafe, were; from circumHances or 

teiDpery 



u] 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



temper, more or lefs violent in dif- 
ferent places ; but the refolution as 
to the great objeft of debate, the 
point of taxation, was everywhere 
the fame, and the moft moderate, 
even at New-York, feemed deter- 
mined to endure any evils, rather 
than fubmit to that. At Newport, 
in Rhode Ifland, the flame burned 
higher than in fome other places ; 
an inflammatory paper was there 
publifhed, with a motto in capi- 
tals ** Join or Die ;** in this piece 
the (late of Bofton was rcprefented 
as a liege, and as a dired and 
hoftile invalion of all the colonies ; 
'* the generals of defpotiim,'* it 
fays, ** are now drawing the lines 
of circumvallation around our bul- 
warks of liberty, and nothing but 
unity, refolution, and perfeverance 
can fave ourfelves and our pofterity 
from what is worfe than death,— 
{Slavery." 

What rendered this flate of affairs 
the more dangerous, was, that it 
did not arife from the difcontent of 
a turbulent or opprefled nobility, 
where, by bringing over a few of 
the leaders, the reil niufl follow of 
courfe, or perfift only to their ruin ; 
nor did it depend upon the refolu- 
tion or perfeverance of a body of 
merchants and dealers, where every 
man habitually iludious of his im- 
mediate intereft, would tremble at 
the thought of thofe conTequences, 
which might eflentially alfefl it ; 
and where a few lucrative jobs or 
contra(5ls, properly applied, would 
fplit them into numberlefs fac- 
tions ; on the contrary, in this 
inftance, the great force of the op- 
poiition to government confided 
m th,? land-holders throughout 
America. The Britifli lands in 
t^at vaft continent are generally 
portioned out in numberlefe fmaU 



freeholds, and afford that medio- 
crity of condition to the. poflTeiTors, 
which is fufficient to raife ilron^ 
bodies and vigorous minds ; but 
feldom that fuperabundance, which' 
proves fo fatal to both in old and" 
refined countries. The American 
freeholders at prefent, are nearly," 
in point of condition, what the 
Englifli Yeomen were of old, when 
they rendered us formidable to all 
Europe, and our name celebrated 
throughout the world. The former, 
from many obvious circumftances, 
are more enthufiaftical lovers of li- 
berty, than even our Yeomen were. 
Such a body was too numerous to 
be bribed, and too bold to be def- 
pifed without great danger. 

In this untoward ftate of public 
affairs. General Gage had the con- 
folation to receive a congratulatory 
addrefs from the J u dices of the 
Peace of Plymouth county, afliem- 
bled at their general feffions, in 
which, befides the cudomary com- ' 
pliments, they exprefl'ed great con- 
cern at feeing that the inhabitants 
of fome towns, influenced by cer- 
tain perfons, calling themfelvei 
committees of correfpondence, and 
encouraged by fome, whofe bufi- 
nefs it was as preachers of the 
Gofpel, to inculcate principles of 
loyalty and obedience to the laws, 
entering into a league, calculated 
to increafe the difpleafure of the 
fovereign, to exafperate the parent 
country, and to interrupt the har- 
mony of fociety. A protell was 
alfo pafled by feveral gentlemen of 
the county of Worcefter, againft 
all riotous diforders, and feditious 
praflices.. Thefe efforts had how- 
ever no other effed, than probably 
to lead the governor as well as ad- 
minidration into an erroneous opi- 
jiion, as to the drength and number 

of 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [15 



of the friends of government in 
that province 

Though liberal contributions 
were raifed in the diiferent colonies 
for the relief of the fuffering in- 
habitants of Boflon ; yet it may be 
eafily conceived, that in a town, 
containing above 20,000 inhabi- 
tants, who had always fublifted by 
commerce, * and the feveral trades 
and kinds of bufinefs fubfervient 
to it, and where the maintenance of 
numberlefs families depended mere- 
ly upon locality, that the cutting off 
of that grand fource of their em- 
ployment and fubfiftence, muft, 
notwithftanding any temporary re- 
liefs, occafion great and numerous 
diftrefles. Even the rich were not 
exempt from this general calamity, 
as a very great part of their pro- 
perty confifted in wharfs, ware- 
houfes, (beds, and all thofe nume- 
rous ereftions, which are deftined 
to the purpofes of commerce in a 
great trading port, and were no 
longer of any value. 

They, however, bore their mis- 
fortunes with a wonderful conftan- 
cy, and met with a general fym- 
pathy and tendernefs, which much 
confirmed their refolution. Their 
neighbours, the merchants and in- 
habitants of the town and port of 
Marblchead, who were among 
thofe who were to profit the moil 
by their ruin, inftead of endeavour- 
ing to reap the fruits of their cala- 
mity, fent them a generous offer of 
the ufe of their ftores and wharfs, 
of attending to the lading and un- 
lading of their goods, and of 
tranfa£ling all the bufinefs they 
fliould do a,t their port, without 
putting theih to the fmalleft cx- 
pence ; but they at the fame time 
C2choned them to perfevere in that 



patience and refolution, which had 
ever been their charaderiffic. 

Soon after the General's arrival 
in his government, two regiment* 
of foot, with a fmall detachment 
of the artillery, and fome cannon, 
were landed at Boflon, and en- 
camped on the common, which 
lies within the Feninfula on which 
the town ilands. Thefe troops were 
by degrees reinforced by the arrival 
of feveral regiments from Ireland, 
New York, Hallifax, and at length 
from Quebec. It may be cafiljr 
conceived, that the arrival and 
flation of thefe troops was ftr 
from being agreeable to the inha- 
b^'tants ; nor was the jealoufy ia 
any degree lefs, in the minds of 
their neighbours of the furround- 
ing counties. This diffatisfadioa 
was further increafed by the pla- 
cing of a guard at Boftoa Neck: 
(which is the narrow Ifthmus that 
joins the Peninfula to the conti- 
nent), a meafure of which the fre- 
quent defertion of the foldiers was 
either the caufe, or the pretext. 

In this ilate, a trifling circum- 
ftance gave the people of Boflon a, 
full earnefl of the fupport thcjr 
might expeft from the country i« 
cafe of extremity, and an oppor- 
tunity of knowing the general 
temper of the people. A report 
had been fpread, perhaps indii- 
ftrioufly, that a regiment pofte<J at 
the neck had cut off all commu- 
nication with the country, in order 
to flarve the town into a compliance 
with any meafures that might be 
propofed to them. Upon this vagii^ 
report^ a large . body of the inha- 
bitants of the county of Worcc- 
iler immediately affembled, and 
difpatched two meffengers exprciv 
to Boflon, to difcovcr the truth of 

(he 



i6-] tl I S T O R Y OF E U R O P E, 



the intelligence. Thefe envoys 
informed the town, that if the re- 
port had been true, there were fe- 
veral 'thoufand armed men, ready 
to have m lurched to their afTiftance ; 
and told them further, that they 
were commiffioned to acquaint 
them, that even though they might 
be difpofed to a furrender of their 
liberties, the people of the coun- 
try would not think themfelves at 
all included in their aft. That 
by the late afts of the Britifli par- 
liament, and the bills which were 
pending therein, when the laft in- 
telligence was received, their char- 
ter was utterly vacated ; and that 
the compaft between Great-Britain 
and the colony being thus difiblv- 
cd, they were at full liberty to 
combine together in what manner 
and form they thought beft for 
mutual fecurity. 

Not long after, the governor if- 

Auguft4th. ^^'^ I Pf"^'^™"!"" 
° ^ for the encourage- 
ment of piety and virtue, and for 
the preventing and punifhing of 
vice, prophanenefs, and immora- 
lity. This proclamation, which 
was avowedly in imitation of that 
ilfued by his majefty upon his ac- 
ceffion, feems, like moil afts of go- 
vernment about this time, to have 
been wrong placed, and ill-timed. 
The people of that province had 
always been fcoifed at, and re- 
proached by their enemies, as well 
as by thofe of loofe manners, for 
apharifaical attention to outward 
forms, and to the appearances of 
religious piety and virtue. It is 
fcarcely worth an obfervation, that 
neither proclamations or laws can 
reach farther than external appear- 
ances. But in this proclamation 
** Hypocrify " being inferted a* 



mong the immoralities, agam^ 
which the people were warned, it 
feemed as if an aft of ftate were 
turned into a libel on the people ; 
and this infult exafperated greatly 
the rage of minds already fufii- 
ciently difcontented. 

Along with the new laws, whicli 
did not arrive till the beginning of 
Augull, Governor Gage received a 
lift of 36 new counfellors, who in 
conformity to the new regulations 
of them, were appointed by the 
crown, contrary to the method 
prefcribed by the charter, of their 
being chofen by the reprefentatives 
in each alTembly. Of thefe gen- 
tlemen, about 24 accepted the of- 
fice, which was a fufficient number 
to carry on the bufinefs of govern- 
ment, until a frefli nomination 
Ihould arrive for hllLng up the va- 
cancies. 

Matters were now, however, 
unfortunately tending to that crifis, 
which was to put an end to all 
eftabliHied government in the pro- 
vince. The people in the diffe- 
rent counties became every day 
more outrageous, and every thing 
bore the femblance of refiftancc 
and war ; in Berklhire and Wor- 
cefter counties in particular, nothing 
was to be feen or heard of, but the 
purchafmg and providing of arms, 
the procuring of animunition, the 
calling of balls, and all thofe other 
preparations, which teftify the mod 
immediate danger, and determin- 
ed refiftance. All thofe, who ac- 
cepted of offices under the new 
laws, or prepared to aft in confor- 
mity with them, were every where 
declared to be enemies to their 
country, and threatened with all 
the confequences due to fuch a cha- 
rafter. The people of Connefticut, 
looking 



History of EUROPfi. [17 



looking upon the fate of their 
neighbouring colony to be only a 
prelude to their own, even exceed- 
ed them in violence. 

The new judges were rendered 
every where incapable of proceed- 
ing in their office. Upon open- 
ing the courts, the greai and petty 
juries throughout the province, una- 
nimouHy refufed to be fworn, or 
to aft in any manner, under the 
new judges, and the new laws. 
The acting otherwife was deemed 
fo heinous, that the clerks of the 
courts found it neceffary to acknow- 
ledge their contrition in the public 
papers, for ifTuing the warrants by 
which the juries were fummoned to 
attend, and not only to declare, 
that let the confequences be what 
they may, they would not adt foi 
again ; 'but that, they had not con- 
fidered what they were doing, and 
that if their countrymen fhould 
forgive them, they could never for- 
give themfelves for the fault they 
bad committed. At Great Bar- 
ringt'jn, and fome other places, 
the people aflembled in numerous 
bodies, and filled the court-houfe 
and avenues in fuch a manner, that 
nej.her the judges nor their officers 
CO- Id obtain entrance ; and upon 
the flierifF's commanding them to 
maKe way for the court ; they an- 
fwer\d, that they knew no court, 
nor ither eftablifliment, indepen- 
dent ^ f the ancient laws and ufages 
of the^- country, and to none other 
would * they fubmit or give way 
upc^n a y terms. 

The new counfellors were ftill 
more t a fortunate than the judges. 
Their honfes were furrounded by 
great )odies of the people, who 
loon d fcovered by their counte- 
nance and temper, that they had 
no ot/ier alternative than to fub- 

VoL. X\TII. 1775. 



mit to a renunciation of their of- 
fices, or to fufFer all the fury of an 
enraged populace. Moft of them 
fubmitted to the former condition' J 
fome had the fortune to be in 
Bofton, and thereby evaded thd 
danger, while others, with great 
rifque, were purfued and hunted in 
their efcape- thither, with threats 
of deftrudion to their houfes and 
ellatcs. 

The old conftitution being tak^n 
away by ad of parliament, i£nd the 
new one being reje6led by the peo- 
ple, an end was put to all forfn^ 
of law and government in the 
province of Maflachufett's-Bay, 
and the people were reduced to that 
ftate- of anarchy, in \Vhich man- 
kind are fuppofed to have exifted 
in the earliell ages. The degree 
of order, however, which by the 
general concurrence of the pedple, 
was preferved in this ftate of anar- 
chy, will for ever excite the aflon* 
ilhment of mankind, and continue 
among the ftrongeft proofs of the ' 
efficacy of long eftablilhed habits, 
and of a conltant fubmiffion to 
laws. Excepting the general op- 
pofition to the new government, 
and the exceffes arifmg from it, in 
the outrages offered to particular 
perfons who were Upon that ac- 
count obnoxious to the people, no 
other very confiderable marks ap- 
peared of the cefTation of law or 
of government. 

In the mean time. General 
Gage thought it neceffary for the 
fafety of the troops, as well as to 
fecure the important poft and town 
of Bofton, to fortify the neck of 
land, which afforded the only com- 
munication, except by water, be- 
tween that town and the continent. 
This meafure, however neceffary, 
could not but increafe the jcaloufy, 

[B] fufpicipn. 



i8l 

fufpicion, and ill blood, which 
were already fo prevalent ; but was 
foon fucceeded by another, that ftill 
excited a greater alarm. The fea- 
Ion of the year was now arrived for 
the annual mufter of the militia ; 
and the general, having probably 
fome fufpicion of their condud 
when affembled, or, as they pre- 
tended', being urged thereunto by 
thofe fecret advifers and tale- 
bearers, to whofe infidious arts, 
and falfe information, for a long 
time paft, as well as the prefent, 
the Americans attributed ail their 
own calamities, and the troubles 
that had arifen between both coun - 
tries ; however it was, he fcized 
upon the ammunition and ftores, 
which were lodged in the provin- 
cial arfenal at Cambridge, and had 
them brought to Bofton. He alfo, 
at the fame time, feized upon the 
powder which was lodged in the 
magazines at Charles-Town, and 
fome other places, being partly 
private property, and partly pro- 
vincial. 

This excited the moft violent and 
univerfal ferment that had yet been 
known. The people alFembled to 
the amount of feveral thoufands, 
and it was with the greatefl diffi- 
culty, that fome of the more mode- 
rate and leading gentlemen of the 
country, were able to reftrain them 
from marching diredlly to Bofton, 
there to demand a delivery of the 
powder and ftores, and in cafe of 
refufal to attack the troops. A 
falfc report having been intention- 
ally fpread about the fame time, 
and extended to Connedlicut, in 
order, probably, to try the temper 
ef that province, that the ftiips and 
troops had attacked the town of 
Bofton, and were then firing upon 
it, when the pretended bearers of 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



the news had come away, feveral 
thoufands of thofe people immedi- 
ately affembled in arms, and march- 
ed, with great expedition, a confi- 
derable diftance, to the relief, as 
they fuppofed, of their fufFering 
^neighbours, before they were con- 
vinced of the'miftake. 

About this time, the governor's 
company of cadets, confifting wholly 
of gentlemen of Bofton, and of 
fuch, in general, as had always 
been well affeded to government, 
dilbanded themfelves, and returned 
to the general the ftandard, with 
which, according to cuftom, he had 
prefented them upon his arrival. 
This flight to the governor, and 
apparent difrelifti to the new go- 
vernment, proceeded immediately 
from his having taken away Mr. 
Hancock's commifiion, who was 
the colonel of that corps. A Co- 
lonel Murray of the militia, having 
accepted a feat in the new council, 
24 officers of his regiment refigned 
their commiffions in one day ; fo 
general was the fpirit which was 
now gone forth. 

The late meafure of feizing the 
powder, as well as the fortifications 
which were erefting on Bofton- 
neck, cccafioned the holding of an 
aftembly of delegates, from all the 
towns of the county of Suffolk, of 
which Bofton is the county town 
and capital. In this affembly a 
great number of refolutions were 
pafTed, fome cf which militated 
more ftrongly with the authority of 
the new legiflature, than any that 
had yet appeared. They are, how- 
ever, introduced by a declaration of 
allegiance ; but they alfo declare it 
to be their duty, by all lawful 
means to defend their civil and re- 
ligious rights and liberties ; that 
the late acts are grofs infraftiors of 

thofe 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



['9 



thofe rights ; and that no obedience 
is due from that province> to either, 
or any part of thofe a£ts ; but that 
they ought to be rejcdled as the 
wicked attempts of an abandoned 
adminillration to elUblilh a defpo- 
tic government. They engaged 
that the county fhould fupport and 
bear harmlefs all Iheriffs, jurors, 
and other perfons who fhouid fuffer 
profecution for not ading under 
the prefcnt unconllitutional judges, 
or carrying into execution any or- 
ders of their courts ; and refolved, 
that thofe who had accepted feats 
at the council-board, had violated 
the duty they owed to their coun- 
try, and that if they did not vacate 
them within a Ihort limited time, 
they (hould be confidered as oblti- 
nate and incorrigible enemies to 
their country. 

They alfo pad refolutions againft 
the fortifications at Bofton-neck ; 
the Quebec bill ; for the fufpenfion 
of commerce ; for the encourage- 
ment of arts and manufadures ; 
for the holding of a provincial 
congrefs ; and to pay all due re- 
fped and fubmiflion to the mea- 
fures which (hould be recommended 
by the Continental Congrefs. They 
recommended to the people to per- 
fc^ themfclves in the art of war, 
and for that purpofe, that the mili- 
tia fhould appear under arms once 
every week. That, as it had been 
reported, that fev^rai gentlemen 
who had rendered themfelves con- 
fpicuous by contending for the vio- 
lated rights of their country, were 
to be apprehended ; in cafe fo au- 
dacious a meafurc fhould be carried 
into execution, they recommep-d, 
that all the officers of fo tyrannical 
a government (hould be feized, 
and kept in fafc cullody, until the 



former were reftored to their friends 
and families. 

Then followed a recommend- 
ation, which in the prefent ftate of 
things amounted to a peremptory 
command, to the colleftors of the 
taxes, and all other receivers and 
holders of the public money, not to 
pay it as ufual to the treafurer ; but 
to detain it in their hands, until the 
civil government of the province 
was placed on a conftltutional foun- 
dation ; or until it fhould be other- 
wife ordered by the Provincial Con- 
grefs. They, however, declare, 
that notwithilanding the many in- 
fuks and oppreflions which they 
moft fen fibly feel and refent, they 
are determined to adl merely on the 
defenfive, fo long as fuch conduft 
may be vindicated by reafon, and 
the principles of felf-prefervation. 
They conclude, by exhorting the 
people to reftrain their refentments, 
to avoid all riots and diforderly 
proceedings, as being deftruftiv^ 
of all good government ; and by 
a tteady, manly, uniform, and per- 
fevTring oppofition, to convince 
their enemies, that, in a conteft To 
important, in a caufe fo folemn, 
their conduS Jhould be fuch as to me" 
rit the approbation of the nuife, and 
the admiration of the bra<ve and free, 
of e<very age, and of e'very country* 

They then appointed g . 

a committee to wait ^ ^ 
upon the governor, with a remon- 
ftrance againft the fortifying of 
Bofton-neck ; in which they de- 
clare, that though the loyal people 
of that country think themfelves 
oppreiTed by fome late A6ls of the 
Britifti parliament, and are refolved, 
by divine «fjifiance, never to fubmic 
to them, they have no inclination 
to commence war wivCix his majefty*s 

[5] 2 troops. 



ao] 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



troops. They impute the prefent 
extraordinary ferment in the minds 
of the people, befidcs the new for- 
tification, to the feizing of the 
powder, to the planting of cannon 
on the Neck, and to the infults 
and abufe offered to pafl'engers by 
the foldiers, in which, they fay, 
they have been encouraged by feme 
of the officers ; and conclude, by 
declaring, that nothing lefs than a 
removal or re^refs of thofe griev- 
ances, can place the inhabitants of 
the county in that fituation of peace 
and tranquillity, which every free 
fubjed ought to enjoy. In this ad- 
drefs they totally difclaim every 
wifh and idea of independency, 
and attributed all the prefent trou- 
bles to mifmformation at home, 
and the fmiller defigns of particu- 
lar perfons. 

To this addrefs General Gage 
anfwered, that he had no intention 
to prevent the free egrefs and regrefs 
of any perfon to and from the town 
of Bofton ; that he would fuifer none 
under his command to injure the 
perfon or property of any of his 
"majefty's fubjeds ; but that it was 
his duty to preferve the peace, and 
to prevent furprize ; and that no 
life would be made of the cannon, 
•unlefs their hoftile proceedings 
fhould render it necefiary. 

Before public affairs had arrived 
at their prefent alarming ftate, the 
governor, by the advice of the 
new council, had iflued writs for 
the holding of a general affembly, 
which was to meet in the beginning 
of Oftober ; bat the events that 
afterwards took place, and the heat 
and violence which every where 
prevailed, together with the refig- 
nation of fo great a number of the 
new mandamus counfellors, as de- 
prived the iinall remainder of all 



efficacy, made him think it expedient 
to countermand the writs by a pro- 
clamation, and to defer the holding 
of the affembly to a fitter feafon. 
The legality of the proclamation 
was however called in queftion, and 
the eledlions every where took 
place without regard to it. The 
new members accordingly met at 
Salem, purfuant to the precepts; 
but having waited a day, without 
the governor, or any fubllitute for 
him attending, to adminifter the 
oaths, and open a feffion, they 
voted themfelves into a Provincial 
Congrefs, to be joined by fuch 
others as had been, or fhould be 
eleded for that purpofe ; after 
which Mr. Hancock, fo obnoxious 
to the Governor's party, was chofen 
chairman, and they adjourned to 
the town of Concord, about 20 
miles from Bofton. 

Among their earlieft r\n. .v, 
J- ^1 Uct. I itn. 

proceedings, they ap- 
pointed a committee to wait upon 
the governor with a remonftrance, 
in which they apologized for their 
prefent meeting, by reprefenting, 
that the diflreffed and miferable 
ftate of the colony, had rendered 
it irtdifpenfably neceffary to colled 
the wifdom of the province by 
their delegates in that Congrefs ; 
thereby to concert fome adequate 
remedy to prevent impending ruin, 
and to provide for the public 
fafety. They then exprefs the 
grievous apprehenfions of the peo- 
ple from the meafures now purfu- 
ing. They afiert, that even the 
rigour of the Bofton port bill is ex- 
ceeded, by the manner in which it 
is carried into execution. They j 
complain of the late laws, calcu- 
lated not only to abridge the people j 
of their rights, but to licence mur- ' 
ders ; of the number of troops in 

the 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, 



[2. 



the capital, which were daily in- 
creafing by new acceffions drawn 
from every part of the continent ; 
together with the formidable and 
hoftile preparations in Bofton-neck ; 
all tending to endanger the lives, 
liberties, and properties, not only 
of the people of Bolton, but of the 
province in general. They con- 
clude by adjuring the general, as 
he regards his majefty's honour and 
interell, the dignity and happinefs 
of the empire, and the peace and 
welfare of the province, to defiH 
immediately from the conflrudion 
of the fortrefs at the entrance into 
Bollon, and to reftore that pafs to 
its natural ftate. 

The general was involved in 
fome difficulty in giving them an 
anfwer, as he could not acknow- 
ledge the legality of their aiTem- 
bling. The neceflity of the times 
however prevailed. He exprefled 
great indignation that an idea 
ihould be formed, that the lives, 
liberties, or property of any peo- 
ple, except avowed enemies, ihould 
be in danger from Englilh troops. 
Britain, he faid, could never har- 
bour the black defign of wantonly 
dellroyingor enflaving any people ; 
and notwithftanding the enmity 
fhewn to the troops, by withhold- 
ing from them almolt every nccef- 
fary for their prefervation, they had 
not yet difcovered the refentment 
which might jullly be expeded to 
arife from fuch hollile treatment. 
He reminded the Congrefs, that 
while they complain of alterations 
made in their charter by ads of 
parliament, they are themlelves, by 
their prefent aflembling, Tubvertin^ 
that charter, and now a£ting in di- 
reft violation of their own conrtitu- 
tion ; he therefore warned them of 
the rocks they were upon, and tq 



defifl from fuch illegal and uncon- 
ftitutional proceedings. 

By this time Bofton was become 
the place of refuge to all thofe 
friends of the new government, 
who thought it neceflary to perfe- 
vcre in avowing their fentiments. 
The commilTjoners of the cuftoms, 
with all their officers, had alfo 
thought it neceffary, towards the 
conclufion of the preceding month, 
to abandon their head quarters at 
Salem, and to remove the appara- 
tus of a cuftom-houfe, to a place 
which an a6l of parliament had 
profcribed from all trade. Thus 
the new ads of parliament on one 
hand, and the refiliance of the peo- 
ple on the other, equally joined to 
annihilate all appearance of go- 
vernment, legiflation, judicial pro- 
ceedings, and commercial regula- 
tions. 

Upon the approach of winter, 
the general had ordered temporary 
barracks to be ereded for the 
troops, partly, perhaps, for fafety, 
and partly to prevent the diforders 
and mifchiefs, which in ^he prefent 
ftate and temper of both, muft be 
the unavoidable confequences of 
their being quartered upon the in- 
habitants. Such, however, was the 
diflikc to their being provided for 
in any manner, that the feledl-men 
and the committees obliged the 
workman to quit their employment, 
though the money for their laboup 
would have been paid by tlje crown. 
The general had as little fuccefs in 
endeavouring to procure carpenters 
from New York, fo that it was 
with the greateft difficulty he could 
get thole temporary lodgments 
ereded ; and having endeavoured 
aUb to procure fome winter cover- 
ing from the latter city, the offer 
to purchafe it was prefemei to 

[B] 3 every 



22] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



every merchant there, who to a 
man refufed complying with any 
part of the order, and returned for 
anlwer, ** that they never would 
fapply any article for the benefit 
of men who were fent as enemies 
to their country." 

Every thing now tended to in^ 
creafe the mutual apprehenfion, dif- 
truft, and animofity between go- 
vernment and the people. Thofe 
of Bofton, either were, or pretended 
to be, under continual terror, from 
the apprehenfions of immediate 
danger, to their properties, liber- 
ties, and even their lives. They 
were in the hands of an armed 
^crce whom they abhorred, and 
who equally detefled them. The 
foldiers on the oth|?r hand, con- 
sidered themfelves in the midft of 
enemies, and were equally appre- 
henfive of danger from within and 
without. Each fide profefTed the 
beft intentions in the World for it- 
ielf, and Ihewed the greateft fpfpi- 
cion of the other. In this flate of 
doubt and profefTion, things were 
rendered ftill worfe, by a meafure, 
which did not feem of fufficient 
importance in its confequences, to 
juftify its being hazarded at fo cri- 
tical a feafon. This was the land- 
ing of a detachment of failors by 
night, from the fhips of war in the 
harbour, who fpiked up all the 
cannon upon one of the principal 
battaries belonging to the town. 



In the mean time the Provincial 
Congrefs, notwithllanding the cau- 
tions given, and dangers held out 
by the governor, not only continued 
their affembiy, but their refolution§ 
having acquired, frorh the difpofi- 
tion and promptitude of the people, 
all the weight and efficacy of laws, 
they feemtd to have founded in ef- 
fe& fomething like a new and in- 
dependent governiAent. Under the 
ftyle of recommendation and ad- 
vice, they fettled the militia ; they 
regulated the public treasures ; and 
they provided arms. They ap- 
pointed a day of public thankfgiv- 
ing, on which, among the other 
enumerated bleffings, a particular 
acknowledgment was to be made 
to the Almighty, for the unioi> 
which fo remarlcably prevailed in 
all the colonies. 

Thele and fimilar 
meafures, induced Ge- 
neral Gage to iffue a proclamation^ 
in which, though the direft terms 
are avoided, they are charged with 
prcceed^ings, which are gt-nerally 
underflood as nearly tantamount to 
treafon and rebellion. The inha- 
bitants of the province were ac- 
cordingly, in the king's name, pro- 
hibited from complying, in any de- 
gree, with the requifitions, recom- 
mendations, diredions, or relblyca 
of that unlawful iffembly. 



Nov. loth. 



CHAP. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[23 



CHAP. 



II. 



)eneral Congrefs held at Philadelphia, Previous inftruSiions tofome of the 
deputies. Ads of the Congre/s. Approbation of the conduQ of the pro- 
^jince ofMaJfachiifett^s-Bayt and of the late re/clutions pajjed by the county of 
Suffolk. Refolutions. Declaration of rights. Letter to General Gage, 
AjifciatioH, Refolution for a future Congrefs. Petition to the king. 
Memorial to the people of Great-Britain. Addrefs to the inhabitants of 
Canada, Addrefs to the colonies. The Congrefs breaks up. 



DURING thefe tranfaaions 
in the province of Maffachu- 
fett's-Bay, the twelve old colonies, 
including that whole extent of con- 
tinent which ftretches from Nova- 
Scotia to Georgia, had appointed 
deputies to attend the General Con- 
grefs, which was held at Philadel- 
phia, and opened on Monday the 
5 th of September 1774. Such was 
the unhappy efFefts of the meafures, 
purfued, perhaps fomewhat too 
avowedly, and for that reafon the 
lefs wifely, for reducing America 
by divifion, that thofe twelve colo- 
nies, claftiing in interefts, frequently 
quarrelling about boundaries and 
many other fubjefls, differing in 
manners, cuftoms, religion, and 
forms of government, witli all the 
local prejudices, jealoufies, and 
averfions, incident to neighbouring 
dates, were now led to affemble by 
their delegates in a general diet, 
and taught to feel their weight and 
importance in a common union. 
Whatever may be the event, it was 
undoubtedly a dangerous experi- 
ment to bring matters to this crifis. 

Several of the colonies had given 
inftru£lions to their deputies pre- 
vious to their meeting in congrefs. 
In general, they contained the 
ftrongeft profeffions of loyalty and 
allegiance ; of afFeftion for the mo- 
ther country ; of coijillitutional de- 



pen dance on her ; and of gratitude 
for benefits already received in that 
ftate. They totally difclaimed every" 
idea of independence, or of feeking 
a feparation ; acknowledged the 
prerogatives of the crown, and de- 
clared their readincfs and willing- 
nefs to fupport them with life and 
fortune, fo far as they are warranted 
by the conlb'tution. The Penfyl- 
vanians, in particular, declare that 
they view the prefent contefls with 
the deijpeft concern ; that perpetual 
love and union, an interchange of 
good otfices, without the leaft in- 
fradion of mutual rights, ought 
ever to fubfift between the mother 
country and them. 

On the other hand, they were 
unanimous in declaring, that they 
never would give up thofe rights 
and liberties which, as they laid, 
defcended to them from their an- 
cellors, and which, they faid, they 
were bound by all laws, human and 
divine, to tranfmit whole and pure 
to their poller ity ; that they are 
entitled to all the rights and liber- 
ties of Britifti-born fubjcfts ; that 
the power lately afl'umed by par- 
liament is unjuft, and the only 
caufe of all the prefent uneafinefs ; 
and that the late ads reipcfting 
the capital and province of Maffa- 
chufett*s-Bay, are unconftitutional, 
oppreffive, and dangerous. 

[5J 4 T^ie 



24] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



The inftruftions, however, of the 
feveral colonies that purfued that 
mode, difFered connderably from 
each othgr. In fome great violence 
appeared. Others were more rea- 
fonable. In fome nothing was 
fpoken of but their grievances. 
Others propofed likewife terms on 
their part to be offered to Great- 
Britain — Such as an obedience t.o 
all the trade laws pafled, or to be 
palFed, except fuch as were fpeci- 
iied ; and the fettling an annual 
revenue on the crown for public 
purppfes, and difpolable by parlia- 
ment. The deputies however were 
inftruded, that in thefe and alj 
pther points, they were to coincide 
with the majority of the congrefs. 
This majority was to be determined 
by reckoning the colonies, as hav- 
ing each a vote, without regard to 
the number of deputies wVich it 
fhould fend. 

The debates and proceedings of 
the congrefs were condudled with 
^he greateft fecrecy, nor have any 
parts of them yet tranfpired, but 
thofe which they thought proper to 
lay before the public. The num- 
ber of delegates amounted to fifty- 
one, who rcprefented the feveral 
Englifn colonies of New-Hamp- 
Ihire. Maffachufett's-Bay, Rhode* 
iiland, and Providence Plantations, 
Conne£licut, New-York, ]^ew- 
Jerfey, Penfylvania, the lower coun- 
|.ies on Delaware, Maryland, Vir- 
ginia, North Carolina, an4 So^ith- 
Carolina. 

S th '^^^ ^^^ public slU 

P ' ^ * of the Congrefs was 
a declaratory refolution expreffive 
of their difpofition with refpe6> tp 
iphe colony of Maffachufett's-Bay, 
and immediately intended to con- 
^rm and encourage that people. 
|n this they expreifed, in the moft 



pathetic terms, how deeply they 
felt the fufferings of their country- 
men in that province, under the 
operation, as they faid, of the latQ 
unjuft, cruel, and oppreflive afts of 
the Britifh parliament ; they tho- 
roughly approved of the w^fdom 
and fortitude with which their op- 
pofttion to thefe minifterial mea- 
iures had hitherto been condudled, 
as well as of the relolutions pafTed, 
and meaiures propoltd, by the de- 
legates of the county of SuJfFolk ; 
^nd earneltly recommended a per- 
feverance in the lame firm and tem- 
perate condud, according to the 
determinations of that aifembly. 
This was immediately publiflied, 
and tranfmitted to that province, 
accompanied with an unanimous 
refolution, That contributions from 
|iil the colonies for fupplying the 
necefilties, and alleviating the dif- 
trefies of th.eir brethren at Borton, 
pught to be cpntinued in fuch man- 
ner, and fo long, a§ their occafions 
may require. 

By the fubfequent refolutions of 
the Congrefs, they not only for- 
mally approve oi thQ qppofition 
made by that province to the late 
adts ; but further declare, that if it 
lliould be attempted to carry them 
into execu'.ion by force, all Ame- 
rica (hould fupport it in that oppo- 
fition.— -Th'Jt if it be found abfo- 
lutely necefiary to remove the peo- 
ple ef Bofton into the country, all 
Awerica. (hould contrib'^ite towards 
recompenfing them for the injury 
they might thereby fuftain. — They 
recommend to the inhabitants of 
Mafrachufett's-Bay, to fubmit to a 
fufpenfion of the adminiftration of 
juftice, as it cannot be procured in 
a legal manner under the rules or 
the charter, qntil the cffeds of the 
application of the Congrefs for a 

repeal 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [25 



repeal of thofe afts, by which their 
charter rights are infringed, is 
known. — And that every perfon 
who fhall accept, or ad under, any 
commifiion" or authority, derived 
from the late a<^ of parliament, 
changing the form of government, 
and violating the charter of that 
province, ought to be held in de- 
teftation, and confidered as the 
wicked tool of that defpotifm, 
which is preparing to deftroy thofe 
rights, which God, nature, and 
compa<fl, hath given to America. 
They befides recommended to the 
people of Bolton and Maflachufett's- 
Bay, mil to conduft th^mfelves 
peaceably towards the general, and 
the troops ftationcd at Bofton, fo 
far as it could poflibly confiil with 
their immediate fafety ; but that 
they fhould firmly perfevere in the 
defenfive line of conduft which 
they are now purfuing. The latter 
part of this inftruftion evidently 
alluded to and implied an appro- 
bation of the late refolutions of the 
county of Suffolk, relative to the 
militia, and to the arming of the 
people in general. The Congrefs 
conclude by a refolution, that the 
tranfporting, or attempting totranf- 
port any perfon beyond the fea, 
for the trial of offences committed 
in America, being againft law, will 
juftify, and ought to meet with re- 
lillance and reprifal. 

Thefe refolutions being pafled, 
the Congrefs wrote a letter to Ge- 
neral Gage, in which, after repeat- 
ing the complaints which had been 
before repeatedly made by the 
town of Boflon, and by the dele- 
gates of different counties in, the 
province of Maifachufett's-Bay, they 
declare the determined refolution of 
the colonies, to unite for the pre- 
fervation of their common rights. 



in oppofition to the late a£ls of 
parliament, under the execution of 
which the unhappy people of that 
province are oppreff^d ; that, in 
confequence of their fentiments 
upon that fubjeft, the colonies had 
appointed them the guardians of 
their rights and liberties, and that 
they felt the deepeil concern, that, 
whilft they were purfuing every du- 
tiful and peaceable meafure to pro- 
cure a cordial and efFedual recon- 
ciliation between Great-Britain and 
the colonies, his excellency ihonld 
proceed in a manner that bore fo 
hoflile an appearance, and which 
even thofe oppreffive ads did not 
warrant. They reprefented the 
tendency this conduft mull have to 
irritate and force a people, however 
well difpofed to peaceable meafures, 
into hollilities, which might pre- 
vent the endeavours of the Congrefs 
to reflore a good underflanding 
with the parent ilate, and involve 
them in the horrors of a civil war. 
In order to prevent thefe evils, and 
the people from being driven to a 
flate of defperation, being fully 
perfuaded of their pacific difpofi- 
tion towards the king's troops, if 
they could be alTured of their own 
fafety, they intreated, that ihe ge- 
neral would difcontinue the fortifi- 
cations in Bofton, prevent any fur- 
ther invafions of private property, 
rertrain the irregulaririesof the fol- 
diers, and give orders that the com- 
munications between the town and 
country fhould be open, unmolefted, 
and free. 

The Congrefs alfo publifhed a 
declaration of rights, to which, 
they fay, the Englifh colonies of 
North- America are entitled, by the 
immutable laws of nature, the prin- 
ciples of the Englifh conflitution, 
and their feveral charters or com- 

pa£ls« 



s6J 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



pafls. In the firft of thefe are life, 
liberty, and property, a right to 
the difpofal of any of which, with- 
out their confent, they had never 
ceded to any Ibvereign power 
whatever. That their anceftors, at 
the time of their migration, were 
entitled to all the rights, liberties, 
and immunities, of free and natu- 
ral born fubjefts ; and that by fuch 
emigration, they neither forfeited, 
furrendered, nor loll, any of thofe 
rights. They then (late, that the 
foundation of Englilh liberty, and 
of all free government, is a right 
in the people to participate ia their 
legiflative council ; and proceed to 
ihew, that as the colon ills are not, 
and, from various caufes, cannot 
be reprefented in the Britifli parlia- 
ment, they are entitled to a free 
and exclufive power of legiflation 
in their feveral provincial legilla- 
tures, where their right of repre- 
fentation can alone be preferved, 
in all cafes of taxation and internal 
policy, fubjeft only to the negative 
of their fovereign, in fuch manner 
as had been heretofore ufed and 
accuflomed. 

In order to qualify the extent of 
this demand of legiflative power in 
their affemblies, which might feem 
to leave no means of parliamentary 
interference for holding the colonies 
to the mother country, they declare 
that from the necelTiry of the cafe, 
and a regard to the mutual interefl 
i)f both countries, they chearfully 
confent to the operation of fuch 
atts of the Britifli parliament, as 
are, bona fide, reftrained to the re- 
gulation of their external com- 
merce, for the purpofe of fecuring 
the commercial advantages of the 
whole empire to the mother coun- 
try, and the commercial benefits of 
its refpedive members, excluding 



every idea of taxation, internal or 
external, for raifing a revenue on 
the fubjedls in America, without 
their confent. 

They alfo refolved, that the co- 
lonies are entitled to the common 
law of England, and, more eipe- 
cially, to the great and ineilimable 
privilege of being tried by their 
peers of the vicinage. That they 
are entitled to the benefit of fuch 
of the Englifli ftatutes as exifted at 
the time of their colonization, and 
which they have by experience 
found to be applicable to their fe- 
veral local and other circumfl;ances. 
That they are likewife entitled to 
all the immunities and privileges, 
granted and confirmed to them by 
royal charters, or fecured by their 
feveral codes of provincial laws. 
That they have a right to aflTemble 
peaceably, confider of their griev- 
ances, and petition the king for 
redrefs ; and that all profecutions, 
and prohibitory proclamations for 
fo doing, are illegal. That the 
keeping of a Handing army, in 
times of peace, in any colony, 
without the confent of its legifla- 
ture, is contrary to law. That it 
is eflTential to the Englifli conftitu- 
tion, that the conllituent branches 
of the legiflature fliould be inde- 
pendent of each other ; that, there- 
fore, the exercife of legiflative 
power, by a council appointed dur- 
ing pleafure by the crown, is un- 
conflitutiona], and deflirudtive to the 
freedom of American legiflation. 

They declared in behalf of them- 
felves and their conftituents, that 
they claimed, and infilled on the 
foregoing articles, as their indubit- 
able rights and liberties, which 
could not be legally taken froni 
them, altered, or abridged, by any 
power whatever, without their own 
confent^ 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, 



iv 



cotifent, by their reprefentativcs in 
their ieveral provincial legillatures. 
They then enumerated the pans, or 
the whole, of eleven a6ls of par- 
liament, which had been pafled in 
the preient reign, and which they 
declared to be infringements and 
violations of the rights of the co- 
lonifts ; ami that the repeal of them 
was eflentially neceflary, in order 
to reftore harmony between Great- 
Britain and them. Among the 
adls of parliament thiis reprobated, 
was the Quebec bill, which had 
already been the caufe of fo much 
difcuffion at home, and which they 
termed, ** An aft for eftablilhing 
the Roman Catholic religion in the 
province of Quebec, abolilhing the 
equitable fyftera of Englilh laws, 
and erecting a tyranny there ;" to 
the great danger, (as they afferted) 
from fo total a diffimilarity of re- 
ligion, law, and government, of 
the neighbouring Britifh colonies, 
by the aflirtance of whofe blood 
and treafure that country was con- 
i^uered from France. 

After fpecifying their rights, and 
enumerating their grievances, they 
(declared, that, to obtain redrefs of 
the latter, which threatened deftruc- 
tion to the lives, liberty, and proper- 
ty of the people of North- America, 
a non-importation, non-confump- 
tion, and non-exportation, agree- 
xrcnt, would prove the moft fpeedy, 
efFeftual, and peaceable meafure ; 
they accordingly entered into an 
aflociation, by which they bound 
themfelves, and of courfe their 
conflituents, to the ftrifl obfervance 
of the following articles. — ift. That 
after the firft day of the following 
December, they would import no 
Britifh goods or merchandize what- 
foever, nor any Eall-India tea, from 
ajiy ^.art of the world ; nor any of 



the prodofts of the Britilk Weft- 
India ifland ; nor wines from Ma- 
deira, or the Wellern illands ; nor 
ioreign indigo. — 2. That, after 
that day, they would wholly dif- 
coniinue the flave-trade, and nei- 
ther hire velTels, nor fell commodi- 
ties or manufadlures to auy con- 
cerned in that trade. — 3 . That 
from the prefent date, they will 
ufe no tea on which a duty had 
been or Ihall be paid ; nor after 
the ift of March enfuing, any Eaft- 
India tea whatever, nor any Britifli 
goods, imported after the ift of 
December, except fuch as come 
under the rules and direftions which 
we fhall fee in the loth article. — 
4. By this article, the non-export- 
ation agreement is fufpended to the 
loth of September 1775 ; ^^^^' 
which day, if the afts of parliament 
which they had before recited arc 
not repealed, all exportation is to 
ceafe, except that of rice to Europe. 
— ■ 5. The Britifti merchants are 
exhorted not to (hip any goods in 
violation of this aflociation, under 
penalty of their never holding any 
commercial intercourfe with thofe 
that adl otherwife.— 6. Owners of 
ihips are warned to give fuch orders 
to their captains, as will effedually 
prevent their receiving any of thofe 
goods that are prohibited. — 7. They 
agree to improve the breed of ftieep, 
and to increafe their number, to 
the greateft pofiible extent. — 8. This 
article tends to encourage frugality, 
OEConomy, and induftry ; to pro- 
mote agriculture, arts, and manu- 
fadures ; to difcountenance all ex- 
penfive fhows, games, and enter-, 
tainments; to leflen the expences 
of funerals ; to difcontinue the 
giving of gloves and fcarfs, and 
the wearing of any ether mourning 
than a piece of crape or ribbon.-— 
9. Ven- 



28] 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



9. Venders of goods are to fell 
them at the ufual prkes, without 
taking any advantage of the pre- 
fent iituation of affairs. — 10. This 
article feems in a certain degree to 
foften the rigour of the firft, and 
permits a conditional importation 
for two months longer, at tiie op- 
tion of the owner ; who, if he 
will deliver up any goods that he 
imports before the firlt of February, 
to the committee of the place that . 
they arrive at, they are to be fold 
under their infpeftion, and the 
prime coft being returned to the 
importer, the profits are to be ap- 
plied to the relief of the fufferers 
at Bofton. All goods that arrive 
after that day, to be fent back 
without landing, or breaking any 
of the packages. The three fol- 
lowing articles rejate to the ap- 
pointing of committees, to prevent 
any violation of the foregoing, 
and to publiih the names of the 
violators in the Gazette, as foes to 
the rights, and enemies to the liberty 
of Britifii America; they alfo regu- 
late the fale of domeftic manufac- 
tures, that they may be difpofed of 
at reafonable prices, and no undue 
advantages taken of a future fear- 
city of goods. — By the 14th and 
laft article, any colony or province, 
which (hall not accede to, or which 
fliall hereafter violate the affocia- 
tion, is branded as inimical to the 
liberties of their country, and all 
dealings or intercourfe whatever 
with fuch colony is interdi«Sled. 

This afTociation was fubfcribed 
by all the members of the congrefs; 
and the foregoing refolutions "fjtr^ 
all marked, ne?nine contradicente. 
They afterwards refolved, that a 
congrefs ihould be held in the fame 
place, on the loth day of the fol- 
lowing May,, unlefs the redrefs of 



grievances, which they have defir- 
ed, fhouKi be obtained before that 
time ; and they recommended to 
all the colonies to chufe deputies, 
as foon as poffible, for that pur- 
pofe. They alfo, in their own 
names, and in the behalf of all 
thofe whom they reprefented, de- 
clared their moli grateful acknow- 
ledgments, to thofe truly noble, 
honourable, and patriotic advo- 
cates of civil and religious liberty, 
who had lo generoufly and power- 
fully, though unfuccefsfuliy, ef- 
p^ufed and defended the caufe of 
America, both in and out of par- 
liament. 

They then proceeded to frame a 
petition to his Majelty, a memorial 
to the people of Grcat-Bdtain, an 
addrefs to the colonies in general, 
and another to the inhabitants of 
the province of Quebec. The pe- 
tition to his majelly contained an 
enumeration of their grievances ; 
among which are the following, 
viz. The keeping of a Handing 
army in the colonies in time of 
peace, without the confent of the 
affemblies ; and the employing of 
that army, and of a naval force, 
to enforce the payment of taxes. 
— The authority of the commander 
in chief, and of the brigadiers 
genera], being rendered fupreme in ■ 
all the civil governments in Ame- 
rica.— The commander in chief 
of the forces, in time of peace, 
appointed governor of a colony.—- 
The charges of ufual offices greatly 
increafed, and new, expeniive, 
and oppreffiye offices, multiplied. 
— The judges of the admiralty 
courts impowered to receive their 
falaries and fees from the effeds 
condemned by themfelvcs ; and the 
officers of the cultoms to break 
open and enter houfes, without the 
authority 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[29 



.luthority of the civil magiftrate.— 
rhe judges rendered eritirely.de- 
pendent on the crown for their 
ialaries, as well as for the dura- 
tion of their cpmmilTions. Coun- 
fellors, who exercife legiflative au- 
thority, holding their commiffions 
(luring pleafure.— Humble and 
reafonable petitions from the re- 
prefentatives of the people fruitlefs. 
— The agents of the people dif- 
countenanCvd, and inftrudions gi- 
ven to prevent the payment of their 
falaries ; affemblies repeatedly and 
injurioully diflblved ; commerce 
burthened with ufelefs and oppref- 
five reflridions. 

They then enumerate the feveral 
a6ls of parliament pafTed in the 
prefent reign for the purpofe of 
raifmg a revenue in the colonies, 
and of extending the powers of 
admiralty and vice-admiralty courts 
beyond their ancient limits ; where- 
by their property is taken from 
them without their confent, the 
trial by jury, in many ci'.il cafes 
abolilhed, enormous forfeitures in- 
curred for flight offences ; vexatious 
informers are exempted from pay- 
ing damages, to which they are 
jultly liable, and oppreffive fecu- 
rity is required from owners before 
they are allowed to defend their 
right. 

I'hey complain of the parlia- 
mentary vote for reviving the fta- 
tuteofthe 35th Henry Villth, and 
extending ics influence to the colo- 
nifls ; and of the ftatute of the 
1 2th of his prefent majefty, where- 
by the inhabitants of the colonies 
may, in fundry cafes, by that fta- 
tute made capital, be deprived of 
a trial by their peers of the vici- 
nage. They then recite the three 
afts of the preceding feflion, re- 
lative to Bofton and the province 



of MaflTachufett^s-Bay ; the Quebec 
aft, and the a6l for providing 
quarters for the troops in North- 
America. 

The petition repeatedly contains 
the flrongeft expreflions of loyalty, 
of affedionate attachment and duty 
to the fovereign, of love and ve- 
neration for the parent ftate ; they 
attributed thefe their fentiments to 
the liberties they inherited from 
their anceftors, and the conflitution 
un4er which they were bred ; while 
the necefiity which compelled, was 
the apology for delivering them. 
They at the fame time promifed 
themfelves a favourable reception 
and hearing from a fovereign, 
whofe illuftrious family owed their 
empire to fimilar principles. 

They declare, that from the de- 
flruftive fyfliem of colony admini- 
firation, adopted fince the conclu- 
fion of the lalt war, have flowed 
thofe diftrefl*es, dangers, fears and 
jealoufies, which overwhelm the 
colonies with affliftion ; and they 
defy their moft fubtle and invete- 
rate enemies to trace the unhappy 
differences between Great-Britain 
and them from an earlier period, 
or from other caufes than they have 
alfigned. That they afk but for 
peace, liberty and fafety ; they 
wifh not for a diminution of the 
prerogative, nor do they folicit the 
grant of any new right in their 
favour ; the royal authority over 
them, and their connexion with 
Great-Britain, they fhall always 
carefully and zealoufly endeavour to 
fupport and maintain. That, ** ap- 
pealing to that Being who fearches 
thoroughly the hearts of his crea- 
tures, they folemnly pro fefs, that 
their councils have been influenced 
by no other motive than a dread of 
impending deftru^aion." 

They 



3°] 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



They conclude by imploring his 
■lajcfty, in the name of* all Ame- 
rica; and a folemn adjuration by 
all that is facred and avveful ; that, 
** for the glory, which can be ad- 
vanced only by rendering his fub- 
je£b happy, and keeping them 
united ; for the intcrells of his fa- 
nuly, depending in an adherence 
to the principle that enthroned it; 
for the fafety and welfare of his 
kingdoms and dominions, threat- 
ened with almoil unavoidable dan- 
gers and diilrefies ; that, as the 
loving father of his whole people, 
conneded by the fame bands of 
iaw, loyalty, faith, and blood, 
,tiioogh dwelling in various coun- 
jtrics, he will not fufFer the tranf- 
cendent relation formed by thefe 
ties, to be further violated in un- 
certain expedation of effefts, which, 
if attained, never can compenfate 
for the calamities through which 
they muft be gained.** 

This petition was fubfcribed by 
all the delegates. 

In the memorial to the people 
of this country, they pay the 
highell praife to the noble and ge- 
nerous virtues of their and our 
common anceftors ; but they do it 
in a manner, that inftead of re- 
flefting any comparative honour 
on the prefent generation in this 
ifland, rather reproaches us with a 
ihameful degeneracy. They after- 
wards fay, that born to the fame 
rights, liberties, and conftitution, 
tranfmitted to them from the fame 
anceftors, guarantied to them by 
the plighted faith of government, 
and the moft folemn compadls with 
Britifh fovcreigns, it is no wonder 
they Ihould refuie to furrender them 
to men, whofe claims are not 
founded on any principles of rea- 
fon, '* and who profecute them 



" with a defign, that, by having 
*' their lives and property in their 
** power, they might with the 
** greater facility enflave us.'* 
They complain of being oppref- 
fed", abufed, and mifreprefented ; 
and fay, that the duty they owe to 
themfelves and to their pofterity, 
to our intereft, and to the general 
welfare of the Britilli empire, leads 
them to addrefs us on this very 
important fubjedl. 

After complaining of grievances 
in the llyle and fubftance of the 
petition, they recall the happy 
Itate of the empire on both fides 
of the Atlantic, previous to the 
conclufion of the late war ; and 
ftate the advantages which we de- 
rived, and to which they willingly 
fubmitted, from the fyilem of co- 
lony government then purfucd ; 
they fay, they looked up to us as 
to their parent Hate, to which they 
were bound by the ftrongelt ties ; 
and were happy in being inllru- 
mental to our profperity and gran- 
deur. They call upon ourfelves to 
witnefs their loyalty and attach- 
ment to the common interefts of 
the whole empire: their efforts in 
the laft war : their embarking to 
meet difeafe and death in foreign 
and inhofpitable climates, to pro- 
mote the fuccefs of our arms ; and 
our own acknowledgments of their 
zeal, and our even reimburfmg 
them large fums of money, which 
we confeSed they had advanced be- 
yond their proportion* and far be- 
yond their abilities. 

They afk to what caufes they are 
to attribute the fudden change of 
treatment, and that fyftem of fla- 
very, which was prepared for them 
at the reltoration of peace ; they 
trace the hiftory of taxation from 
that time, and affert, that thofe 
cxadions. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [31 



cxaflions, inftead of being applied 
to any ufeful purpofe, either for 
this country or that, have been 
lavifhly fquandered upon court fa- 
vourites and minifterial dependants ; 
that they ever were, and ever (hall 
be ready to provide for the necef- 
fary fupport of their cwn govern- 
ment ; and, whenever the exigen- 
cies of the ftace may require it, 
they Ihall, as they have heretofore 
done, chearfully contribute their 
full proportion of men and money. 

They then proceed to (late and ex- 
amine the meafures and the feveral 
ads of parliament, which they con- 
fider as hoftile to America, and fub- 
verfive of their rights ; or, in their 
words, the progreflion of the mini- 
fterial plan for enllaving them. 
They reprefent the probable con- 
fequences to this country of a per- 
fevcrance in that fcheme, even fup.. 
pofing it attended with fuccefs ; 
addition to the national debt ; in- 
creafe of taxes ; and a diminution 
of commerce, mu^ attend it in 
the progrefs ; and if we are at 
length vif^orious, in what condi- 
tion (hall we then be ? What ad- 
vantages, or what laurels fhall we 
reap from fuch a conqueft ? 

They artfully endeavour to render 
theirs a caufe common to both 
countries, by (hewing that fuch 
fuccefs would in the event, be as 
fatal to the liberties of England as 
to thofe of America. They ac- 
cordingly put the queftion. May 
not a minirter with the fame armies 
that fubdued them enflave us ? If 
to this it be anfwered, that we will 
ceafe to pay thofe armies, they 
pretend to (hew, that America re- 
duced to fuch a fituation, would 
afford abundant refources both of 
men and money for the purpofe; 
nor (hould we have any realon to 



cxpc£l, that after making flaves 
of them, they (hould refufe to af« 
fift in reducing us to the fame ab- 

]c6i ftate, In a word (they fay) 

*' Take care that you do not fall 
" int'o the pit that is preparing 
" for us.** 

After denying the feveral charges, 
of being feditious, impatient of 
government, and defirous of in- 
dependency, all of which they af- 
fert to be calumnies ; they, how- 
ever, declare that, if we are de- 
termined, that our roinifters Ihall 
wantonly fport with the rights of 
mankind ; if neither the voice of 
juiiice, the diftates of the law, the 
principles of the conftitution, nor 
the fuggeftions of humanity, caq 
rellrain our hands from the (bed- 
ing of human blood in fuch an im- 
pious caufe, they muft tell us,— 
'* That they never will fubmit tt> 
be hewers of wood, or drawers of 
water for any miniftry or nation ia 
the world.*' 

They afterwards make a pro- 
pofal, which it were much to be 
wifhed had been more attended to, 
as it affords at leaft no unfavour- 
able bafis for negociation.— - 
** Place us** fay they, ** in the 
fame fituation that we were at the 
dole of the laft war, and our for- 
mer harmony will be reftored.** 

They conclude this memorial, 
by exprefling the defpeft regret for 
the re(blutions they were obliged to 
enter into for the fufpenfion of 
commerce, as a meafure detri- 
mental to numbers of their fellow- 
fubjefls in Great- Britain and Ire- 
land ; they account and apologize 
for this conduft, by the over-rulfn? 
principles of felf-prefervation ; by 
the fupinenefs, and inattention to 
our common intereft, which we 
had fliewn for feveral years ; and 



32] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



by the attempt of the miniftry, to 
influence a fubmifTion to their 
meafures by deib eying the trade 
of Borton. ** The like fate/' they 
fay, ** may befall us all ; we will 
endeavour therefore, to live with- 
oat trade, and recur for fubfiflence 
to the fertility and bounty of our 
native foil, which will afford us 
all the neceffaries and fome of the 
conveniencies of life.'* They fi- 
nally reft their hopes of a reilora- 
tioa of that harmony, friendfhip, 
and fraternal affedion, between all 
the inhabitants of his majefty's 
kingdoms and territories, io ar- 
dently wiftied for by every true 
American, upon the magnanimity 
and juftice of the Britiili nation, 
%n furnilhing a parliament of fuch 
wifdom, independency, and public 
fpirit, as may fave the violated 
rights of the whole empire from 
the devices of wicked minifters and 
evil counfellors, whether in or out 
of office. 

Of all the. papers publlfhed by 
the American congrefs, their ad- 
drefs to the French inhabitants of 
(Canada, difcovers the moft dex- 
trous management, and the moll 
able maethod of application to the 
temper and paifions of the parties, 

whom they endeavour to gain. 

They ftate the right they had, 
upon their becoming Englilh fub- 
jefts, to the ineftimable benefits of 
the Englifh conilitution ; that this 
right was further confirmed by the 
foyal proclamation in the year 
17^3, plighting the public faith 
fbr their full enjoyment of thofe 
advantages. They impute to fuc- 
ceeding minifters an audacious and 
cruel abufe of the royal authority, 
in withholding from them the frui- 
tion of the irrevocable rights, to 
which they were thus juftly en- 



titled. — That as they have lived to 
fee the unexpedled time, when mi- 
nifters of this flagitious temper 
have dared to violate the moft 
facred compa6ls and obligations; 
and as the Canadians, educated 
under another form of govern- 
ment, have artfully been kept from 
difcoveririg the. iinrpeakable worth 
of that, from which they are de- 
barred, the congrefs think it their 
duty, for weighty reaions, to ex- 
plain to them fome of its moft im- 
portant branches. 

They then quote paftages on 
government from the Marquis Bec- 
caria and their countryman Mon- 
tefquieu, the latter of whom they 
artfully adopt as a judge, and an 
irrefragable authority upon this oc- 
cafion, and proceed to fpecify and 
explain, underfeveraldiilind heads, 
the principal rights to which the 
people are entitled by the Englifti 
conftitution ; and thefe rights, they 
truly fay, defend the pour from 
the rich, the weak from the power- 
ful, the induftrious from the rapa- 
cious, the peaceable from the vio- 
lent, the tenants from the lords, 
and all from their fuperiors. 

They ftate, that without thefe 
rights, a people cannot be free and 
happy ; and that under their pro- 
tedling and emrouraging influence, 
the Englifh colonies had hitherto 
fo amazingly flonrifhed and in- 
creafed. And, that thefe are the 
rights which a profligate miniftry , 
are now ftriving by force of arms 
to raviih from themfelves ; and 
which they are, with one mind, 
refolved never to refign but with ; 
their lives. i 

They again remind the Cana- 
dians that they are entitled t) thefe 
rights, and ought at this moment 
to be in the perfed exercife of 

them. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [33 



them. They then afk, what is of- 
fered to them by the late a6l of 
parliament in their place. And 
from thence proceed to a fevere 
examination of the Quebec ad, in 
which they attempt to ihew, that 
it does not affoid them, and has 
not left them a civil right or fecu- 
rity of any kind, as every thing it 
feems to grant, and even the laws 
they poffefied before, are liable to 
be altered and varied, and new 
laws or ordinances made, by a 
governor and council appointed by 
the crown, and confequently, whol. 
Jy dependent on, and removeable 
at the will of a minifter in Eng- 
land ; fo that all the powers of le- 
giflation, as well as that of grant- 
ing and applying the public fup- 
plies, and difpoiing of their own 
property, being thus totally out of 
the hands and controul of the peo- 
ple, they are liable to the moft ab- 
jeft flavery, and to live under the 
moft defpotic government in the 
univerfe. 

After pretending to point out 
numberlefs deformities in that law, 
and placing them in fuch points of 
view, as were fufficient to render it 
odious to mankind, as well as 
hideous to the Canadians, they re- 
prefent, as an infult added to their 
injuries, the hopes upon which, 
they faid, it had been founded by 
the minifter ; he expefting, that 
through an invincible ftupidity in 
them, and a total inability of com- 
prehending the tendency of a law, 
which fo materially afFefted their 
deareft interefts, Ihould in the ex- 
cefs of a miftaken gratitude, take 
up arms, and incur the ridicule and 
deteftation of the world, by be- 
coming willing tools in his hands, 
to affift in fubverting the rights and 
liberties of the other colonics ; 

Vol. XViXr. 1775. 



without their being capable of fee- 
ing, that the unavoidable confe- 
quences of fuch an attempt, if 
fuccefsful, would be the extindioii 
of all hopes to themfelves and their ^ 
pofterity of being ever reftored to 
freedom ; for idiotcy itfelf, (fay 
they) *1 cannot believe, that, when 
their drudgery is performed, they 
will treat you with lefs cruelty v 
than they have us, who are of the 
fame blood with themfelves.'* 

They again apply to their paf- 
fions, and partiality for their 
countryman, by calling up the 
venerable Montefquieu, and defir- 
ing them to apply thofe maxims^ 
fanftified by the authority of a 
name which all Europe reveres, to 
their own ftate ; they fuppofe him 
alive, and confulted by the Cana- 
dians as to the part they Ihould acl 
in their prefent fituation. They 
are told (after expatiating on the 
fubjed of freedom and flavery) 
that they are only a fmall people, 
compared with their numerous and 
powerful neighbours, who with, 
open arms invite them into a fel- 
lowftiip ; to feize the opportunity 
in their favour, which is not th« 
work of man, but prefented by 
Providence itfelf; that it does not 
admit of a queftion, whether it is 
more for their intereft and happi- 
nefs, to have all the reft of North 
America their unalterable friendsi 
or their inveterate enemies ; thac 
as nature had joined their countries^ 
let them alfo join their political in- 
terefts ; that they have been con- 
quered into liberty, if they ad as 
they ought ; but that their doing 
otherwife will be attended with ir- 
remediable evils. 

They endeavour to obviat* the 
jealoufies and prejudices which 
might arife from the difference of 

[C] ihcir 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



J4l 



their religious principles, by in- 
ftancing the cafe of the Swils can- 
tons ; whofe union is compofed of 
Catholic and Protellant dates ; who 
live in the utnioll concord and 
peace ,with each otKer, and • have 
been thereby enabled to defeat all 
attempts agarnft their liberties. 
This inftance, though perhaps the 
moil appofite tha-t could have been 
brought for the purpofe, would 
not, however, have born the tell 
of much examination. 

They declare, that they do not 
reqiHre them, to commence ads of 
hollility againft the government of 
their common fovereign ; that they 
only invite them to confult their 
own glory and welfare, and not to 
fuffer themfeives to be inveigled 
or intimidated by infamous mini- 
llers fo far, as to become the in- 
firaments of their cruelty and def- 
potifm. They conclude- by in- 
forming them, that the congrefs 
laad with univerfal pleafure, and 
by an unanimous vote, refolved, 
that they fhould confider the vio- 
lation of their rights, by the a6l for 
altering the government of that 
province, as a violation of their 
own ; and that they friould be inr- 
vited to accede to their confedera- 
tion, which had no other objeds 
than the perfed fecurity of the na- 
tural and civil rights of all the con- 
ilituent members, according to 
their refpedive circumilances, aad 
the prefervation of a happy and 
lalling connedion with Great- 
Britain, on the falutary and con- 
llitutionai prirjciples before men- 
tioned. 

In the addrefs to the colonies 
they inform them, that as in duty 
and juftice bound, they have de- 
liberately, difpaffionately, and im- 
partially e:;a mined and confider ed 



all the meafures that led to the prr- 
fent dillurbances ; the exertions of 
both the legiflative and executive 
powers of Great-Britain, on the 
one hand, and the condud of the 
colonies on the other. That upon 
the whole, they find themielves 
reduced to the difagreeable alter- 
native, of being filent and betray- 
ing the innocent, or of fpeaking 
out ^nd cenfuring thofe they wilh 
to revere. In making their choice 
of thefe diflreffing difficulties, they 
prefer the courfe didated by ho- 
nefty, and a regard for the welfare 
of their country. 

After Hating and examining the 
feveral laws that were pafled, and 
the meafures purfued with refped 
to America, from the year 1764^ 
to the prefent period, they enquire 
into the motives for the particular 
hollility carried on againft the 
town of Bofton, and province of 
MafTachufett's-Bay, though the be- 
haviour of the people in other co- 
lonies, had been in equal oppoft- 
tion to the power alTumed by par- 
liament,, and yet no ftep what- 
ever had been taken againft any of 
them by government. This they 
repjefent as an artful fyftematic line 
of condud, concealing among 
others the following defigns : ift. 
That it was expelled, that the pro- 
vince of MalTachufett^'s would be 
irritated into fome violent adion, 
that might difpleafe the reft of the 
continent, or that might induce 
the people of England to approve- 
the meditated vengeance of an im- 
prudent and exafperated minifiry. 
If the unexampled pacific temper 
of that province Ihculd difappoint 
that part of the plan, it was i» 
that cafe hoped, that the other co- 
lonies would be fo far intimidate^, 
as to defert their brethren, fufferiiig 



HISTORYOF EURaPE, 



iu 



in a common caufe, and that thus 
difunited, all might be eafily fub- 
dued. 

After examining the Quebec aft, 
and pretending to aflign the mo- 
tives on which it was founded, they 
fay, that from this detail of fads, 
as well as from authentic intelli- 
gence, it is clear, beyond a doubt, 
that a refolution is formed, and 
now is carrying into execution, to 
extinguifh the freedom of the colo- 
nies, by fubjeding them to a def- 
potic gof ernment. 

They then proceed to ftate the 
importance of the trufl which was 
repofed in them, and the manner 
in which they have difcharged it. 
Upon this occaiion, they fay, that 
though the ilate of the colonies 
would certainly juftify other mea- 
fures than thofe which they have 
advifed ; yet they have for weighty 
reafons given the preference to 
thofe which they have adopted. 
Thefe reafons are, that it is con- 
fiftent with the character which the 
colonies have always fuftained, to 
perform, even in the midft of the 
unnatural diilreffes and imminent 
dangers that furround them, every 
aft of loyalty ; and therefore they 
were induced tp offer once more to 
his majefty the petitions of his 
faithful and oppre/Ted fubjefts in 
America. — That from a fenfe of 
their tender affeftion for the peo- 
ple of the kingdom from which 
they derive their original, they 
could not forbear to regulate their 
ileps by an expeftation of receiv- 
ing full conviftion that the colo- 
nifts are equally dear to them. 
That they ardently wifli the fecial 
band between that body and the 
colonies may never be diffolved, 
and that it cannot, until the 
minds of the former (hall become 



indifputably noftile, or their inat- 
tention ihall permit thofe who are 
thus hoftile to perfill in profecut- 
ing, with the powers of the realm, 
the dellruftive meafures already 
operating againft the coloniils ; 
and, in either cafe, fhall reduce 
the latter to fuch a fituation, that 
they ihall be compelled to renounce 
every guard but that of felf-pr^e- 
fervation. — That, notwithftanding 
the vehemence with which affairs 
have been impelled, they have not 
yet reached that fatal point ; that 
they do not incline to accelerate 
their motion, already alarmingly 
rapid ; and they have chofen a 
method of oppofition that does not 
preclude a hearty reconciliation 
with their fellow citizens on-, the 
other fide of the Atlantic. 

That, they deeply deplore the 
urgent neceffity that preffes them 
to an immediate interruption of 
commerce, which may prove in- 
jurious to their fellow- lubj efts in 
England ; but truft they will ac- 
quit them of any unkind inten- 
tions, by reflefting that they fub- 
jeft themfelves to fimilar inconve- 
niences ; that they are driven by 
the hands of violence into unex- 
perienced and unexpefted public 
convulfions, and that they are con- 
tending for freedom, fo often con- 
tended for by their anceftors. 

They conclude by obferving, 
that the people of England will 
foon have an opportunity of de- 
claring their fentimcnts concerning 
their caufe. " That in their piety, 
" generofity, and good fenfe, they 
" repofe high confidence ; and can- 
*' not, upon a review of paft events, 
" be perfgaded that they, the.de- 
" fenders of true religion, and the 
'* affertors of the rights of man- 
" kind, will take part againft 

[C] 1, <• their 



.16] 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



•• their affeftionate Proteftant bre- 
** thren in the colonies, in favour 
** of their open and our own fe- 
*' cret enemies, whofe intrigues, 
'* for fe vera 1 years paft, have been 
•' wholly exercifed in fapping the 
•' foundation of all civil and re- 
•' iigious liberty." 

Thefe public afls being pafled, 

Oaober 26th. '^^ delegates put 
an end to their lef- 
fion, on the 5 2d day from the 
opening of the congrefs. 
' Without examining the truth of 
their allegations, or pretending to 



form any opinion upon a fubje<S, 
on which the firfl names in this 
country have differed fo widely, 
it muft be acknowledged, that the 
petition and addrefles from the 
congrefs have been executed with 
uncommon energy, addrefs, and 
ability ; and that confidered ab- 
llraftedly, with refpedl to vigour 
of mind, ftrength of fentiment, 
and the language, at leaft of pa- 
triotifm, they would not have dif- 
graced any affembly that ever exifl- 
cd. 



CHAP. III. 

Staf£ of affairs pre'vious to the dijfolution of Parliament. The new Par- 
liament ?neefs. Speech from the throne, Jddreffes, Amendynents propofed. 
Debates, Proteji. Apparent irrefclution 'with refpeSl to America, Ef 
timatts of fupply formed upon a peace ejiahlijhment. Reduction in the 
na'val department. 



WHILST matters of this 
magnitude were tranfafling 
in America, an unexampled fu- 
pinenefs with regard to public af- 
fairs, prevailed among the great 
body of the people at home. The 
Englilh nation, which ufed to feel 
fo tremblingly ali^vey upon every 
conteft that arofe between the re- 
motel^ powers in Europe, and to 
intereft itfelf fo muck in the ifTue, 
as fcarcely to be with- held from 
becoming a party where -ever juf- 
tice or friendfhip pointed out the 
way, by a ftrange reverfe of tem- 
per, feemed at this time, much 
more indifferent to matters, in 
which were involved its own im- 
mediate and deareft interefts. Even 
the great commercial and manu- 
facturing bodies, who muft be the 
firft to feel, and the laft to lament 
»ny finiller «venU ia the colonics. 



and wl>o pre generally remarkable 
for a quick forefight and provident 
fagacity in whatever regards their 
intereft, feemed now to be funk in. 
the fame carelefTnefs and inattentioa 
with the reft of the people. 

Several caufes concurred to pro- 
duce this apparent indiiference. 
The colony contefts were no longer 
new. From the year 176^, they 
had, with but few, and thofe Ihort 
intermiflions, engaged the atten- 
tion of parliament. Moft of the 
topics on the fubjeft were exhauft- 
ed, and the vehement paflions 
which accompanied them had fub- 
fided. The non-importation agree- 
ment, (by divi lions within the co- 
lonies, which, if not caufed, were 
much forwarded by the conceffions 
with regard to feveral of the taxes 
laid in 1767) had broken up, be- 
fore it had produced any ferious 
confec^uenccs* 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[37 



confequenccs. Moft people there- 
fore flattered themfelves, that as 
things had appeared fo very fre- 
quently at the verge of a rupture, 
without adually arriving at it, 
that now, as formerlv, fome means 
would be found for accommodating 
this difpute. At worft it was con- 
ceived, that the Americans would 
themfelves grow tired. And as 
an opinion was circulated with 
fome induftry and fuccefs, that a 
countenance of refolution, if per- 
feveied in for fome time, would 
certainly put an end to the con- 
teft, which (it was faid) had been 
nouridied wholly by former cor;cef- 
iions, people were in general in- 
clined to leave the trial of the ef- 
fects of perfeverance and refolu- 
tion, to a miniftry who valued 
themselves on thofe qualities. The 
court had alfo with great tenaci- 
oufnefs adhered to this fyftem for 
fome years. It frequently got the 
better, not only of the regular op- 
pofition, but of parties in the mi- 
piftry itielf, who were from time 
to time inclined to relax either from 
fear, wearinefs, or change of opi- 
nion. All thefe things had hither- 
to indifpofed the body of the na- 
tion from taking part in the 
fanguine manner they had hitherto 
done on other fubjefts, and formerly 
on this. 

From thefe caufes, admlnlftra- 
tion being totally difengaged at 
heme, was at full leifure to profe- 
cute the meafures which it had de- 
figned againit America, or to 
adopt fuch new ones, as the oppo- 
fition there rendered neceflary to- 
wards carrying the new laws into 
execution. The times indeed were 
highly favourable to any purpofe, 
wj^ich only required the concur- 



rence of that parliament, and the 
acquiefcence of the people. 

Notwithllanding thefe favour- 
able circumllances on the one fide, 
and that general indifference which 
prevailed on the other, it was not 
totally forgotten by either, that the 
time for a general eleftion was ap- 
proaching, and that the parliament 
had but one feflion more to com- 
pleat its allotted term. In fome 
few places, where the popular fpirit 
ran high, tefts were already pro- 
pofed to be figned by their future 
candidates, previous to their re- 
ceiving any aflurance, or promife of 
fupport from the electors. At a meet- 
ing of the freeholders of the county 
of Middlefex, a tell was propofed to 
Mr. Wilkes and Serjeant Glynne, 
and by them figned, in which they 
engaged their utmoft endeavours to 
promote bills for fl^ortening the 
duration of parliaments, for the 
exclufion of placemen and pen- 
fioners from the Houfe of Com- 
mons ; for a more fair and equal 
reprefentation of the people ; for 
vindicating the injured rightis of 
the freeholders of that county, 
and through them of all the elec- 
tors in the kingdom ; for procuring 
a repeal of the four late American 
a6ls, viz. That for the province 
of Quebec, and the three which 
affedled the towrt of Bofton, and 
the province of MalTachulett's-Bay ; 
belides binding themfelves, fo far 
as in ihem lay, to reftore and de- 
fend ihat excellent form of govern- 
ment, which had been modelled 
and eftablifhed at the revolution. 

Tells, upon much the fame prin- 
ciples, were propofed in London 
and fome other places ; and it is 
ftill the opinion of fome of thofe, 
who were fanguine in that mode 
[C] 3 «f 



38] History of Europe. 



of proceeding, that the apprehen- 
fiou, ,of its becoming general influ- 
enced the fubfequent conduct of ad - 
miniftration to the difTolution of 
parliament. This opinion, how- 
ever, feems ill founded. There 
was no reafon then to expefl, nor 
IS there now to imagine, that the 
mode of fubfcribing to tells wou'd 
, have become general, or even ex- 
tenfive. The influence of admi- 
niftration, in. a great number of the 
boroughs, and in many of the coun- 
ties, is at all times too well known 
to be called in quellion ; and the 
principal and moll celebrated lead- 
ers in oppolition totally difclaimed 
all tells whatever, as unworthy of 
themfelves, derogatory of their cha- 
Ta6ier as fenators, and rellriftive of 
their rights as men. 

Other more probable caufes muH 
be fought, for the meafure of dif- 
folving the parliament. The civil 
lift was again become deeply in 
debt, and the diftreflTes of the lower 
part of the houfliold, from the with- 
holding of their wages, were be- 
come fo notorious, and fo much 
fpoken of, that it feemed difgrace- 
ful to the nation, as well as griev- 
ous to the fovereign. It was there- 
fore thought, and probably rightly, 
that it was intended, in the enfuing 
fellion, not only to demand a large 
fum of money for the difcharge of 
the ftanding debt, but alfo that a 
requifition would be made, for fuch 
a confiderable and certain yearly 
addition to the ci^^il-lift revenues, as 
would prevent all fuch iilortifying 
applications for the future. 

Though no doubt could be enter- 
tained of the good-will and compli- 
ance of the then parliament, it was, 
perhaps, not thought prudent, to 
load them with fo difagreeable a 
talk, at the eve of a general elec- 



tion. Recent experience had Ihewn, 
that this was a fubjeft which would 
excite much generiil difcuflion ; and 
that however a majority might, 
from their zeal to the eafe of their 
fovereign, overlook ail the difficul- 
ties that CGuld be raifed within, 
doors, fuch a fettlement, attended 
with the payment of a great pr "fent 
balance, and loaded with an entailed 
irredeemable future incumbrance, 
would not at all be fatisfaftcry with- 
out. People are apt to be out of hu- 
mour at the parting with their mo- 
ney, and an application for futura 
truii and favour, in fuch a temper, 
would feem, at leaft, ill timed. On 
the other hand, fuch a meafure would 
be nothing in the hands of a new 
parliament, and would be worn out 
of memory, or become only an hillo- 
rical reference, at the time of their 
natural demife. The fmiller events 
vyhich bave fi nee taken place have, 
however, hitherto prevented the 
iliaking of any requifition of this 
nature. 

Another motive may, perhaps, be 
fuppofed, for the meafure of diflb- 
lution. That parliament had al- 
ready palfed the moll hollile laws 
againft America ; and as they could 
not, with fo good a grace, refcind 
their own ads, the miniller was, in 
fome degree, tied down to a perfe- 
verance in the fupport of thofe 
meafures on which they were found- 
ed ; whereas, in a new Houfe of 
Commons, he would be fomewhat 
at large in chufing or altering his 
line of condud, as circumllances 
varied, and they, if neceiTary, might 
throw all the odium of thofe laws 
upon their predeceflbrs. 

It may alfo be fuppofed, that as 
the ilfue of the American meafures 
became every day more precarious, 
it was ^thought a right meafure to ' 

have 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



l39 



l.ave the eleftions over, before any 
unfortunate event could chancre the 
temper, or irritate the minds of the 
people. If this (hould coincide 
with the time of a general ele(5lion, 
there was no doubt but the opp6li- 
f tion muft carry every thing before 
it. This, in all likelihood, was 
the flrongeft and mod prevalent 
znotive to this refoluiion, though 
the others might iiave had their 
ihare. And it may be fafcly conclu - 
ded, that a faving to the friends of 
government, by curtailing the time 
for contell and expence, particularly 
in the counties, was not at all over- 
looked upon this occafion. Indeed, 
the oppofition complained that they 
did not receive fair play ; that forae 
places were loft by furprize; and, 
they faid, that thofe in the fecret 
had infinite advantages, by fetting 
out betimes for the fcene of adlion, 
and taking the neceflary meafures 
to llrengthen their intereft, before 
€V6n a fufpicion of the defign was 
formed on the other fide. 

However it was, very unex- 
pededly, and much to the furprize 
X)f the nation in general, (as it had 
^ not been a meafure much pradifed 
^ ipf late years, no fimilar inflance 
Jia\^ing occurred iince the year 1746, 
and even that being an unique in 
the long reign of George II.) a pro- 
<, ^ , clamation was ilTued 

S '' ^°' '^^ diffoiution of 
"^ * the parliament, and 
the calling of a new one, the writs 
for which were made returnable on 
the 29th day of the following No- 
vember. Notwithllanding the fur- 
prize, and Ihortnefs of the time, 
fome of the eledions were contefted 
with extraordinary perfeverance and 
^rdor. 

In London, the popular party 
carried every thiug befur? them. 



and returned all the members. Mr. 
Wilkes vyas again eledled to repre- 
fent the county of Middlefex, with- 
out a Ihadow of oppofition from the 
court, and Lord Mayor of that city 
for the enfuing year; and there 
was no doubt that the court party, 
grown fomewhat wifer by long and 
bitter experience, would no longer 
controvert his feat. The difpute, 
concerning that fmgle feat, had 
produced to them more troubles, 
vexation, and difgraces, than the 
contell with the twelve united co- 
lonies of America. It would have 
been an imprudence, of the grof- 
fell kind, to mix thefe difputes in 
the prefent crifis ; and thus, after 
near fourteen years ftruggle, it was 
thought the bell way to leave him 
mafter of the £eld. 

It was faid, by fome of thofe who 
are curious in attending to fuch ob- 
fervations, that notwithftanding the 
furprize, and the Ihortnefs of the 
time, a greater number of the old 
members were thrown out than was 
common at general eledions. How- 
ever the faft might be, thofe who 
were the beft acquainted with men 
and things, did not augur any 
change of fyilem from this circum- 
ftance. The court, notwithftanding 
all the ill fucceis of all the meafurea 
from which . the beft fuccefs was fo 
confidently expelled, feempd firmly 
refolved to perfevere in the fame 
courfe. It is faid, that private ad- 
vices from America encouraged 
them to fet a light value on thfi 
public appearances. 

On the meeting of the new par- 
liament. Sir Fletcher Norton was, 
without oppofmon.ap-j^^^^^^^ 
pointed Speaker. In -^ 

the fpeech from the ^77^- 
throne, the two Houfes were in- 
formed, that a moll daring fpirit of 

[C] 4. rcfjftancc 



4o] 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, 



refiftance and difobedience to the 
law flill unhappily prevailed in the 
province of Mafiachufett's Bay, 
and had, in divers parts of it, broke 
forth in frefh violences of a very 
criminal nature ; that thefe pro- 
ceedings had been countenanced- 
and encouraged in others of the 
colonies, and unwarrantable at- 
tempts made to obftruft the com- 
merce of this kingdom, by unlaw- 
ful combinations ; that fuch mea- 
fures had been taken, and fuch or- 
ders given, as were judged moft 
proper and efFeftual for carrying 
into execution the laws which were 
paired in the laft feffion of the late 
parliament, for the protedlion and 
iecurity of commerce, and for re- 
iloring and preferving peace, order 
and good government, in the pro- 
vince of MalTachufett's Bay ; that 
they might depend upon a firm and 
Jledfaft refolution to withftand every 
attempt to weaken or impair the 
fupreme authority of this legiflature 
over all the dominions of the crown, 
the maintenance of which was con- 
fidered as efTential to the dignity, 
the fafety, and the welfare of the 
Britifh empire ; his Majefty being 
aflured of receiving their affillance 
and fupport while ading upon thefe 
principles. 

The greateft fatisfadlion was ex- 
preffed, at the peace concluded be- 
tween Ruffia and the Porte, where- 
by the general tranquillity of Eu- 
rope was rendered compjeat ; and 
the ufual aiTurance giv^n of every 
endeavour to preferve that trapqnil- 
lity, of which there was the greater 
hope, as other powers gave the 
Urongeft affurances of an equally 
pacific difpofition. 

No particular fupply was de- 
manded ; but it was not doubted, 
that the fame affeftionate confi- 



dence, and the faine proofs of ?ea! 
and attachment, would be met 
with in this Houfe of Commons, 
which had been conftantly received 
from others. The fpeech coti- 
cluded, by particularly recommend- 
ing to both Houfes, at this time, 
to proceed with temper in their de- 
liberations, and with unanimity in 
their rcfolutions. To let the peo- 
ple, in every part of the dominions, 
be taught, by their example, to 
have a due reverence for the laws^, .• 
and a juft fenfe of the bleffings of ■{ 
our excellent conftitution. 

An addrefs, in the ufual form, 
having been moved for, an amend- \ 
ment was propofed, on the fide of ; 
oppofition, that his Majefty would 
be gracioufly pleafed to communi- 
cate the whole intelligence he had 
received from America, to the 
Houfe, as well as the letters, or- 
ders, and inllradlions upon that 
bufmefs. The propofal for this 
amendment was productive of fome 
confiderable debate, as well as of a 
divifion. 

The fupporters of the original 
addrefs went, in the firft place, up- 
on the old ground, that addreffes 
were no more than general compli- 
ments, matters of courfe at the be- 
ginning of every feflion, which di-d 
not preclude any future enquiries ; 
that particular meafures were not at 
that time, in any degree, objefts of 
their confideration : and that Ame- 
rican affairs would come in their 
due order before them, vyhen there 
would be fufHcient time for deli- 
beration, and confidering them 
either feparately or in general. 

On the other fide, it was con- 
tended, that though no particular 
meaiures were immediately under 
coiifideraiion, yet, the addrefs be- 
ing drawn up in very generaherms, 

\i \ 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [41 



It implied, or even contained, a 
general approbation of all the late 
meafures purfued with refped to 
America; that this general judg- 
ment could not, nor ought not, to 
be given without the fulled and 
cleareft' information ; that a delay 
in forming fuch judgment, while 
the moft important concerns both 
of England and America' were 
hanging upon it^ might be fatal 
to both in its confequences ; and 
that it was a deception to the 
inexperienced, and an infult to the 
Houfe, to pretend that iheir ad- 
drcifes were words without mean- 
ing, and to be confidered only as 
echoes to the fpeech. 

This fpeech, they faid, was not 
merely a compliment. It included 
a fcheme of policy. It included a 
fcheme of unfortunate policy ; from 
whence nothing good had fprung, 
and from which nothing good could 
rationally be expefted. They had 
hitherto been grof^ly deceived, and 
this expreffion of good-humour and 
confidence, (for it was that at leaft, 
or it was nothing) mud belie the 
genuine feelings of a new parlia- 
ment, which ought to be cautiou? 
in committing itfelf in the mea- 
fures of the old, before it had time 
or means of examining them. They 
faid that this caution would be but 
decent, even tho' the ads of the for- 
mer parliament had not left the em- 
pire in a flame ; but when they met 
in the midll of the conflagration, it 
was abfolutely incumbent on them 
to know fomething of the true nature 
of the affair, before they took any 
meafures for heaping on new com- 
buftible matter. However pretend- 
ers to moderation might delude 
themfelves, or attempt to delude 
others, with an idea of the unope- 
fatiyc nature of an addrefe, ihey 



would certainly find their previooi, 
approbation pleaded againft a fub- 
fequent diffent — and an advantage 
taken from thence to infafe an 
opinion into the nation in general, 
into Europe, and into America, 
that parliament had, that day, fo- 
lemnly adopted all the former pro- 
ceedings with regard to the colo- 
nies. That this opinion would 
alienate more and more the affec- 
tions of the colonies from this ua- 
tion, and therefore it would be ne- 
ceffary to lay a ground for their fu- 
ture fyftem, by an examination in- 
to the true nature and effedb of the 
paft. 

The minifler faid, that it was not 
a proper time for entering into any 
difculfion of the affairs of America ; 
he fecmed to acknowledge, that a 
reconciliation was highly defirable, 
but that as no terms had yet beea 
propofed by America, nor conccf- 
fions offered, it could not be pre- 
fumed, that England would make 
offers of fubmiffion ; and that at 
matters were in this ftate of fuf- 
penfe, he hoped the motion for aa 
amendment would be withdrawn. 

Several gentlemen who make ^ 
merit of being confidered as totally 
difengaged from all parties and 
connedions, faid they would vote 
for the original addrefs ; not that 
they would in any degree be confi- 
dered to approve of the late mea- 
fures againfl America, or that this 
votefhould be at all fuppofed an en- 
gagement with regard to their fu- 
ture condud on that fubjed ; but 
they would do it merely as a matter 
of bufinefs and courfe, and hold 
themfelves, notwithllanding, en- 
tirely at liberty upon all futurp 
queltions. 

In the courfe of this debate, the 

condud of the late parliament pn- 

derweot 



4^3 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, 



^rwent much fevcre animadverllon, 

and the miniller was reminded of 
the mighty efFedts he had predided 
from ihe late ads agairvft, America ; 
they were to hurablc that whole 
continent in the dull, witliout any 
further trouble, and the puniihment 
of Boilon was to firike an univerfal 
panic on all the colonies ; that re.- 
fradory town would be totally aban- 
doned ; and inftead of obtaining 
relief, a dread, of the fame fate 
would prevent even the appearances 
of pity ; that the event . has, in 
every inftance, been the direfl re- 
•verfe of the expedlations thus held 
out. The caufe of Bofton is now 
tiecome the caufe of all America ; 
her fufrerings have given her a kind 
©f pre-eminence and. fupremacy, 
which fhe could never otherwife 
have acquired ; and thefe meafares, 
inttead of dividing the colonies, 
have joined them in a clofcnefs of 
friendihip and union, which per- 
haps no other means in nature could 
have done. The great fpeakers in 
©ppofition never difiinguifhed them- 
felves in a more llriking manner, 
than in this day's debate. 

The diviiion fhe wed, that oppo- 
Ction had not gained any great ac- 
ceilion of ftrcngth by the general 
eledVion, and alfo, that the temper 
of the Houfe at prefent, with refpeft 
to America, was not eflentially dif- 
ferent from that of the. late par- 
liament. The numbers in fupport 
of the addrefs, as it originally flood, 
were 264., and thofe who voted for 
the amendment, amounted to 73 
only. 

The addrefs from the Lords was 
not lefs warmly debated than that 
from the Houfe of Commons'. It 
was couched in very lirong terms, 
and declaratory of their abhorrence 
and detgiiation of the daring fpirit 



of refinance and difobedience to the 
laws, which fo ftrongly prevailed 
in the province of Maffachufett's 
Bay, and of the unwarrantable at- 
tempts in that and other provinces 
of America, to obilru6l by unlaw- 
ful combinations, the trade of this 
kingdom. 

A noble Duke, who has long 
been difiinguifhed by his manly, 
refolute, and inflexible fpirit in op- 
pofition, moved an amendment in 
the following words : " To defire 
" his Majefly would be gracioufly 
** pleafed to give diredions for an 
" early communication of the ac- 
** counts which have been received 
'* concerning the ftate of. the colo- 
*' nies, that we may not proceed 
*' to the confideration of this mofl 
*' critical and important matter, 
" but upon the fulleft information ; 
" and when we are thus informed, 
'* we fhall, without delay, apply 
" ourfelves with the mofl earnell 
" and ferious zeal to fuch meafures 
*' as fhall tend to fecure the honour 
*' of his Majefly's crown, the true 
** dignity of the mother country, 
*' and the harmony and happinefs 
*' of all his Majefty's dominions.*' 

The Lords in oppofition argued, 
that -they could not agree to com- 
mit themfelves with the carelefs fa- 
cility of a common addrefs of com- 
pliment, in expreflion*, which may 
lead to meafures in the event fatr^^ 
to the lives, properties, and libc. 
ties of a very great part of the 
fellow -fubj efts. They confider. 
an addrefs, in the prefent fituationj 
as neceflarily carrying a confidcr- 
able influence upon their futu 
proceedings, and as imprefling t: 
public wirh certain ideas of the 
meafures which they mean to fup - 
port^ that whatever meafures they 
fhall think it advifeable to purfue. 



ill 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[43 



it will certainly add greatly to the 
weight and efficacy of their pro- 
ceedings, if they appear the refult 
of full information, mature deli- 
beration, and temperate enquiry ; 
that no materials for fach an en- 
quiry have been laid before them, 
nor even fo much as promifed ; that 
in this fituation they are called up- 
on to make an addrefs, arbitrarily 
impofing qualities and defcriptions 
upon a(Jls done in the colonies, of 
the true nature and juft extent of 
which they are as yet in a great 
meafure unapprized ; a procedure, 
which, they think, by no means 
confouant to that purity which 
they ought ever to preferve in their 
judicial, and to that caution which 
ought to guide them in their deli- 
berate capacity. 

They befides ohjefted to the ad- 
drefs, its implying an approbation 
of the unfortunate fyftem adopted 
with regard to the colonies in the 
laft parliament ; a fyftem which, 
they reprefented, as conceived 
without prudence, and purfued 
without temper, confirtency, or fore- 
fight. After enlarging upon the 
mifchiefs it had produced, without 
a rational profpeft of advantage, 
they faid that it afforded a melan- 
choly profpeft of the difpofition of 
Lords in the prelent parliament, 
when they fee the Houfe, under the 
preffure of fo fevers and uniform an 
experience, again ready, without 
any enquiry, to countenance, if not 
to adopt, the fpirit of the former 
fatal proceedings. 

To this, befides the general ob- 
fervations on addtelTes, it was an- 
fvvered by the miniflerial fide, that 
the proceedings in America had 
been fuch, that if they were not 
met by fomething fpirited in the 
language of parliament, immedi- 



ately at its meeting, the caufe would 
feem to be given up ; and this 
would be a declaration without en- 
quiry, as that propofed in the ad- 
drefs ; that for their part, nothing 
was farther from their thoughts, 
than a concefTion either expreiTed or 
implied ; that they hoped this par- 
liament would flievv the fame regard 
for its dignity, by which the late 
parliament had acquired fo much 
honour; and one minifler confeffed, 
that he had advifed the difTolution, 
lefl popular diffatisfadion, arifmg 
from untoward events, fhould break 
the chain of thofe public meafhres 
which were neceffary to reduce the 
colonies to due obedience. The 
fooner the new parliament fpokc 
out upon the fubjeft, the better. 

The debate was long and vehe- 
ment, though the minority was but 
13 to 63 on the divifion. It was 
rendered memorable by the circum- 
fbnce of having produced a proteft, 
the firfl we remember to have heard 
of upon an addrefs, and that too 
very ftrong and pointed. The 
proteft concluded with the following 
remarkable declaration. 

*• But whatever may be the mif- 
chievous defigns, or the inconfi- 
derate temerity, which leads others 
to this defperate courle, we wifh to 
be known as perfons who have ever 
difapproved of meafures fo perni- 
cious in their pail effects, and their 
future tendency, and who are not 
in hafle, without enquiry or in- 
formation, to commit ourfelves in 
declarations which may precipitate 
our country into all the calamities 
of a civil war." 

Notwithftanding the hoflile tone 
of the fpeech, arui the great majo- 
rity that fupported the addreffes in 
both Houfes, there appeared the 
moll glaring irrcfolution on the 

fide 



44] 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



£dc of minidry, with refpeft to 
American afFairs. It leemed as if 
BO plan had yet been formed, nor 
lyilem adopted upon that fubject. 
The minifter appeared lefs than 
oCual in the Houle of Commons, 
and iludiouily avoided all explana- 
tion. Many imagined that he was 
thwarted and overruled by what 
in the cant phrafe is called the in- 
terior cabinet, and did not approve 
of the violent meafures that were 
there generated. It was even at 
this time fuppofed, that he was 
■feeling his own (Irength, and had 
fome thoughts of making an effort 
to emancipate himfelf from thofe 
&ackles> which rendered him an- 
swerable for the adls of others, who 
were not themfelves in any degree 
jefponfible. 

Other caufes might, perhaps with 
joaore probability, be affigned for 
this irrefolution. The minifter 
might iliH have his doubts with re- 
fpeft to the temper of the new par- 
liament. The landed intereft, which 
Ejuft firft contribute to the fupport 
of coercive meafures, was not yet 
prepared to look in the face the 
jdiredt avowal of a war; and an in- 
creafe of the land-tax, where there 
was no incitement of national glo- 
yy, and even the queftion of interell 
futficiently doubtful, might meet 
with a general and fatal cppoljtiqn. 
The whole weight of the mercantile 
jntereft, and of the great manufac- 
turing body of the nation, was alfo 
to be apprehended. 

However it was, whether it pro- 
ceeded from irrefolution, a want of 
fyftem, or a difference of opinion in 
the cabinet, there was a ftrange 
fufpeniion of American bufinefs, 
previous to the Chriftmas recefs, 
^nd the minifter feemed evidently to 
Ihrink from all coated upon that 



fubjed. The national eilimat«5 
were entirely formed upon a peace 
eftablilhment. The land-tax was 
continued at three fliillings in the 
pound ; no vote of credit was re- 
quired ; the army remained upon 
its former footing, and a redudion 
of 4000 feamen took place, only 
16,000 being demanded for the 
enfuing year. 

Upon the laft of thefe articles it 
was obferved on the fide of oppofi- 
tion, that there was no reconciling 
the conduft of adminiftration in a 
redudion .of 40CO feamen v/ith the 
fpeech from the throne, which an- 
nounced the affairs of America to 
be in a moft critical and alarming fi- 
tuation, and feemed to call for the 
moll vigorous and decisive meafures. 
That this had all the appearance of 
being a minifterial trick; a form- 
ing of eftimates, in the firft inftance, 
which were only defigned as walle- 
paper, and never intended to be ad- 
hered to, and afterwards to furprize 
and drive the /loufe into grants of an 
improper and burdenfome nature ; 
that gentlemen could not face their 
conlHtuents in the recefs, without 
being able to give them any in- 
formation, either relative to futiire 
burdens, or to what would be ne- 
ceflari'ly involved in fuch an en- 
quiry, whether compulfive meafure* 
were really intended to be purfued 
againlt the Americans ; for that to 
talk of enforcing the a6ts upon a 
reduced eftablifhment, either naval 
or military, vyas a fort of language 
fit to be held only to children. 

The miniller not being then in 
the Houie, a noble Lord who f^.te 
upon the fame bench with him, 
faid, he had authorized him to ac- 
quaint the Houfe, that he had no 
information whatever to lay before 
it, nor meafures to propofc refpe^- 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[45 



rng America. Othei gentlemen on 
the fame fide faid, that this was 
not h proper time for a difcuffion of 
American affairs ; that when they 
came before them in a parliamen- 
tary way, every gentleman would 
be at full liberty to declare his fen- 
timents, and fupport his opinions, 
when, it was not to be doubted, 
but the minifter would give very 
good reaforts as well for the delay, 
as for the nava! redu6tion. 

An attempt was made in thofe 
debates, and fupported with plea- 
fantry, to turn the tables upon the 
gentlemen in oppofition, who had 
for feveral years been complaining 
of the greatnefs of our peace efta- 
blifhment both by fea and land, 
and now feemed to oppofe a re- 
duftion as foon as it was attempted 
by the minifters. But they juftified 
their condudl on the appearance of 
public affairs, as well as the fpeech 
from the throne ; they faid, an 
impofition upon the Houfe and the 
public by delufive eftimates, was 
not a method of Ihewing refpedl to 
the one, or attention to the other, 
and the heavy lofs and expence that 
might be incurred in that mode, 
under the feveral heads of an in- 
creafed navy debt, fervices not pro- 
vided for, and perhaps a vote of 
credit, were fully fhewn. The 
ftrange inconfiftency of adminiftra- 
tion, with refpeft to American af- 
fairs, was feverely fcrutinized. It 
was aflerted, that the whole was a 
cheat, in order to delude the people 
into a war, rendered doubly ruin- 
ous and difgraceful by a defeftive 
preparation ; that the miniiters ob- 
ftinately refolved not to make peace 
by any reafonable political concef- 
fion, nor war by any vigorous mi- 
litary arrangement ; but by fluftu- 
ating between both, deprived the 



nation of a poffibility of derirmg 
benefit from either. Far from f»- 
ving for the public, this delay of 
incurring timely charga would cer- 
tainly aggravate the future expence, 
as they would afTurediy feel in due 
time. That they were far from 
defiring war ; as little did they rc- 
lifli large peace eftablifhments : hto. 
if, again ft their will, war «?«/? be 
carried on, common fenfe dilated, 
that it ought to be carried on witk 
efFeft ; and that if a peace eftabliih- 
ment, and even lower than a peace 
cflablifliment, was fufTicient to 
fupport a war, this afforded a dc-- 
monftrative proof, that- the peace 
ellablifhment had been {hamefuUy 
prodigal. 

In anfwer to this, the minifter of 
the naval department publicly af- 
ferted, in the Houfe of f.ords, that 
he knew the low eftablilbment pro- 
pofed would be fully fufficient for 
reducing the colonies to obedience* 
He fpoke with the greateft con- 
tempt both of the power and the 
courage of the Americans. He 
held, that they were not difciplined 
nor capable of difcipline, and that, 
formed of fuch materials, and ft> 
indifpofed to adlion, the numbers 
©f which fuch boafts had becm 
made, would only add to the faci- 
lity of their defeat. 

Altliough on thefe grounds the 
eflablifhment flood, or f«^emed to 
(land as reduced, the minifters did 
not difclaim any further arrange- 
ments of a political nature. By 
being frequently urged, {<omc ex- 
planation was drawn out on thai 
iubjetl in the Houfe of Commons. 
A gentleman called publicly upon 
the minifter in that Houfe to know, 
whether he had any information to 
lay before them, or any meafures 
to propofe refpe^ing America, for 

if 



46] 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



if he had not, he thought it the 
duty of parliament to interpofe, to 
call for papers, and to proceed on 
fuch information, however defec- 
tive, as tbey could obtain. He 
concluded by totally reprobating 
the meafures adopted by the late 
parliament, as equally impolitic 
'and imprafticable ; and faid, that 
they never could be prudently or 
effedlually carried into execution. 

The lord at the head of the trea- 
fury did not enter much into a juf- 
tificatioa of the meafures of the 
late parliament. He faid the fub- 
jeft would require the utmoft dili- 
gence and attention, as a matter of 
the greateft magnitude ever debated 
within their walls ; that he could not 
entirely acquiefce in the condemn- 
ation of meafures hallily, which had 
been taktn up and adopted upon fuch 
weighty motives ; that at the time, 
it was impoffible to foretel precifely 
how they might anfwer ; but that 
they (hould have a fair trial before 
they were reprobated ; and that the 
wifdom and policy of them could 
be only finally known in the event. 
That he had information which he 
would lay before the Houfe foon 
after the holidays ; and that he 
would fo far .adopt the gentleman's 
ideas who had called upon him, as 
to propofe the appointment of a 
committee for taking the affairs of 
America into conlideration. 

Much altercation arofe upon this 
delay in bulinefs of fuch vaft im- 
portance as the American, and 
that the papers and all neceffary 
means of information (hould be fo 
long retained from the Houfe. 
Upon thefe occafions, the ridicu- 



lous and diflrefTmg fituation in 
which General Gage and his little 
army flood in Bofton ; at the fame 
time, in a certain degree, befieg- 
ing, and themfelves befieged, was 
a iubjeft productive of much anim- 
adverfion, as well as raillery. 

A gentleman in office, and who 
not long lince had become a con- 
vert to the principles of admini- 
ftration, juil before the recefs pulled 
the malk a little afide, both with 
refped to the American bufinefs, 
and to the ftate of the eftimates. 
He faid, that any increafe of the 
one, however necaffary, or the ex- 
planations required on the other, 
would, in . the prefent feafon, be 
highly improper ; that fuch propo- 
fals at the eve of an adjournment, 
could only be intended to embsr- 
rafs adminiftration ; that a compli- 
ance with them, would fpread fuch 
an alarm among the merchants, 
with refpeft to their property, as 
might be produftive of the molt 
dangerous confequences ; and that 
they were matters only to be en- 
tered upon, when the meafures at 
large, and the means of carrying 
them into execution, were brought 
together, and connefted in one 
view. 

Nothing of any confequence was 
tranfadled in the Houfe of Lords 
from the paffing of the addrefs, 
except that a motion was made, and 
at length carried, for putting an 
end to that fcandalous contention 
with the Commons, by which, ever 
fmce the year 1770, the members 
of each houfe were interdifted from 
the other. 



CHAP. 



HISTORYOF EUROPE. 



[47 



CHAP. 



IV 



Lord Chatham's motion. Debates. Petitions, London ' petition 'vsithdrtewio* 
Petitions offered from the American agtnts, RejcBcd, 



THE apprelienfions of the mi- 
niftry, that they wottld meet 
with a vigorous oppofition from the 
mercantile intereit in the pijrfuit of 
their American meafures, were not 
ill founded. During the recefs a 
general alarm was fpread, and fe- 
veral meetings of the great bodies 
of North-American merchants in 
London and Briftol were held, 
where thofe meafures by which 
they were fo deeply affedled, were 
fully difcuffed, their confequences 
explained, and petitions to parlia- 
ment prepared and agreed upon in 
both places. The times were, 
however, altered, and fuch an op- 
pofition now, was not produdive 
of the efficacy or danger, which 
till very lately would have rendered 
it terrible. 

The minifler found the oppofi- 
tion reinforced from another quar- 
ter, which in other times, and other 
Situations, would have been for- 
midable. The Earl of Chatham, 
after a long abfence, appeared in 
the Houfe of Lords, to exprefs his 
utmoft diflent and difapprobation 
to the whole fyftem of American 
meafures. Though his power and 
influence were from many caufes 
much leflened, his appearance could 
at no time be wholly without ef- 
fea. 

T^« ««^u On the firft day of 

Ian. 20th. , . r *u 

I77C meeting after the 

'75* recefs, the nobleman 
at the head of American affairs, 
having laid the papers belonging 
to his department before the Lords, 
Lord Chatham moved an addrel^ 



9 



to his majefty, for recalling the 
troops from BoHon. This motion 
was u(hered in and fupported by a 
long, fpcech, in which he repre- 
fented this meafurc as a matter of 
immediate neceffity ; an hour now 
loll; in allaying the ferment in Ame- 
rica, might produce years of cala- 
mity ; the prefent fituation ofvhe 
tfoops rendered them and the Ame- 
ricans continually liable to events, 
which would cut ^ the poflibilit/ 
of a reconciliation -, this concilia- 
tory meafure, thus well timed ; this 
mark of aiFedion and good-will oo 
our fide, will remove all jealoufy 
and apprehenfion on the other, 
and inltantaneoufly produce the 
happieft effeds to both. He an- 
nounced this motion, to be intro- 
duiflory to a plan he had formed 
for a folid, honourable, and lafting 
fettlement between England and 
America ; he now only fet his foot 
upon the threshold of peace. 

He feverely reprehended admi- 
niflration for eight weeks delay in 
communicating the American pa- 
pers, at fo very critical a period. 
He charged them with deluding 
and deceiving the people of this 
country in feveral inftances ; by 
general mifreprelentations of the 
colonies ; by perfuading them that 
the difputes there were the affair 
of Bofton only, in which the rell 
were totally unconcerned ; and 
that the appearance of a fingle 
regiment there, would rellore every 
thing to quiet. He attributed the 
fudden diffolution of the parlia- 
iqent, to the fame principle of de- 
ception. 



48] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



ccption. He condemned the whole 
late feries of American laws and 
meafures ; faid he contended not 
for indulgence, but juftice to Ame- 
irica ; that if we confulted either 
our intereft or our dignity, the firft 
advances to peace and concord 
fiiould come from us ; tliat con- 
ceffion comes with a better grace, 
and more falutary efFeds, from the 
iuperior power ; and warned them 
of the humiliating difgrace, cf re- 
pealing thofe afts through neceffity, 
which they refufed to do from other 
motives. He is faid to have con- 
cluded the fpeech with the foUbw- 
ing remarkable words, " If the 
" minifters thus perfevere in mifad- 
** 'vifing and m'tjleading the king, I 
*' will not fay that ihey can alienate 
*< the affeftions of his fubjeds from 
•* his crown, but I will affirm, that 
" they will make the crown not 
** ijuorth his <^Mearing. — I will not 
*' fay that the king is betrayed, 
*^ but I will pronounce that — the 
** kingdom is undone. ^^ 

Whatever difference of opinion 
in the cabinet might have produced 
an apparent irrefolution previous 
to the recefs, it now became evi- 
dent, that meafures were finally 
fettled with refped to America. 
Though the military and naval 
ftrength was not increafed, a plan 
of coercion feemed to be deter- 
mined on. The language of the 
lords in adminiltration was high 
and decifive. They condemned 
the condudl of the Americans in 
the ftrongeft and mod unreferved 
terms ; and julUfied all the afts of 
adminiftration, and all the late 
laws without exception. They in- 
filled, that all conciliating means 
having proved ineffedual, it was 
high time for the mother country 
to aifen her authority, or for ever 



to rclinquifh it. If the talk be 
difficult now, what mufl it be in a 
few years ? Parliament mufl be 
obeyed, or it muft not ; if it be 
obeyed, who fhall refill its deter- 
minations ? If it be not, it is bet- 
ter at once to give up every claim " 
of authority over America. The 
fupremacy of the Britilh legiHature 
cannot be difputed ; and the idea 
of an inactive right, when there is 
the rhoU urgent neceffity for its ex- 
ercife, is abfurd and ridiculous* 
If we give way on the prefent oc- 
cafion, from miflaken notions of 
prefent advantages in trade and 
commerce, fuch a conceffion will 
infallibly defeat its own objedl; 
for it is plain, that the navigation 
aft, and all other regulatory afts, 
which form the great bafis on which 
thofe advantages refl, and the true 
interefls of both countries depend, 
will fall a vidim to the interefled 
and ambitious views of America. 
In a word, it was declared, that 
the mother country fhould never 
relax till America confefTed her fu- 
premacy ; and it was avowed to be 
the minillerial refolution, to enforce 
obedience by arms. 

In this debate it did not appear 
that the Lords in the minority 
were fully agreed on the propriety 
of recalling the troops. Som« 
lords, wko were the moll earneft 
for peace, did not think it at all 
juft or wife, to leave thofe who had 
rifqued their lives in favour of the 
claims of this country, however ill- 
founded, or improperly exercifed, 
as unproteded vidims to the rage 
of an armed and incenfed popu- 
lace ; and that too, before any pre- 
vious flipulations were made for 
their fafety. They thought that if 
proper conceffions were made, th« 
troops then at Bolton were not nu- 

mergui 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [49 



merqus enough to raife an alarm on 
account of a fuppofed ill faith in 
keeping them up, and could by 
no means prevent the relloration of 
peace. It was wrong at firft to 
fend the force ; but it might be 
dangerous to recal it before that 
was accomplifheJ. They however 
fupported the motion becaofe it 
looked towards that great objed ; 
and becaufc, they faid, they thought 
any thing better than a perfever- 
ance in hoilility. In argument, it 
was denied that lenient means had 
been inefFe<rtuaily tried with the 
colonies ; and on the contrary in- 
filled, that they had been conti- 
nually irritated by a feries of ab- 
furd, contradictory, wanton, and 
oppreflive meafures. That the pro- 
fcription of Bofton, untried and 
unheard, whereby 30,000 people 
were configned to famine and beg- 
gary, for the alledged crimes of a 
few, was an injuftice and cruelty 
fcarcely to be paralleled. That, as 
if it had been done to inflame them 
to madnefs, and to keep hoftility 
always in their eyes, an army, 
merely of irritation, as it evidently 
could anfwer no other purpofe, 
was fent amongfc them. That un- 
fortunately, paflion, obftinacy, and 
ill-will, under the diredion ofin- 
nbility and ignorance, had been 
made the principles for governing 
a free people. That America only 
wants to have fafety in property, 
and perfonal liberty ; and the dc- 
fire of independency was falfely 
charged on her. It was alfo in- 
filled on, that the colonies never 
denied or quellioned the afts of 
navigation, except when excited tQ 
it by injury. 

That the fpccious language, of 
the fupremacy of the Britiih legif- 
lature, the interefts of Grcat-Bfi- 
YoL. XVIII. 1775. 



rain, of her authority over the co- 
lonies, and other phrafes equally 
founding, was artfully held out to 
deceive and delude both parlia- 
ment and people ; they were pomp- 
ous words, and might fwell the 
importance of the meanell me- 
chanic ; but they would neither 
prevent the miferies of a civil war, 
preferve our commerce, nor reHore 
our colonies if once lofl. 

After a pretty long debate, for 
that houfe, the queftion was reject- 
ed by a vail majority, there ap- 
pearing upon a divifion, no lefs 
than 68 who oppofed, to 18 only* 
who fupported the motion. This 
divifion was rendered remarkable, 
by having a prince of the blood, 
his Royal Highnefs the Duke of 
Cumberland, for the firft time ia 
the minority. 

This decifive victory reftored the 
confidence of the minifler, and 
perhaps encouraged him to mea- 
sures in the other houfe which he 
would not otherwife have hazarded. 
Upon laying the American papers 
before the Houfe of Commons, a- 
celebrated gentleman in the oppo- 
fition defired they might be in- 
formed, whether thefe papers con- 
tained all the intelligence the mi- 
niflers had received from America. 
The miuiiler repMid, that he would 
not undertake to fay they did, as 
thofe he had brought were extracts, 
containing only the fails in the ori* 
ginal letters; that the writers opi- 
nions were not mentioned, it hav- 
ing been frequently found, that 
the making public the private opi- 
nions of people in ofHce, had been 
attended with bad confequences ; 
therefore his majelly's fervants had 
determined, for the future, never 
to mention the private opinion of 
any perfon. 

[D] The 



5ol HISTORY OF EUROP 

The gentleman who propofed 
the queftion faid, tliat in Tome 
cafes it might be proper to keep a 
perfonV private opinion fecret ; 
but, in fo critical and alarming an 
affair as that of the Americans, the 
opinions of people in power, on 
the fpot, miift be of great fervice. 
Their judgments mufl operate here 
as fadts ; at leaft, fadls unccnnefted 
with the opinions of thofe who beft 
knew the fpirit and tendency of 
each aftion, would be of little ufe, 
tending only to miflead : an adl of 
violence is committed — if we know 
neither the motive to it — to what 
It is likely to lead— or what force 
will probably fupport it — how can 
a true judgment be made of it? 
As to the opinion concerning the 
meafures proper to be purfued for 
quieting thefe troubles; there too 
the opinion of thofe on the fpot, 
and poflefling every means of in- 
formation, was of the firft impor- 
tance. That things were gone too 

far, to think it necefTary to manage 

the opinions of any man th office 

in America. The rifque to be run 

(at fuch a time) is a necefTary con- 

fequence of their fituation ; and 

they would be more endangered by 

the ignorance of parliament con- 
cerning their fentiments, than by 

any fentiments they could deliver. 

That in 1766 (the year, he faid, of 

happy reconciliation) every paper, 

without referve, had been laid be- 

fore-the Houfe, and no man fufrered 

by it. He therefore was of opinion, 

that the whole of the information 

received from America ought to be 

laid before the Houfe, and not ex- 
tracts of particular letters, fuch as 

fuited the minifter's purpofe. 

This propofition not being ad- 

iriitted, the minifter moved, that 

the papers ihould, oa the 26th in- 



l'.. 



flant, be referred to the conilder- 
ation of a committee of the whole 
Houfe. They confilied principally 
of letters between fome of the mi- 
niflers, and the governors of moil 
of the colonies ; and were tranf- 
mitted in this mutilated ftate to 
the committee. 

The principal trading and ma- 
nufadluring towns in the kingdom, 
having waited to regulate their 
condudl as to American affairs, by 
that of the merchants of London 
and Briftol, now accordingly fol- 
lowed the example of thofe two 
great commercial bodies, and pre- 
pared petitions upon that fubjec^ 
to be prefented to parliament. The 
petition from the merchants of 
London^ was of courfe the firft de- 
livered, and being pre- » , 
fentedbyoneoftheal- J^"' ^^°' 
dermen of that city, who was like- 
wife a member of parliament, he ' 
moved, that it Ihould be referred 
to the committee, who were ap- - 
pointed to take into confideration 
the American papers. 

This feemed to be fo natural, 
and fo much a matter of courfe, as 
fcarcely to admit of a controverfy. 
The minifters had, however, by 
this time, hit upon a manoeuvre, 
which, though fuccefsful for the 
prefent, may not in all feafons be 
fo happily drawn into pradlice ; 
but by which^ the fhower of peti- 
tions was fo efFedually thrown off, 
that they became a matter of fport 
rather than of concern. It was 
difcovered, that this matter was to 
be taken up in a political, not a 
commercial light. That therefore, ' 
as there was little connexion be- 
tween the views of the Houfe, and 
thofe of the merchants, it would 
be the higheil abfurdity, that a 
committee, whofe thoughts were 
occupied 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[51 



occupied by the firll, (hould be at 
all broke in upon or dillurbed by 
the latter. It was accordingly pro- 
pofed, to appoint a feparate com- 
mittee for the confideration of the 
merchants petition, and for that 
purpofe an amendment was moved, 
thaL it Ihould be referred to a com- 
mittee on the 27th, the day fuc- 
cecding that on which the com- 
mittee was to take the American 
papers into confideration. 

It was reprefented, that the 
committee for the confideration of 
the American papers was appoint- 
ed with a view to their coming to 
fome fpeedy refolution, fuited to 
the dignity of parliament, and to 
the prefent Hate of affairs in Ame- 
rica ; that the reftoration of peace 
in that country depended as much 
upon the immediate application, 
as upon the vigour of the meafures 
determined ; that the great variety 
of fads, and mafs of matter, which 
of courfe muft come under confi- 
deration in the committee to which 
the petition was referred, would be 
a work of tedious enquiry, and 
long toil ; that fuch a length of 
enquiry was incompatible with the 
difpatch neceflary in the bufinefs 
with which it would be coupled by 
the motion ; that the hands of go- 
vernment would thereby be tied 
up, and the powers of parliament 
reftrained from giving that fpeedy 
relief, which the preiTure of public 
affairs requires ; and that the views 
and objeds of the enquiry origin- 
ating with the American papers, 
and the petition, being totally di- 
lliniJl in their nature, the deter- 
minations and execution ariling 
from both mufl be different. 

On the other fide, adminiftratioa 
was very feverely handled. They 
faid, that ic would be fairer and 



more manly to rejeft the petition 
at once, than to endeavour in this 
manner to defeat it ; that the pre- 
tence of appointing a committee 
was a fhameful pitiful evafion; that 
while to avoid the rejedipn of a 
petition which had not^iing excep- 
tionable in the matter or the form, 
they fuffered it into the houfe, 
they, at the fame time, took care 
it ihould never be heard j or, what 
was more infulting to the peti- 
tioners, and more difgraceful to 
parliament, to hear it, after a de- 
termination. Is it then true, faid 
they, that in a queftion concerning 
the colonies, politics and commerce 
are feparate and independent con- 
fiderations ? But if they are, ftiU 
the information which the mer- 
chants may give in their evidence 
of matters merely political, may 
be of advantage to the Houfe. 
Their correfponderu:ies are of all 
kinds. They do not fcruple to of- 
fer to the Houfe all they know of 
the ftate of that country, without 
thofe fears which it feems affect our 
officers in America. And as the 
miniller had rcfufed to give them 
the whole correfpondence, this fup- 
plemental information became the 
more neceflary. . That if there was 
not fufficient time to enquire into 
and fettle the American bufinefs, 
why was a month loft in diffipatioa 
during the Chrillmas recefi, for 
which the deareft intererts of the 
empire were to be facrificed, and 
perhaps its exiftence as an empire 
hazarded. That iifter all, what 
time would be lofl ? One day per- 
haps — One petition contained the 
merits of the whole — and all the 
evidence might be examined to that. 
This, they faid, was the courfe in 
the year 1766, when an aft of re- 
conciliation, which ii> its nature 
[D] 2 required 



5^.] 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



/equired more hafte, was before the 
Houfe. Much larger correi'pon- 
dence, and infinitely more evi- 
dence, than probably would now 
appear, was then before them. It 
did not delay a bufmefs which ex- 
perience had ihewn to be beneficial ; 
that therefore, they need not be in 
fuch a violent hade, to new coer- 
cive meafUrcs, which the fame ex-- 
perience had fhewn, in late in- 
itances, to be highly perniciou;?. 

The quel;ion being at length 
put, the motion for the amend- 
ment Was carried by a majority of 
more than two to one, the numbers 
being 197, who voted for the lat- 
ter, againft 81 who fupported the 
original motion. 

A fimilar fate attended the peti- 
tions from Briftol, Glafgow, Nor- 
wich, Liverpool, Manchefter, Bir- 
mingham, Wolverhampton, Dud- 
ley; and fome other places, all of 
which were in turn configned to 
what the oppofition termed the 
committee of oblivion. 

On the day appointed for taking 
the American papers into confider- 
ation, a fecond, and very flrong 
petition was prefented from the 
merchants of London, in which 
they argue, that the connexion 
between Great-Britain and Ame- 
rica originally was, and ought to 
be, of a commercial kind ; ^d 
that the benefits derived therefrom 
to the mother country are of the 
fame nature ; that obferving tiie 
conftant attention which the Britifh 
legiflature had for more than a cen- 
tury given to thofe valuable ob- 
je£ts, they had been taught to ad- 
mire the regulations by which that 
connexion had been preferved, and 
thofe benefits fecured, as the moil 
effe(ftual inllitution which human 
wifdom could have framed for thgfc 



falutary purpofes; that prefuming 
therefore on that opinion, and fup- 
ported by that obfervation, they 
reprefent, that the fundamental po- 
licy of thole laws of which they 
complain, and the propriety of 
enforcing, relaxing, or amending 
them, are queflions infeparably 
united with the commerce between 
Great-Britain and America : and 
confequently, that the confideration 
of the one cannot be entered on, 
without a full difcuffion of the 
other. 

They then lament the late deci- 
fion, by which their petition was 
referred to a feparate committee, 
and by which, they fay, they are 
abfolutely precluded from fuch a 
hearing in its fupport, as could 
alone procure them that relief, 
which the importance and prefent 
deplorable ftate of their trade re- 
quired. They conclude by praying, 
that they may be heard, by them- 
felves or their agents, in fupport of 
their former petition, and that no 
refolution refpeding America may 
be taken by the Houfe,|or by any 
committee thereof, until they fhall 
be fully heard. 

It was then moved, that the or- 
der for referring the merchants pe- 
tition to a feparate committee 
fhould be difcharged, and that it 
fhould be referred to the committee 
of the whole Houfe, who were ap- 
pointed to confider the Americaa 
papers. 

This motion was fupported by 
the gentlemen in the minority, as 
they contended, on the principles 
6f law, juftice, reafon, and expe- 
diency. The indignity and mockery 
offered to fo great a body as the 
merchants of London by the late 
refolution, which with an infidio^is 
affe^ation of civility, received the 
petition 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



L53 



pcthicn with one hand, and threw it 
out of the window with the other, 
was painted in ftrong colours. It 
was (aid, that the matter of that pe- 
tition was not merely the bufinefs 
of the merchants, nor even of this 
kingdom in particular ; it was the 
buiinefs of the whole empire, every 
part of which vvas concerned in the 
event ; yet this matter of fuch mo- 
mentous concern was referred to a 
committee, called up, nobody knew 
why, for the framing of commer- 
cial regulations, which were nei- 
ther wanted, nor applied for ; 
while this committee did not even 
pretend to have the remotell con- 
cern with thofe great points of 
commercial policy, which were the 
objefls of the petition. That to 
compleat this fyftem, and render 
its wifdom equally confpicuous in 
all its parts, the committee, to 
whofe confideration thofe objedts 
v/ere avowedly referred, to which 
the petition applied, were doomed 
to grope their way in the dark, 
without a fmgle ray of information ; 
ihe probable, and almoft inevitable 
conlequence of which, mull be the 
involving us in a moft deftruftive 
and ruinous civil war. 

In further fupporting the motion 
on the merchants petition, it was 
obferved, that the reafon given by 
thofe who fent the petition to that 
committee (which was defcribed by 
various appellations of mockery 
and derifion), for not referring 
them to that on American papers, 
was of a mod: extraordinary and 
unheard of nature ; it was, that the 
refolutions of that committee were 
to be folely on the grounds of po- 
licy, and that the commercial ex- 
amination would delay the mea- 
I'ures necefTary fpr the coercion of 
America. That this was to anti- 



cipate and predetermine the future 
proceedings in a committee, as a 
reafon for keeping information 
from it ; how did they know what 
meafures would be purfued there, 
and on what principles ? Was 
there any inltrudion to the com- 
mittee fo to confine itfelf.? Or 
was it that the miniftry had already 
not only refolved what tliat com- 
mittee was to do, but reckoned 
upon it fo much as a certainty, and 
as a matter fo juftifiable, that they 
did not fcruple to avow it, and to 
make it a ground of argument for 
what the Houfc ought, or ought 
not to have b: ought before its com- 
mittee. This proceeding was re- 
prefented to be of a r.ioft alarming 
and unprecedented nature. It was 
further added, that if they meant 
holtiiity, the reafon they gave for 
not hearing, was the ftrongeft for 
it ; that as their war muft ever be 
dependent on their finances, and 
their finances muft depend upon 
their commerce, the true ftate of 
that commerce was ncceflary to be 
known, efpecially as colonies and 
commerce are infeparably con- 
neded. 

The arguments on the other fide 
were partly perfonal, partly poli- 
tical. In either way they did not 
feem to furnifh reafons againft 
hearing the merchants ; and from 
the nature of the meafure which 
afterwards was adopted, ic did not 
feem very material whether it paffed 
a month earlier or later. It was 
faid, that interefted and fadlious 
people had induced the merchants 
to fign their putitions. That they 
came too late, and as the mer- 
chants had confided fo long in par» 
liament, they ought to do fo ftill. 
That the American trade was de- 
llruftive, unlefs the fupremacy of 

ID] 3 part 



54] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



parliament, and the rights of fove- 
reigntv, were vigoroufly afferted. 
That if in this attempt commerce 
fhould be fufpended, the funds fuf- 
tain a Ihock, and the landed pro- 
perty experience a diminution, fuch 
evils mull be patiently fubmitted 
to, and the inerchants muft forego 
their interell, for the permanent 
advantages which they may expeft 
when the Americans are fubdued. It 
was alfo mentioned, that the merch- 
ants might be quieted, by paffing 
a law to compel the feveral colonies 
to pay all the debts, which any in- 
dividuals of thofe provinces owed 
here. 

All the debates on this fubjed of 
the pe'titions, were attended with 
an unufual degree ofafperity, and 
even acrimony on the fide of oppo- 
fition. The charges of negligence, 
incapacity, and inconfirtency, were 
rung in the ears of the miniiler. 
The afts of the laft parliament were 
arraigned in the feverell: terms, and 
faJd to be framed on falfe informa- 
tion, conceived in weaknefs and 
ignorance, and executed with neg- 
ligence. The minifters were told, 
that a bitter day of reckoning would 
come, when they would be con- 
vi(f^ed of fuch a chain of blunders 
and neglects, as would inevit.ibly 
draw vengeance on their heads. A 
pathetic pifture was drawn and de- 
plored, of the miferies of th^t civil 
war, which muft be incurred through 
their raihnefs and blind precipiu- 
tion. Trade deftroyed-^The re- 
venue impoverifhed — The poor 
flarving— Manufadlures ftagnating 
<— The poor-rate running into the 
land-tax, and both devouring the 
cftates. 

The conduft alfo of the late par- 
liament was fcrutinized without 
mercy in the courfe of thefe debates, 
and it^ memory was treated with 



more than want of refpeft. A gen- 
tleman, who is remarkable for a 
farcaftic poignancy in his obferva- 
tion, in fketching a Ihort hiilory of 
that parliament, faid, that they 
began their political life with a 
violation df the facred right of elec- 
tion in the cafe of Middiefcx ; that 
they had died in the ad of Popery, 
when they eflablifhed the Roman 
Catholic religion in Canadi ; and 
that they had left a rebellion in 
America, as a legacy. 

In endeavouring to obviate fome 
of the charges brought againll him, 
the miniiler aitributed the delay 
before the holidays, in the iirft 
place, to the want of neceffary in- 
formation, and in the fecond, to 
his having underrtood from feveral 
perfons, who had means of being 
well informed, that a petition was 
on its way to the throne, from the 
meeting which the Americans cal- 
led a continental congrefs, which 
was of fo conciliatory a nature, as 
to make way for healing and le- 
nient meafures, and for reconciling 
all matters in an amicable manner. 
As to other charges upon the Ame- 
rican fubjefl, he faid, that it was 
impofiible for him to have forefeen 
the proceedings in America re- 
fpeding the tea ; that the duty had 
been quietly collected before ; that 
the great quantity of teas in the 
warehoufes of the Eaft-India Com- 
pany, as appeared by the report of 
the Secret Committee, made it ne- 
ceflary to do fomething for the be- 
nefit of the Company ; that it was 
to (erve them that niae-pence ia 
the pound weight draw-back was 
allowed ; that it was impoflible for 
him to foretell that the Americans 
would refill at being able to drink 
their tea at nine-pence in the pound 
cheaper. 

This 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[55 



This defence called op a gentle- 
man of great weighf in the Eafl- 
India Company, and who has been 
long celebrated for his knowledge 
in its affairs. He faid, that he got 
up merely to fpeak to a matter of 
fa6l ; that he could not fit ftill and 
hear the noble Lord plume himfelf 
on aflions which, of all others, 
were the moH reprehenfible in this 
train of political abfurdities ; that 
it was unbecoming to alledge that 
this dangerous meafure had been 
adopted to ferve the Eaft India 
Company, when it was notorious, 
that the Company had requefted the 
repeal of the three-pence per pound 
in America, and felt and knew the 
abfurdity of giving a draw-back 
here, and laying a duty there ; a 
meafure equally a folecifm in 
commerce and politics. That the 
Company offered their confent, 
that government Ihould retain 6d. 
in the pound on the exportation, if 
the 3d. was remitted in America. 
That the gentleman himfelf, then 
fpeaking, had, in his place, re- 
quefted and intreated the noble 
Lord, to remove the caufe of dif- 
pute ; and that he then foretold to 
him the confequence of perfevering 
in error. 

After fome fevere refledHons, he 
(hewed, that the company had thus 
prefented the happieft opportunity 
which could have offered, for re- 
moving with credit the caufe of dif- 
ference with America, The fup- 
porting the authority of parliament 
was the only caufe affigned by the 
minifter himfelf, for retaining the 
duty on tea; at the fame time, 
that he acknowledged it to be as 
anti-commercial a tax, as any of 
thofe which he had repealed upon 
that principle. Here, then, fpt ung 
the happieil occafion of doing right. 



without interfering on the claims 
on either fide. The Eaft-India 
Company afk ; their fituation re- 
quired the relief. It could not be 
alledged that it was done at the in- 
ftance of American difcontcnt. But 
the golden bridge was refufed. 
New contrivances were fet on foot 
to introduce the tea into America. 
That various intrigues, folicita- 
tions, and counter -folicitations, 
were ufed to induce the Chairman, 
and Deputy Chairman of the Com- 
pany, to undertake this rafh and 
foolifh bufinefs ; that it had been 
protefled againft, as contrary to 
the principles of their monopoly: 
yet the power of miniftry prevailed, 
and they would, notwithflanding, 
cover all thofe fadls, which are 
ready, from their confequences, to 
convulfe the whole empire, under 
a pretence of the pureft intentions 
in the world, merely of ferving the 
Eaft-India Company. 

Thefe fadls were confidered as 
incontrovertible, as none of them 
were denied at that time or af- 
terwards. The quef- t /:.l 
• 01^ Jan. 26th. 

tion was rejected upon a •' 

divifion by a very great majority, 
there appearing in fupport of the 
motion, for refcinding the former 
refolution relative to the merchants 
petition, only 89, to 250 who op- 
pofed that meafure. 

Though it was then late, a pe- 
tition was offered from Mr. Boll an. 
Dr. Franklin, and Mr. Lee, three 
American agents. Hating, that they 
were authorized by the American 
continental congreis, to prefent a 
petition from the congrefs to the 
King, which petition his Majefty 
had referred to that Houfe ; that 
they were enabled to throw great 
light upon the fubjedl, and prayed 
to be heard at the bar, in fupport 

[P] 4 of 



56] 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



of the faid petition. On this a 
violent debate arofe, partly on the 
fame grounds with the former, part- 
ly on different. — The miniftry al- 
Icdged that the congrefs was no 
legal body, and ndne could be 
heard in reference to their proceed- 
ings, without giving that illegal 
body fonie degree of countenance ; 
that they could only hear the colo- 
nies through their legal affemblies, 
and their agents properly author- 
ized by them, and properly admit- 
ted here ; that to do otherwife, 
would lead to inextricable confu- 
^on, and deflroy the whole order 
of colony government. 

To thefe arguments it was an- 
fvered, that regular colony govern- 
ment was in cfFedl deftroyed al- 
ready : in fome places, by a£l of 
parliament ; in others, by diflblu- 
tion of affemblies by governors ; 
in fome, by popular violence. The 
queftion now was, how to reftore 
order? That this congrefs, how- 
ever illegal to other purpofes, was 
lufficiently legal for prefenting a 
petition. — It was figned by the 
names of all the perfons who com- 
pofed it, and might be received as 
irom individuals. That it was their 
bufmefs rather to find every plaufi- 
ble reafon for receiving petitions, 
than to invent pretences' for reje<5t- 
ing them. That the rejedling of 
peiitions was one principal caufe, 
if not the moft powerful caufe, 
of the prefent troubles. That this 
mode of conftantly reje<fling their 
petitions, and refufing to hear 
their agents, would infallibly end 
in univerfal rebellion ; and not un- 
naturally, as thofe feem to give up 
the right to government who re- 
fufe to bear the complaints of the 
fubjeft. This petition was rejedt- 



ed upon a divifion by a majority of 
218 to 68. 

The London merchants, how- 
ever, did not fubmit patiently to 
the indignity with which they 
thought themfelves now treated. 
The Ipirit which had at all times 
dillinguiflied that great commercial 
body was not loft ; nor was the 
rank and confideration, which they 
ever held in the affairs of this coun- 
try, forgotten. The day follow- 
ing the rejeftion of their fecond pe- 
tition, being that on which the 
committee of oblivion was to hold 
its firft meeting, and their bufmefs 
of courfe the firil to come before it, 
a gentleman, one of their body, de* 
puted by the committee of merch- 
ants, in their names reprefented at 
the bar of the Houfe, *' that merch- 
ants revealing at that bar the fiate 
of their affairs, was a meafure which 
all would wifh to avoid, unlefs up- 
on fuch great occafions as the pre- 
fent, where the public weal is evi- 
dently at ffake, when their duty as 
good fubjefts requires it of them ; 
but when the mode of examination 
is fuch as totally precludes thera 
from anfwering the great public 
cbjedl, which in their opinion is 
clearly the cafe at prefent, they beg 
leave humbly to fignify, that they 
wave appearing before the commit- 
tee which has been appointed ; and 
that the merchants are not under 
any apprehenfions refpedting their 
American debts, unlefs the means 
of remittance fhould be cut off by 
meafures that may be adopted in 
Great- Britain." 

During this war of the petitions, 
cne had been fent from Birming- 
ham and prefented, entitled, a pe- 
tition from the inhabitants of that 
town and neigh bourhcod^ in which 

they 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[57 



they fet forth, that any relaxation 
in the execution of the laws, re- 
fpefling the colonies, would greatly 
injure the commerce of Birming- 
ham ; and llrongly urging, that the 
Houle would exert its utmoft en- 
deavours to fupport the authority 
of the laws. No other petition cr 
addrefs had then appeared in fa- 
vour of ftrong meafures again ft 
America ; and it was fufpeded, 
that this had been procured by in- 
direct praftice, as mo/l of thofe 
who had figned the paper were 
perfons no ways concerned in the 
ftaple manufadure of the place : at 
leaft, fuch as were, did not export 
any confiderabte quantity to Ame- 
rica. Aftother petition, to a con- 
trary efre<ft, was figned and pre- 
fented by thofe, who dealt mcft 
largely in that branch. A leading 
gentleman in the minority ob- 
ferved, that the miniftry had fre- 
quently reproached the oppofition 
with unfair methods in procuring 
thefe petitions ; that now, one 
place having fpoken fuch different 
languages, they had an opportunity 
of difcovering the truth of that 
matter, and of cfFeftually difcou- 
raging fuch matters for the future : 
he therefore moved, that it fhould 
be an inftru<flion to the committee, 
to enqnire into the manner of pro- 
curing and figning both petitions ; 
and alfo, how far the perfons, fe- 
verally iigning them, are concerned 
in the trade tQ North-Amcrica. 



The motion, as ufual, was over- 
ruled. 

In this manner the parties tried 
their feveral forces in parliament 
and in the nation, previous to the 
bringing in the grand meafure, on" 
which the miniftry refted their hope 
of finally breaking the fpirit which 
gave them fo much trouble ia 
America. It was evident, that their 
failure in their former plans had 
not in the leaft abated the readi- 
nefs fliewn by both Houfes of Par- 
liament to adopt any others which 
adminiftration fhould propofe ; and 
it was confidently believed an^ af- 
ferted, that when the metcliants 
and manufacturers were dep/ived of 
all hopes of preventing t\\^ opera- 
tion of force, it would then^become 
their intereft to give all pofSble 
effed to it. They would thus be- 
come by degrees, a principal fup- 
port of that caufe, which they now 
fo eagerly oppofed. When once 
every thing was made to depend on 
war, nothing but the fuccefs of that 
war could give the trading body 
any hopes of recovering their debts 
and renewing their commerce : 
therefore, not only this opinion, of 
the efiicacy of fuch a mode of pro- 
ceeding in America, but the hopes 
of compelling a great body at home 
to concurrence, made the minifters 
more and more rcfolved to go 
through, and complete the coercive 
plan they had begun with. 



CHAP. 



58] 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



CHAP. V. 

hard Chatham'* s* conciliatory hill ivith refpeEi to America. T> elates. The 
bill rejcSled. Petition from the Weji-India planters ^ and the tnerchants of 
London, to the Hoiife of Commons. Addrefs to the Throne mo^oed for in 
that Houfe, hy the Minijier. Great debates ; amendment monjed for ; re- 
jeSed % original motion for the addrefs carried by a great majority. Mo- 
tion for re- committing the addrefs y upon recei'ving the report from the com- 
mittee. Debates longer than before. The motion rejeded. Conference 
ivith the Lords. Petition from the merchants and planters to the Ltrds, 
Debate on a point of order, <whether the petitions Jhould he recei-jcd, pre- 
vious to the making of a motion for filling up the blanks in the addrefs. 
Motion made. Pre-vious quefiion put. Great debates, both nx)ith refpeSl 
to the pre'vious quejlion, and the fubjeci of the addrefs. Motion for the 
previous quejlion reje£ied by a great majority ; original motion by luhicb 
tbi Lords concurred ivith the Commons in the addrefs, agreed to, Protejls, 



THE noble Earl, who lately 
made a motion in the Houfe 
of Lords for the recall of the troops 
from Bofton, not difcouraged at the 
great majority by which his motion 
was rejefted, ftill per fevered in the 
profecution of that conciliatory 
fcheme with America, which he 
then in part announced, and to 
which that motion was only intro- 
p , dudory. He accordingly 

^ ' ^' brought into that Houfe 
the outlines of a bill, which he 
hoped would anfwer that falutary 
parpofe, under the title of " A 
provifional acl for lettling the trou- 
bles in America, and for averting 
the fupreme legifiacive authority 
and fupeiintending power of Great- 
Britain over the colonies." 

He intrcated the affittance of the 
Houfe to digeft the crude materials, 
which, thrown together in the na- 
ture of a bill, he now prefumed to 
lay before them ; to bring and re- 
duce the whole to that form, which 
was fuited to the dignity and im- 
portance of the fubjeft, and to the 
^reat ends to which it was ulti- 



mately direiled. He called on 
them to exercife their candour, and 
deprecated the efFecls of party or 
prejudice; of factious fpleen, or a 
blind prediledion. He declared 
himfelf to be aftuated by no nar- 
row principle, or perfonal confi- 
deration whatever ; and faid, that 
though the propofed bill might be 
looked upon as a bill of conceffion, 
it was impoffible but to confefs, at 
the fame time, that it was a bill of 
alTcrtion. 

This bill caufed a great variety 
of difcuflions within and without 
doors. The miniflry found it a 
propoiition of reconciliation by 
conceffion, which was caufe fulH- 
cient (independently of the ob- 
noxious quarter from whence it 
came) to induce them to rej'ed it ; 
their plan being at that time, tho* 
a little varied afterwards, to fhew a 
iirm refolution not to give way, in 
any inftance, whilft the oppofition 
in America continued. Others faid, 
that the bill contained a multipli- 
city of matter. Many of its parts 
were liable to, and feemed to re- 
quire 
6 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[59 



quire much fq)arate difcuffion : 
they were fo numerous, and fo va- 
rious in their nature, that the ag- 
gregate mafs appeared too great to 
be comprized in one draught. As 
it was in a great mealure condi- 
tional, its operation depended, not 
only on the confent, but the adls of 
others ; and a long time might 
elapl'e before it could be certainly 
known, whether it was or was not 
to operate. He laid down, as a 
condition not to be controverted, 
and upon which all the benefits of 
the aft depended, a full acknow- 
ledgment of the fupremacy of the 
Icgiilature, and the fuperintending 
power of the Britifh parliament. 
It did not abfolutely decide in 
words upon the right of taxation, 
but partly as a matter of grace, and 
partly, to appearance, as a compro- 
mife, declared and enac'^ed, that no 
tallage, tax, or other charge Ihail 
be levied* in America, Accept by 
common confent in their provincial 
alTeniblies ; a manner of conceflion, 
which leems to imply the right. 
7t aflerts, as an undoubted preroga- 
tive, the royal right to fend any 
part of a legal^army to any part of" 
its dominions, at all times, and in 
all feafons, and condemns a paflage 
in the petition from the continental 
congrefs, which militates with that 
right ; but, as a falvo, declares, 
that no military force, however le- 
gally laifed and kept, can ever be 
lawfully employed to violate and 
deftroy the juft rights of the people ; 
a declaration which, it was faid, 
would afford little relief to a people 
groaning under the prcffure of a 
military government ; as whoever 
held the Iword, would decide upon 
the queltion of law. 

This bill legalized the holding 
of i, congreis in the enfuing month 



of May, for the double purpofe of 
duly recognizing the fupreme le- 
giflative authority and fuperintend- 
ing power of parliament over the 
colonies, and for making a free 
grant to the King, his heirs and 
fuccelTors, of a certain and perpe- 
tual revenue, fubjedl to the difpo- 
fition of parliament, and applicable 
to the alleviation of the national 
deb«» Taking it for granted that 
this free aid would bear an honour- 
able proportion to the great and 
flourifiiing Hate of the colonies, the 
neceffities of the mother country, 
and their obligations to her; on thefc 
conditions, it reftrained the powers 
of the admiralty courts to their an- 
cient limits, and without repealing, 
fufpenaed for a limited time thofe 
late a£ls. or parts of adls, which 
had been complained of in the pe- 
tition from the continental congrels. 
It placed the judges upon the fame 
footing, as to the holding of their 
falaries and offices, with thofe in 
England ; and fecured to the colo- 
nies ail the privileges^ franchifes 
and immunities, granted by their 
feveral charters and conlUtutions. 

The noble Lord, at the head of 
the American department, behaved 
with great moderation. He faid, 
that the bill took in fuch a variety 
of matter, that it was impofiible to 
pronounce any immediate opinion 
concerning its propriety ; and that 
as its noble author did not feem to 
prefs the Houfe to any immediate 
decilion, but appeared rather de- 
firous that it ftiould be maturely 
and fully confidered, he fuppofed it 
would be agreeable to him, and he 
would have no objeftion to receive 
it upon that condition, that it 
Ihould lie upon the table till the 
American papers weU firlt taken 
into coniideration. 

Whether 



66] 

Whether refped for the framer 
of the bill, or whatever the motives 
were that induced this conceffion, 
they had no cfiedl on the other 
Lords in adminiflrrition, who op- 
pofed it with fo much heat, as to 
forget that attention which its 
author, and the importance of the 
fubjed, feemed to demand. It is 
unufual in parliament to reject, on 
the firft propofition, any bill for an 
objed allowed to be necefTary ; and 
promifmg, however faintly or rude- 
ly, ' any plan for obtaining the end 
propofed. Rut the proceedin-g on 
this occafion was different. They 
condemned, without referve, the 
bill in the vyhole, and in all its 
parts ; ahd cenfured the mode of 
bringing it in, as irregular, unpar- 
liamentary, and unprecedented ; 
,that it was impoffible to conceive 
kow fuch a mafs of matter, fo im- 
portant in its nature, fo-extenfive 
in its confequences, and direfted to 
foch a variety of objeds, each of 
them worthy of a feparate conlider- 
ation, could be thus brought for- 
ward together, and in fuch a manner; 
that the matter fhould have been 
laid before the Houfe in feparate 
proportions, each of which fhould 
be iingly difcuffed, as leading to 
one great comprehenlive fyllem. 

It was befides contended, that 
this bill fell in with the ideas of 
America in almoft every particular, 
and held out no one fecurity ; that 
fiiould we be bafe and daftardly 
enough to betray the rights of the 
parliament of Great- Britain, the 
Americans would only agree to 
thofe parts of it that fuited their 
own views, and totally difclaim 
thofe that were held out as matters 
of fubmilTion or conceffion. But 
above all other caufes it was con- 
demned, as not only giving a fanc- 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



tion to the traiterous proceedings of 
the congrefs already held, but by 
the appointment of another, to le- 
galize fuch meetings by aft of par- 
liament. 

It was faid, that the fufpenfion 
of thofe afts, propofed in the bill, 
would, to every fubftantial purpofe, 
amount to an aclual repeal ; that if 
the laws for eilablifhing the admi- 
ralty courts were repealed, the aft 
of navigation would be of no far- 
ther avail, and become only a dead 
letter. The rebellious temper and 
hoftile difpofition of the Americans 
was much enlarged upon ; that they 
were not difputing about words, 
but about realities; that though 
the duty upon tea was the pretence, 
the reflriftions upon their com- 
merce, and the hope of throwing 
them off, were the real motives of 
their difobedience : that they had 
already attacked and taken one of 
the King's forts, and feized his 
{lores and ammunition, to employ 
them againft himfelf ; that if any 
thing can conftitute rebellion, this 
mufl; that this was no time for 
concefSon ; and that, to concede 
now, would be to give the point up 
for ever. It was therefore moved, 
and ftrongly fupported by all the 
Lords on that fide, that the llill 
ihould be rejefted in the firft in- 
flance. 

Th^ noble framer defended him* 
felf and his bill from the numerous 
attacks which were made on both, 
with great fpirit and vigour. The 
indignity which was offered, feemed 
to renew all the fire of youth ; and 
he retorted the farcafms, which 
were levelled upon him froni differ- 
ent quarters, with a moft pointed 
feverity. If he was charged with 
hurrying this bufinefs in an unufual 
and irregular manner into parlia- 
ment. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[6 1 



ment, he placed it to the critical 
neceffity of the times-; to the 
wretched inability and incapacity 
of the minillers, who, though they 
declared all America to be in re- 
bellion, had not, at this late fea- 
fon, a plan to propofc, or a fyftem 
to purine, for the adjullment of 
public affairs ; that under fuch cir- 
cumftances of emergency on one 
iide, when perhaps a fingle day 
might determine the fate of this 
great empire ; and fuch a ihamefui 
negligence, inattention, and want 
of ability on the other, no alterna- 
tive remained, but either to aban- 
don the interefts of his country, 
and relinquifti his duty, or to pro- 
pole fuch meafures as feemed the 
moil capable of relloring peace and 
quiet. He then called upon the 
fervants of 'the crown to declare, 
whether they had any plan, how- 
ever deficient, to lay before the 
Houfe? And that if r^ey had, he 
would fet them an example of can- 
dour which they by no means de- 
ferved, by inftanlly withdrawing 
the prefent bill. 

Though it was evident, that no 
previous concert had been held 
with the Lords in oppofition, in 
TGfpe^ to this bill, and that few of 
them, perhaps, would have ap- 
proved of it in all its parts if there 
had ; yet they all felt, as in their 
own cafe, the infult offered, and 
the contempt fhewn, by throwing 
it out in this aljrupt and difgrace- 
ful manner. The mcft moderate 
contended, that both the framer 
and fome of the matter of the bill 
dcferved a better reception ; that 
they were entitled to a foir hearing . 
and a free difcuOion; that it would 
convey to foreigners, as well as na- 
tives, very unfavourable ideas of 
the julHce of that Houfe> and of ic5 



hoftile difpofition towards the co- 
lonies, if the firfl propoiitions that 
were made, for the reiloration of 
peace and harmony, were to be re- 
ceded in fo harfli and unprecedented 
a manner, without even affording 
them a fair hearing. Conciliatory 
meafures {hould at leail be ex- 
amined, whether it were found eli- 
gible to adopt them or not. The 
bill was in their hands ; they might 
lb-ike out the objedionable parts ; 
and undoubtedly they woulJ find 
many which it might be highly 
ufeful to retain. 

This debate of courfe called up 
the whole of the American affairs, 
which accordingly underwent much 
difcuifion. On one fide, the dan- 
gers of a civil war werp fhewn, as 
well with refpeft to its domellic as 
foreign confequences, and its mi- 
feries ftrongly painted ; our pre- 
fent calamitous fituation deplored, 
apd the men and the meafures exe- 
crated that involved us in fuch a 
labyrinth of evils. On the other, 
the dangers were in part leiTcned, 
and thofe that were fuppofed, re- 
fpedling foreign Hates, denied ; the 
confequent evils of rebellion were 
incident to dominion and govern- 
ment ; and, in the prefent inllance, 
fprung entirely from the original 
traiterous defigns, hoiHle inten- 
tions, and rebellious difpofition 06 
the Americans. The nature of 
the fubjefts, and the Hate of tem- 
per on both fides, pioduced much, 
warmth, fevere altercatioa, and 
even perfonal animadverfion. 

After a long and moft pointed, 
debate, the biU was rejected by a 
majority of 61 to 32; not being 
even allowed to lie upon the table. 
Upon this queftion his Royal High* 
nefs the Duke of Cumberland voted 
in the mincritv. 

The 



6a3 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



The day after this debate, a pe- 
tition was prefented to the Houfe 
of Commons, from the planters of 
the fugar colonies refiding in Great- 
Britain, and the merchants of 
London trading to thofe colonies. 
In this petition they fct forth, how 
exceedingly they were alarmed at 
the affbciation and agreement en- 
tered into by the continental con- 
grefs, in confequence of which all 
trade between North'America and 
the Weft Indies were to ceafe at a 
given day, unlefs the afts of par- 
liament therein fpecified were re- 
pealed by that time. They ftated, 
that the Britifh property in the 
Weft India iflands amounted to up- 
wards of thirty millions fterling ; 
that a further property of many 
millions was employed in the com- 
merce created by the faid iflands ; 
a commerce comprehending Africa, 
the Eaft Indies, and Europe ; and 
that the whole profits and produce 
of thofe capitals ultimately center 
in Great-Britain, and add to the 
national wealth, while the naviga- 
tion neceffary to all its branches> 
eftablifties a ftrength which wealth 
can neither purchafe nor balance. 

They fhevved, that the fugar 
plantations in the Weft- Indies are 
fubjeft to a greater variety of con- 
tingencies than many other fpecies 
of property, from their neceffary 
dependance on external fupport ; 
that therefore, fhould any interrup- 
tion happen in the general fyftem 
of their commerce, the great na- 
tional ftock, thus vefted and em- 
ployed, muft become precarious and 
unprofitable ; and that the profits 
arifing from the pfefent ftate of 
thofe iflands, and that are likely to 
arife from their future improve- 
ment, in a great meafure depend 
on a free and reciprocal intercourfe 



between them and the feveral pro- 
vinces of North- America, from 
whence they are furnifhed with pro- 
vifions and other fupplies, abfo- 
lutely necelTary for their fupport 
and the maintenance of their plan- 
tations. 

They then proceed to fiiew, that 
they could not be fupplied from 
any other markets, and in any 
degree proportionate to their wants, 
with thofe articles of indifpenfable 
neceflity, which they now derive 
from the middle colonies of North 
America ; and that if the agree- 
ment and afTociation of the con- 
grefs take full effeft, which they 
firmly believe will happen, unlefs 
the former harmony which fubfifted 
between this kingdom and the 
American colonies, to the infinite 
advantage of both, be reftored, the 
iflands, will be reduced to the ut- 
moft diftrefs. This petition, like 
all the former upon the fame fub- 
jeft, was referred to the eftabliflied 
petition committee. 

The time was at length arrived, 
when the minifter thought proper 
to open his defigns with refpeft to 
America. On the day, upon which 
the Weft-India petition had been 
prefented, he in a long fpeech re- 
capitulated the information con- 
tained in thofe American papers 
which had i^een referred to the 
committee ; he then proceeded to 
difcriminate the temper, difpofi- 
tion, and degrees of refiftance, that 
prevailed in the feveral colonies ; 
to point out thofe where modera- 
tion really prevailed ; with others, 
where, he faid, violence was con- 
cealed under the maft: of duty and 
fubmiflion ; and finiftied the group 
by naming thofe which he con- 
fidered to be in a ftate of adlual re- 
bellion. He aflferted, that feveral. 

art$ 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



1^3 



arts bad been pradifed on both 
fides of the Atlantic, to raife this 
feditious fpirit to its prefent alarm- 
ing height. After this charge, he 
proceeded to draw a comparifon 
between the burdens borne by the 
people in England, and thofe in 
America ; in which, allowing his 
premifes and calculations, the dif- 
parity appeared about fifty to one; 
that is, a man in England, ceteris 
paribus, pays fifty times as much 
money to the public expence as a 
man in America. 

H6 then proceeded to lay down 
the legiflative fupreraacy of parlia- 
ment ; to ftate the meafures adopt- 
ed by America to refift it, and the 
almoil univerfal confederacy of the 
colonies, in that refiftance. Here, 
he faid, he laid his foot on the 
great barrier, which feparated, and 
for the prefent difunited both coun- 
tries ; and on this ground alone, 
of refinance and denial, he would 
raife every argument leading to the 
motion which he intended to make ; 
and this motion, he explained, 
would be for an addrefs to the king, 
and for a confereiice with the lords 
that it might be the joint addrefs 
of both Houfes. He then gave a 
iketch of the meafures he intended 
to purfue, which were, to fend a 
greater force to America ; to bring 
in a temporary adt to put a Hop to 
all the foreign trade of the diffe- 
rent colonies of New England, 
particularly to their fifhery on the 
Banks of Newfoundland, till they 
returned to their duty ; at the fame 
time declaring, that whenever they 
fliould acknowledge the fupreme 
authority of the Britifti legiflature, 
pay obedience to the laws of this 
realm, and make a due fubmiffion 
to the king, their real grievances. 



upon their making proper applica* 
tion, (hould be redreiled. 

The minifter faid, that the other 
colonies were not i'o culpable, aad 
he hoped might yet be brought to 
a fenfe of their duty to the mother 
country by more lenient meafures. 
The queftion now, he faid, lay 
within a very narrow compafs : It 
was fimply whether we ihould 
abandon all claims on the colonies* 
and at once give up ali the ad- 
vantages arifmg from our fovetL-ign- 
ty, and the commerce dependant 
on it ? or whether we (hould rcibrt 
to the meafures indifpenfably aecef^ 
fary in fuch circumiiances, aad 
thereby infure both ? 

The addrefs was to the follow- 
ing purpofe. To return thanks for 
the communication of the Ame- 
rican papers, and to declare, tlmt 
having taken them into moll ferioas 
confideration, they find that a part 
of his majefty's fubje^^ls in the pro- 
vince of the Maffachufett*s-Bay, 
have proceeded fo far as to refill 
the authority of the fupreme legif- 
lature, and that a rebellion at this 
time adually exills within the faid 
province ; that they fee with the 
utmoll ^concern, that they have 
been countenanced and encouraged 
by unlawful combinations and en- 
gagements entered into, in feveral 
of the other colonics, to the injury 
and oppreflion of many of their 
innocent fellow-fubjeds refident 
within tha kingdom of Great-Bri- 
tain and the reil of his Majefty's 
dominions ; that this conduil ap- 
pears the more inexcufable, vvhen 
they confider with how much temper 
his Majefty and the two Houfes of 
Parliament have adled, in fupport 
of the laws and conltitution of 
Great-Britain, They declare, that 

they^ 



64-] 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, 



tk^y can never fo far defert the truft 
lepofed in them, as to relincjuifh 
any part of the fovereign authority 
over all the dominions, which by 
law is vefled in his Majeity and 
the two Houfcs of Parliament ; and 
that the condu(5t of many perfons, 
in feveral of the colonies, during 
tfce late dillurbances, is alone fuf- 
ficient to convince them how necef- 
fary this power is, for the proteftion 
of the lives and fortpnes of all his 
Majefty's fubjecls ; that they ever 
Kave been, and always fliall be, 
ready to pay attention and regard to 
any real grievances of any of his Ma- 
j©fty*s fubjedls, which lliall in. a 
dutiful and conftitutional manner 
be laid before them ; and whenever 
any of the colonies fliall make a 
proper application to them, they 
Ihall be ready to afford them every 
jull and reafonable indulgence ; but 
that, at the fame time, they con- 
fider it as their rndifpenfable duty, 
humbly to befeech his Majefty, that 
he will take the moil effectual mea- 
fures to enforce due obedience to 
the laws and authority of the fu- 
preme legiflature j and they beg 
leave in the moft folemn manner, 
to affure his Majelly, that it is 
their fixed refolution, at the hazard 
of their lives' and properties, to 
Hand by his Majelly, againft all 
rebellious attempts, in the main- 
tenance of his jull rights, and thofe 
of the two Houles of Parliament. 

This addrefs was fo loaded with 
confequences, the e:^cent of which 
could not be defined, that it not 
only called up all the powers of 
oppofition ; but even fome few of 
the moll moderate, and who in con- 
formity to that habit of temper, 
had ofually gone with adminiftra- 
tion, as a fmooth, fafe, and eafy- 
w^y of travelling, feemed now to 



feel a kind of chill and horror, at 
entering upon fo decifive a mea- 
fure, and, as they apprehended, fo 
dangerous in the tendency, and in- 
explicable in the event. 

A gentleman of the firft emi- 
nence in the law, though not now 
in office, followed the miniller 
through the whole detail of his 
fpeech, and anfwered the different 
pofitions. He affirmed, that though 
the premifes might be right, the 
conclufions were erroneous ; that 
having examined with legal preci- 
fion the definitions jof treafon, he 
infilled that the Americans were 
not in rebellion. That the ap- 
pearances of riot, diforder, tumult 
and fedition, which had been fo 
faithfully recounted, as they were 
not of a nature to imply rebellion 
dire^^ly in themfelves, fo neither 
did they arife from motives, which 
render a6ls of the fame or lefs mag- 
nitude truly and properly rebel- 
lious. That nothing in the pa- 
per» have either fuch ads or mo- 
tives. Whatever the diforders 
might be, they were created by the 
condu6l of thofe, whole views were 
to eilablifh defpotifm ; and which 
were manifellly direfted to reduce 
America to the moft abjedl ilate of 
ferviiity, as a prelude to the realiz- 
ing of the fame wicked fyitem ia 
the mother country. He conclud- 
ed by infilling, that an oppofition 
to arbitrary meafures was warrant- 
ed by the conllitution, and ellab- 
liihed by precedent. 

The other gentlemen of the mi- 
nority entered but little into the 
juridical part of the debate. They 
contended, that it was a matter of 
little importance, whether the di- 
llurbances which prevailed in all 
the colonies, might be termed in 
legal acceptation Rebellions or not. 

The 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, 



[65 



The queflion before the Houfe was, 
whether it was prudent for Parlia- 
ment, and at that time, to declare 
them fo. For if Parliament fhould 
£nd it necefiary, in the courfe of 
events, to reconcile by any concef- 
fion, treaty with and concellion to 
Rebels, would be highly diflionour- 
able to Parliament. If treaty Ihould 
not take place, their arms would 
never be the more powerful for di- 
ftinguilhing the war by the name 
of a rebellion. That it would 
render many in America, if not 
all, quite defperate ; and make them 
think themfelvcs contending for 
their lives, properties, and fami- 
lies, as well as for their political 
liberty. It was vainly expelled, 
(they faid) that this method of 
chufing out .MaiTachufett's-Bay as 
the only feat of rebellion, could 
cver^blind the other colonies to the 
confequences, or perfuade them to 
abandon, what they had already 
made a common caufe in the moft 
public and folemn manner poffible. 
That it was well known, no aft of 
violence had been committed in 
Maflachufett's-Bay, which was not 
equalled by fomething of a iimilar, 
and even fometimes exceeded by 
ads of a more heinous nature, in 
every other province. That there- 
fore, the only efFed of this violent 
but partial declaration of rebellion, 
would be to delude ourfelves into 
preparations of hoilility, as if 
againft one province only, when in 
truth, we had twelve to contend 
wkh ; and what weakened our pre- 
parations would give ftrength to 
theirs. That the experience of 
laft year in the partial proceedings 
againllBoflon, might ferve to teach 
the Houfe the infufficiency and 
mifchief of fuch low and contempt- 
ible politicks. That inllead of re- 
VoL. XVIII. 1775. 



peating errors in defiance of ex- 
perience ; they ought at laft to 
open their eyes to their real fitua- 
tion. The colonies were now com- 
pared into one body. The pro- 
ceeding of one was become the 
proceeding of all. Every attempt 
to difunite them had been found to 
ftrengthen their union ; all feveri- 
ties, to augment their rage and in- 
dignation ; that therefore they 
ought, inftead of menacing other 
places, railing at Maflachufett's- 
Bay, and declaring a partial rebel- 
lion^ to provide in good earneft 
and the utmoft expedition, for a 
general war, or general reconcilia- 
tion with the colonies. 

On the other fide, the crown 
lawyers and minifterial debaters in- 
fifted, that fuch Americans as came 
within certain defcriptions, had 
been guilty of certain ads, and 
that ftill perfevered in the fupport 
and commiflion of thofe ads, were 
in a ftate of adual rebellion. That 
thofe, who by open force make a 
general refiftance to the executioa 
of the laws, are by all writers con- 
fidered as guilty of high treafon. 
That many in England had beea 
tried, convided, and executed for 
that offence without any complaint 
of illegality and injullice. Were 
not the ads of as open violence 
and as much levelled againft the 
laws in Maflachufett's-Bay, as any 
of thofe proceedings fo feverely 
punifhed here? Or is high trca- 
fon and rebellion of a different 
nature in America and England ? 
As to the declaration of parlia- 
ment, it docs not preclude the 
future mercy of the crown, if the 
rebels Ihould appear to be defcrv- 
ing of it. The very addrefs was 
itfelf an ad of mercy, in warning 
an ignorant and obftinate people 
[£] of 



66] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



cf their danger. That it was not 
nc Canary to punifh univerfally ; the 
puniftiment of a few of the worll 
fort of traitors, fuch as Hancock 
and his crew, might be fufficient 
to teach the reft their duty in fu- 
ture. That the boafted union of 
the colonic? would difTjlve the mo- 
ment parliament fliewed itl'elf re- 
folved on meafures of vigour and 
ieverity. The wholt; of their at- 
tempt, b' th in tiK-'ir political con- 
i^dtrccy, and their commercial af- 
ibciations, was founded upon prin- 
ciples of felf-denial, fuffering, and 
rigour, to which human nature 
was not equal ; and therefore muft 
prefentiy fall to the ground. That 
therefore both juftict; arrd reafon 
required fuch a declaration of par- 
liament at the prefent in fupport of 
ks aathofijy, which might as well 
be fsrm-ally abandoned, as not re- 
fblutely afierted. Some gentlemen 
too (one of them of rank in the 
army) treated all idea of refinance 
by the Americans with the utmoft 
contempt. They faid, that they 
were neither foldiers, nor ever could 
be made io ; being naturally of a 
pufillanimous difpofition, and irt- 
tcrly incapable of any fort of order 
or difcipline. That by their lazi- 
ncfs, uncleanlinefs, or radical de- 
feft of conllitution, they were in- 
capable of going through the fer- 
vice of a campaign ; but would 
tnelt away with ficknefs before 
they could face an enemy. So that 
a very flight fwce would be more 
than fufficient for their complete 
reduftion ; and to this purpofe 
many ludicrous ftori«s were told 
greatly to the entertainment of the 
Houfe. 

A gentleman, who had not long 
before Xat at the treafiiry board, 
irom whence hs had been removed 



for a fpirit not fufficiently fubmiK- 
five, and whofe abilities were a3^ 
unqueftioned as the fpirit for which 
he fulfered, moved to leave out all 
but the preliminary words of the 
addrefs, and to fubftitute after them 
the following: «' But deploring ^ 
** that the information which they" | 
(the papers laid before the Houfe) 
** had afforded, ferved only to 
"convince the Houfe that the mea- 
** lures taken by his Majelly's fer- 
** vants tended rather to widen 
** than to heal the unhappy dif- 
** ferences between Gre-at-Britain 
*' and America," and then prayed 
an alteration in the fame. 

Upon a divifion in a very full 
Houle, the amendment was rejeft- 
ed by a large majority, there be- 
ing 304 againft, to 105^, who fup- 
ported the queftion. The queftion 
being then put upon the original 
motion for the addrefs, was carried 
by nearly the fame majority, the 
numbers being 2^6, to 106. 

The minority had not yet, how- 
eveV, done with the bufinefs. Upon 
receiving the report from the Ame- 
rican committee a few days after, 
a noble lord, whofe family have at 
all times been remarkable for their 
attachment to the conftitution and 
liberties of their country, and 
whofe anceftor had a princip.il 
fliare in the revolution, made a 
motion to recommit the addrefs 
which )iad been agreed to in the 
committee. He fupported his mo- 
tion with many arguments ; faid, 
that the reconfideration of a mea- 
fure which appeared to him and 
many others to be fraught with 
the greatell mifchiefs, and which 
from its nature, was undoubt- 
edly capable of much evil, could 
not be looked upon as time 
thrown away, or mifpcnt. H9 

ftatei 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[67 



'lated our domeilic fituation, and 
that in which we Hood both with 
refped to the colonies and to foreign 
powers ; from all which he infer- 
red the impropriety and danger of 
a declaration from that houfe, of 
the exillence of a rebellion in any 
part of our dominions ; he fhewed 
the defperate meafures into which 
it might precipitate the Americans ; 
and the advantage that might be 
taken of fuch an occafion by our 
powerful and watchful neighbours, 
whofe ancient enmity and jcaloufy 
were much increafed, by the glory 
we had acquired, and the difgrace 
and lofs they had fufrered in the 
lad war. His head and his heart, 
he faid, joined in deprecating the 
horrors of a civil war ; which would 
be rendered ftill more dreadful by 
involving in its certain confequen- 
ces, a foreign one with the com- 
bined forces of great and power- 
ful nations. He particularly called 
the attention of the Houfe to the 
unequal balance of our lofs and 
our gain in the event ; in which 
we might find our revenue dertroy- 
ed, our trade annihilated, and our 
empire itfelf overturned. And what 
was the prize to be gained, by run- 
ning all this rifque, and encounter- 
ing fo much danger? If we were 
fuccefsful, we might fubdue Ame- 
rica ; by which we gained nothing ; 
America being, to all wife intents 
and purpofes, our own already ; 
and much more profitably (o, than 
it could be in virtue of any con- 
queft. 

This motion introduced the 
longeft and moll interelling debate 
that had taken place in the prefent 
farliament. All the queftions upon 
American affairs that had . been 
agitated fince the year 1764, and 
all the arguments they gave rife to. 



were again, ia fome degree, con- 
troverted or revived ; with the ad- 
dition of thofe which new matter 
and a change of circumftance af- 
forded, or the greatell ingenuity 
could fuggeft. The matter is of 
fuch importance that we (hall be 
excufed going over the debates, as 
they became known to the public ; 
although, fomething like repetition 
in a bufinefs like this is inevit- 
able. 

It was acknowledged on all 
hands, that the fubjefl was one 
of the moft important that had 
ever been debated in that Houfe ; 
and the prefent crifis the moil 
perilous and intricate of any in 
which this nation had been in- 
volved fince the revolution. It 
was contended by thofe who op- 
pofed the motion, that either the 
legiilative power of this kingdom 
has authority over all its domi- 
nions, or it has none over any part 
of them ; it cannot be partial, nor 
can any one branch of that legif- 
lature, by any adl or charter what- 
ever, exempt any particular fet of 
his fubjecls from the authority of 
the whole ; and that which was 
never exf-rcifed was jull the fame 
as loll, it was allowed, that for 
the fake of tranquillity, of our 
trade and manufactures, it were 
much to be wiihed, that lenient 
meafures could be fuccefsfuUy pur- 
fued ; but it was faid, that there 
were none which could be propofed 
or adopted, that had not already- 
been repeatedly and inefFedually 
tried ; that the Americans were too 
ungrateful, too refractory, and too 
incorrigible, to be won by kind- 
nefs, or retained by benefits ; and 
that the mildnefs, lenity, and- ten-» 
dernefs, which had been conftantly^ 
pra£lifed by government in all its 

[E] z proceeding* 



683 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



proceedings with the colonies, and 
which they infidiouily interpreted 
as the effeds of timidity, became 
Thereby, in a great degree, produc- 
tive of the prefent fatal confe- 
quences. 

It was aflerted, that the Ame- 
ricans had long been aiming at in- 
dependency ; and that as foon as 
they thought themfelves able, and 
a pretence occurred, they infolently 
and openly avowed their eagernefs 
to put the defign in execution ; that 
it was our bufinefs and duty as 
Englifhmen, at any price and at 
-any hazard to prevent its comple- 
tion ; to crufh the monller in its 
birth ; to bring them back, before 
ft is too late, to a (eni'e of their 
duty, their condition, and their 
obligations to us ; to a proper re- 
inembrance, that their prefent po- 
tency, the excefs of their greatnefs 
and riches, is the confequence of 
our favour ; and that their very 
exiftence has been purchafed by us 
at an immenfe expence of blood 
and treafure. That the danger was 
immediate and preffing ; and that, 
regardlefs of confequences, we mull 
encounter it like men ; that every 
moment's delay increafes the evil, 
and it would be highly criminal to 
our country, as well as an adl of 
the mod confummate bafenefs and 
cowardice, by a mean temporizing 
to fhift it off from ourfelves, and 
leave it I'n all its accumulative bulk 
and weight, to drop upon the heads 
of our pofteriry. 

Many of the afts and refolutions 
of the continental congrefs, with 
paffages from their petition, and 
inftances from the general proceed- 
ings of the Americans, were brought 
to juftify the fentiments, corrobo- 
rate the aflertions, and enforce the 
arguments that were ufed upon this 



occafion. The dangers from foreign 
powers fupporting the Americans 
was faid to be imaginary ; befides 
the moft pacific afTurances, thofe, 
of whom we might be with reafon 
mott apprehenfive, were too much 
interefted in colony matters, to give 
any fupport to a refillance, which 
might in its example be fo ruinous 
to themfelves. It was ftill contend- 
ed by fever al of thofe who oppofed 
the motion, that an appearance of 
vigorous meafures, with fome rein- 
forcement to the troops at Boflon, 
would prove fufficient to quell the 
diilurbances in America, without 
the drawing of blood, or coming 
to any of thofe extremities, which 
had been fo often predided, and 
pathetically lamented on the other 
lide. They fcemed ftill to fuppofe, 
that the friends of government were 
much ftronger and more numerous, 
than there is any reafon at prefent 
to think they really were ; and that 
they were prevented from declaring 
themfelves, partly from the fudden 
violence of the difcontented, and 
partly from a want of mutual de- 
pendance, and knowledge of eadi 
others fentiments. 

On the other fide, the addrefs 
was lligmatized as cruel, fanguin- 
ary and unjuft ; that fuppofmg fome 
adts to have been committed, which 
might have borne the conftruftion 
of rebellion in the ftridl rigour of 
the law, it would ftill have been 
more humane, more politic, and 
more becoming the wifdom of the 
legiflature, not to have f^en them 
in that fenfe ; to give paffion time 
to fubfide, and reafon to operate, 
than by fuch a rafh, hafty, and vio- 
lent meafure, to fet, themfelves, 
the example of intemperance, and 
drive men headlong to defiance and 
defperation. 

It 



H I S T O R Y O F EUROPE. [6^ 

in ideas of certain rights, of which, 
the eleding of their own reprefen- 
tatives, and the difpofal of their 
money for the public fervice only 
through them, were among the 
principal. That if this was an er- 
ror, the crown and parliament were 
equally faulty with the Americans, 
having in their whole condud con- 
ftantly nourilhed the delufion. 
That at the time of the repeal of 
the ftamp ad, two of the firft 
names of this kingdom, for abili- 
ty, as well as for legal knowledge, 
befides many others, utterly de- 
nied the right of taxation ; yet in- 
ftead of any lligma for the holding 
of thofe opinions, which are now 
to be conftrued into rebellion, the 
Americans faw, immediately after, 
one of thofe great men not only 
placed at the head of public af- 
fairs, but the framer of a whole 
adminiflration, and the other ap- 
pointed to the highell civil office 
under the crown, and what is em- 
phatically called the keeper of the 
king's confcience. Was it thea 
to be wondered at, that the Ame- 
ricans, withfuch authorities on their 
fide, fliould be tenacious of a right 
fo invaluable in its nature, which 
has been at all times confidered as 
the diftin^on between freemen and 
flaves, which had been confirmed 
by fo long a prefcription, and upon 
which, to this inllant, the wifeft 
and honefteft men, even in the 
mother country, are divided in 
opinion. 

It was further urged, that if 
cohquell was determined, the 
force intended, which the mi- 
nifter rated at about ten thoufand 
men, was totally inadequate to 
the end. But that waving that 
point, and fuppofing we fhould^^ 
fucceed in conquering the Ameri- 
cans, the colonies muft of CQurfe 

[£] 3 N 



It was denied that the Ameri- 
cans had either fought or wilhed 
for independeney ; though it was 
too much to be feared, from the 
prefent complexion of the times, 
that through our violence and our 
madnefs, we (hould at length urge 
them to that extremity. It was 
afked, from whence we could form 
any judgment of the thoughts and 
jntentiona of men, but from their 
anions and their words ? By the 
firll of thefe, which are indeed the 
telb of the human difpofition, the 
^ Americans have given the ilrongeft 
and mofl unequivocal demonllra- 
tions of their filial piety towards 
the mother - country ; they have 
fought and bled by our fide. In 
the time of necclfity, they did not 
wait to be chilled by confulting the 
cold rules of prudence, as the mea- 
fure of the iupport and affiftance 
which they were to give us ; with 
liberal hearts, they gave every 
thing ; our journals, in the fame 
inllance, bear witnefs to our own 
juftice, and to their liberality. 

Nor are their words lefs unequi- 
vocal than their adlions. Even in 
the midft of the prefent difturb- 
ances ; when our minifters have 
excited innumerable fears and 
jealoufies, and by every provoca- 
tion fcrewed their paffions up even 
to madnefs ; yet in this Hate of di- 
ftradlion, they require no more for 
the reftoration of harmony, than 
to be placed in the fame fituation 
that they were in at the clofe of 
the laft war. 

It was faid, that waving all quef- 
tions upon the right of taxation, 
wife governments had ever paid a 
refped even to prejudices of a long 
ilanding, when they were eftabliflt- 
cd among great bodies of the peo- 
ple ; that the Americans had been 
nurfed up in a long ferjes of years. 



7o] 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



be ruined in the conflid^, the vaft 
and profitable trade, which de- 
pended upon them loll, and as no 
iuture means could be devifed for 
their government, without the con- 
tinual intervention of a large mili- 
tary force, this nation would ever 
after be faddled with a very great 
and certain expcnce, while the re- 
fources that ihould provide for it 
were wantonly cut off. But if we 
imagined that the powers of Eu- 
rope would fit IHU during this con- 
tent, we muft fuppofe a fyftem of 
policy now to prevail, or rather an 
fextenfion of folly, all over Europe, 
which never before was known in 
any period of its exiftence. 

It was remarkable in this de- 
bate, that a gentleman high in of- 
fice declared, that his ideas upon 
the fubjeel differed totally from 
thofe which in the prefent debate 
feemed to be adopted by the noble 
lord at the head of adminiftration ; 
that he could not give his affent 
to a meafure, at the very thoughts 
of which his foul Ihuddered ; that 
he difapproved of the whole fyffem 
.with refpedl to America ; and wifli- 
cd it to be reconfidered in every 
point of view, left wrong and op- 
preffion fhculd render refiftance 
luftifiable. He obferved, that 
though fomc perfons lefs refpon- 
fible had uniformly perfevcred in a 
ftyle of the molt inflexible rigour, 
that noble perfon at the head of 
the finances had frequently chang- 
ed his language, and iccmed to 
iuffer under great occauon?! de- 
preffion ; that he even declared at 
rimes, that he did not mean to 
tax America ; and feeming bcHdes 
to fpeak but flightly of the right 
of taxation, and giving fome inti- 
,mation even of con enting to a re- 
peal of the tea duty, that we were 



then contending only about words 
and quiddities, and entering into 
a ruinous war without an objedl. 

Much ill temper appeared in 
every part of the Houfe, in the 
courfe of both thei'e debates. The 
minifters were charged with afting 
uniformly and fyftematically upon 
Tory and arbitrary principles, 
which were fubverfive of the con- 
ftitution, deftru6live of the rights 
of the people, and had thrown the 
whole empire into a ftate of con- 
fufion and diftra6tion That by a 
purfuance of thefe difgraceful and 
ruinous meafures, they had tarn- 
iihed the luftre of the crown, alien- 
ated the affeftions of the people, 
and funk the nation, from the 
highell pinnacle of power and 
glory, to a degree of contempt in 
the eftiniation of the reft of Eu- 
rope, v.hich, only a few years ago, 
it would have been deemed impof- 
fible for the accumulated misfcff^ 
tunes and difgraces of an age to 
have accompliftied. But that iq 
llie true fpirit of a Tory admini- 
ftration, they had facrificed the 
honour and intereft of the nation 
in all tranfadlions with foreigners, 
and ref-Tved all the fpirit, the 
pride, the digalty, and the force 
of government, to be played off 
againft the liberties of the people 
at home. They were repeatedly 
told, that a bitter day of retribu- 
tion would inevitably come, when 
they mull anfwer to the juftice of 
their country, for the mifchicfs 
they had already done, and for the 
irretrievable ruin into which they 
were plunging the nation* In a 
word, it was faid, that the fhort 
and fimple queftion before the 
Houfe was, whether we ftiould lofe 
our colonies, or give up our mini- 
fters ? 

Or. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



C7I 



On the other ftde, all the evils 
and dillurbances in America, were 
by charge or implication attributed 
to the oppofition. Much was faid 
about fa<5lion at home, a republican 
ipirit and principles, and that the 
Americans were fpirited up to their 
violence and rebellion, by incen- 
diary writers and fpeakers in Eng- 
land. In the courfe of this violence 
and heat, a gentleman, having 
Ipoken fomething of Catalines at 
home, who ought to be dragged 
forth to public difgrace and punifti- 
ment, was called to from the other 
fide to point them out ; and told, 
that the imputation was undoubt- 
edly right, but he feemed to mif- 
place it ; that if he meant by Ca- 
talines, thofe who were involving 
their country in all the korrqrs and 
mifcries of a civil war, they could 
be eafily found ; but it would be 
on that fide where he did not wiih 
the fearch to be made. 

After a debate which continued 
till half an hour paft two o'clock 
in the morning, the queftion being 
at length put, the motion for the 
recommitment of the addrefs was 
rejefted by nearly the former ma- 
jority, the numbers upon the di- 
vifion being 288 againll, to ib^, 
who fupported the motion. 
P , , A conference was held 
* ' * the next day with the 
lords, at the requeil of the com- 
mons, to propofe their joining in 
the addrefs. In the mean time, 
a petition from the merchants of 
London, concerned in the com- 
merce to North America ; and an- 
other from the Weft India mer- 
chants and planters, were prelent- 
ed to the Marquis of Rocking- 
ham* to be laid before the lords 
by ihit nobleman, previous to their 
cotcfing upon American affairs. 



Whether the eafe with which peti- 
tions had been rendered fruitlefs 
in the other houfe, had encouraged 
a fimilar difpolition to render them 
equally ineffedual here, we fliall 
not pretend to fay, but however it 
was, or from whatever caufe it pro- 
ceeded, this period feemed parti- 
cularly fatal to that mode of appli- 
cation for redrefs. 

The lords being returned from 
the conference, and the prefident 
having made the report ancf read 
the addrefs, the Marquis of Rock- 
ingham Itood up to introduce and 
prefent the petitions ; but the noble 
Earl at the head of the American 
department having rifen to fpeak 
at the fame time, a great difpute 
arofe who (hould be the firft heard. 
In this ftate of con fu (ion, the lord 
keeper, inftead of deciding by his 
own eye or opinipn, put the quef- 
tion, whether the lord in admini- 
ftration (hould be then heard ? This 
proceeding called up a noble Duke 
on the other fide, who infilled, 
that it was a moft flavifh pofition, 
and unworthy their rank and cha- 
rartcr, that any lord in that houfe, 
(hould have a preference to any 
other ; and ftill more fo, to render 
that preference V^e a^ of the houfe, 
by putting it to the quelHon. The 
difpute was now brought into the 
form of a regular debate, in which, 
on one fide, the importance and 
nature of the fubjed which the 
marquis had to propofe, was faid, 
independent of any other caufes, 
to entitle it to a preference ; and 
the neceflity and juftice of their ac- 
cepting the merchants petitions, 
and hearing their allegations, be- 
fore they entered into any relblu- 
tions upon American affairs, were 
ftrongly urged. It was alledged, 
that they not only fat there in their 

[£] 4 leg i dative. 



7!2] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 

legiflative, but in their judicial 
capacity, and were therefore bound 
by ail the ties of juftice, as well 
as of official duty, to obtain every 
poflible light and information upon 
the fubjeil before them. That the 
pretence of delay, or lofs of time, 
could not avail in this inftance, 
as there was nothing dependent 
on the addrefs, which required any 
fudden refolution. But if there 
even were, a matter which involv- 
ed in its confequences, not only 
the juftice of the Houfe, but the 
interefts and fafety of the nation, 
ihould not be haftily nor unad- 
vifedly decided upon, nor fhould a 
mere attention to forms, fuppofing 
them to be eftablifhed or authen- 
ticated, be deemed a fufficient caufe 
for cutting off the means of infor- 
mation. 

On the other fide, the method 
of ftating and propofmg the quef- 
tion was juftiiied by fome prece- 
dents, moft of which were brought 
from the houfe of commons ; and 
it was contended, that the chairs 
man in either houfe, had a right, 
either to decide immediately upon 
the queftion, or to flate it in fuch 
manner, and to propofe fuch party 
as he pleafed ; that the propofed 
mode of proceeding on the peti- 
tions, while the other buiinefs was 
before them, was unufual and un- 
parliamentary ; and that indepen- 
dent of all other caufes, the pre- 
ference upon this occafion Ihould 
be given to the noble lord in ad- 
miniftration, as a mark of the ref- 
pe6l owing to the other branch of 
the legiflature. The queftion be- 
ing at length put, the motion was 
carried without a divifion. 

Upon this decifion, the noble- 
man in whofe favour it was car- 
ried, made the ufual motion, mere- 



ly for the fake of fecuring the oc- 
cupancy of the ground, viz. That 
the blank which was left open in 
the addrefs prefented by the Com- 
mons, ihould be fiilcd up by the 
infertion of thofe words *• The 
Lords Spiritual and Temporal," 
&c. which were to render that in- 
ftrument the joint adl of both 
Houfes. 

The Marquis then acquainted 
the Houfe with the nature and great 
importance of the petitions which 
he had to prefcnt ; that they were 
immediately relative to the bufinefs 
under confideration ; and were well 
worthy of arrefting any determina- 
tion of theirs, for at leaft one day, 
being certain, that within that 
ihort period, information of ihfi- 
nite confequence would be laid be- 
fore them ; perhaps fufficient to 
sttfer, or at leaft to foften the ri- 
gour of thofe meafures, which they 
were now madly, haftily, and 
blindly proceeding to adopt. That 
to remove every doubt of their be- 
ing intended, either to gain time, 
or to caufe delay, he was authoriz- 
ed by the Weft India merchants to 
inform them, that if neceflitated 
fo to do, they were ready, without 
counfel or further preparation, in- 
ftantly to offer evidence to prove, 
that ieveral of the Weft- India if- 
lands could not be able to fubfift 
after the operation of the propofed 
addrefs in America. He then faid, 
that as a queftion was now before 
the Houfe, which muft be firft dif- 
pofed of, before the matter of the 
petitions could come regularly un- 
der their cognizance, and as he 
ftill hoped they would be willing 
to hear the petitioners, as men fuf- 
fering under the heavieft misfor- 
tunes, none of which could be at- 
tributed to their own mifcondujft, 

he 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[73 



he would be under the neceffity, 
as the only means left, of moving 
the previous queiHon, which would 
open a ci'.;or for taking into conli- 
deration the general Hate of the 
petitioners grievances. 

It was turther urged, in fup- 
poning the motion for the previous 
qaeftion, that the papers which 
had been laid before t.nem by the 
minifters, were fo manifeftly de- 
fedlive, and avowedly curtailed, 
that no certain information could 
be derived from them of the real 
ftate of the objed on which they 
were going to decide ; that in fuch 
a fituation, they fhould accept with 
plealure that information, which 
if it had not been voluntarily of- 
fered, it would have been their 
duty to have fought, at any ex- 
pence, whether of time or other- 
wife ; that if the papers had been 
even in their original ftate, without 
garbling or mutilation, flill, there 
was no fpecies of information re- 
lative to the colonies, to which the 
merchants were not more compe- 
tent, and lefs liable to impofition 
through ignorance, or to impofe 
upon others through prejudice, 
than the public officers employed 
by the crown ; of which, if there 
was any doubt before, the erro- 
neous opinions, falfe ideas, and 
mifreprcfentation of fads, upon 
which the fatal ads of the laft par- 
liament were founded, afforded too 
melancholy an experience. That 
the exprels prayer of the petitioners 
being, that they might be heard 
before any relolution was taken 
refpedling America, the refufal of 
this adt of juftice, or of even fuf- 
fering the petitions to be prefent- 
ed, was a proceeding of the moft 
unwarrantable nature, and diredlly 
fubverfive of the moft facred rights 



of the fubjeft. They fummed up 
their arguments by concluding, 
that jultice in regard to individuals, 
policy with rgard to the public, . 
and decorum with regard to them- 
felves, required that they fhould 
admit the petitions ; and that a re- 
fufal of them was no lefs, than a 
denial of juflice. 

On the other fide, fome of tbl> 
lords fpoke tenderly with refpeOf 
to the merchants ; faid they de- 
ferved every mark of attention and 
refpc6l, which was confiftent with 
the interefts of the empire at large ; 
that although their grievances were 
imaginary, their complaints were 
defer ving of indulgence. It was, 
however, to be hoped, that whea 
they maturely confidered that the 
fteps now taking were to prevent 
the return of fuch evils in future, 
they would not only chearfully aC' 
quiefce in the wifdom of parlia- 
ment in the prefent inftance, bat 
be gratefully thankful hereafter; 
for if the fupremacy of the legifla- 
ture was once g^en up, their 
trade, commerce, and every pof-^ 
fible advantage accruing from 
them, would foon be annihilated. 
It was therefore to be hoped, that 
the merchants would, on the pre- 
fent occafion, fubmit to a temporary 
inconvenience, or aven to a fl^ort- 
lived diltrefs, to infure the moft 
permanent and Lifting benefits ; 
and manifeft that degree of mag- 
nanimity, which a (enfe of their 
own interefts, founded in fubmif- 
fion and acquiefccnce to the wif- 
dom of parliament, muft, upon 
mature confideration and paft ex- 
perience, moft certainly fuggeft. 

Thus far, the debate was, con-> 

fined to the fubjeft of the previous 

queftion ; but with refpcdt to the 

original motion, it branched out: 

• faf 



74] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



fir more extcnfively. The quef- 
tions of treafon, rebellion, and con- 
ftrudlive trvafons, were deeply en- 
tered into by two great Law Lords, 
one of whom has long been at the 
kead of one of the firil departments 
in his profeffion, the chief court of 
criminal jullice ; and the other, 
within a few years, the highell 'Of- 
ficer under the crown. As thefe 
learned Lords differed totally, both 
in their legal and political opinions 
and fentiments, a long debate was 
carried on, with great eagernefs, 
warmth, and ability between them ; 
in which a vaft ftock of profeffional, 
as well as general learning, was 
difplayed on both iides. On the 
one, ^ the Americans were pronoun- 
ced to be in abfolute rebellion ; 
while a rich, and molt fertile ima- 
gination, had an opportunity of ex- 
erting all its ingenuity, in tra- 
veriirjg the almoft inextricable mazes 
of conftruftive treafons ; from 
whence were drawn fuch ftores of 
inferences, deduftions, concluiions, 
and diftinflions, as were not eafily 
developed or feparated, whea in- 
volved in the fplendor of a moft 
powerful eloquence. The learned 
Lord on the other fide, with equal 
abilities, as full a fhare of legal 
knowledge, and an eloquence not 
inferior to any, ftuck clofe to the 
letter of the law, and as abfolutely 
denied the charge made upon the 
Americans. He relied the whole 
ground of argument upon the fta- 
tute of the 25 Edward III. and 
would admit of no fpecies of trea- 
fon but what was therein defcribed, 
nor of any conftruftive treafon that 
was not already clearly ellahlilhcd 
by precedents in the courts, founded 
upon that bafis. It is much to be 
lamented, that with all the boafled 
excellency of our conftitution, a 
^eftion of fo vaft a magnitude, as 



to include in all its confequenccs the 
lives, fortunes, and honours of all 
the fubjeds of this empire, fliould 
ftill remain involved in fuch ob- 
fcurity, as not only to admit of a 
difference of opinion, but that even 
the great oracles of the law are be- 
wildered in its darknefs. 

With refped to the immediate 
queftion, it was infilled on the one 
lide, that we were reduced to th« 
alternative of adopting the molt 
elfeftual and coercive meafures, or 
of relinquifliing for ever all claim 
of dominion and iovereignry over 
the colonies ; that no medium could 
poffibly be devifed, which would 
exclude the inevitable confequence 
of either fyltem abfolutely prevail- 
ing ; for that, on the one hand, the 
fupremacy of the Britifh legiflature 
mull be eompleat, entire, and un- 
conditional ; or, on the other, 
the colonies mull be free and in- 
dependent : iha: all enquiry about 
the right of expediency of taxation 
was now fruitlefs ; taxation was no 
longer the queftion ; it was only 
the pretence of American difobe- 
dience and refillance ; all their afls 
llrike at the fuperintending power 
of the legiflature ; that was their 
real grievance c and a repeal of any 
one of thofe laws which they com- 
plained of, would be a renunciation 
of all fovereignty for ever. That it 
was an abfurdity of the mofl mon- 
flrous kind, to fuppofe that they 
had a right dillind from the le- 
giflature in any one particular, and 
not in all ; if they had fuch a righr, 
the defence of ic would jullify 
refillance ; and to contend that 
fubjeds had a right to refill the go- 
vernment, was a doctrine which 
could not be maintained, en any 
principles of civil government, 
reafon, experience, or common 

A« 



^ 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[75 



As to the petitioners, it was not 
doubted but they were aggrieved ; 
it might be granted, that all their 
allegations were well founded, and 
that they laboured under great and 
lingular diftrefTes ; it was as little 
to be doubted, that the landed 
gentlemen, the merchants, manu- 
fafturers, mechanics, and every or- 
der of men in the nation, would all 
heavily fee], in their feveral fitua- 
tions, the threatened calamities. 
But thefe were circumftanc^s that 
did not interfere with the motion ; 
they are a part of the evils incident 
to mankind, which may be deplored 
but cannot be avoided. The events 
of war are ever uncertain; its ca- 
lamities great, and undefined; we 
may be defeated ; we may lofe that 
fovereignty we are ftruggling to 
retain ; but thefe are the inevitable 
conditions of warfare : nor are they 
more grievous in the prefent in- 
ilance than in others. The quef- 
tion now under confideration is, 
whether, allowing all the inconve- 
niencies, difficulties, and dangers 
that are fuppofed, and taking into 
full contemplation every poffible 
contingency that human forefight 
and prudence could fuggell, we 
fhould relinquifh our rights, or re- 
folve, at all events, refolutely to 
perfjft in their exertion ? 

On the other fide, the madnefs 
of entering into a civil war, merely 
to cover and fupport a feries ot mi- 
nillerial violence, mifconduft, and 
mifrule, with the ruin and deftruc- 
tion that muft inevitably attend 
fuch unnatural cruelty and injulUce, 
were painted in the ftrongeft co- 
lours. The learned Lord, who had 
iiil'erted the Americans to be in re- 
bellion, was feverely reprehended ; 
it was faid, that with all his legal 
Jtnowlcdgc and ability, he had not 



been able, in any degree, to fup- 
port the charge, and that fuch cruel 
and inflammatory reprefentations, 
at this alarming crifis, were very 
unbecoming the gravity and dignity 
of his fituatioa, and the feveral 
high relations he flood in to the 
ftate. It was fhewn, that as com- 
merce was the fource of our wealth 
and our power, and its dellrudlion, 
the inevitable confequence of per- 
fevering in the prefent infane and 
pernicious meafures ; fo we were 
running headlong into a civil war, 
and at the fame time cutting off, 
irretrievably, the means which en- 
abled us to fupport any ; the con- 
fequence of which, in the natural 
courfe of things, muft be our falling 
an open and defencelefs prey to the 
firft bold invader. It was alfo af- 
ferted, that every engine had been 
employed, and every art too fuc- 
cefsfully efTayed, to render the 
landed intereft a party in this ruin- 
ous work, and to lead it into the 
fatal error of confidering itfelf as 
diftindl from the commercial; as if 
the latter could fullain any injury 
which the former muft not equally 
feel. But, it was afked, what rofe 
the value of the lands, but com- 
merce ? What fupported commerce, 
but the lands ? — their interefts be- 
ing as infeparable as the benefit* 
they derived from each other were 
mutual and reciprocal. 

It was aflerted, that the violent 
matter of the dangerous addrefs 
before them, was highly aggravated 
by the unufual and violent manner 
in which it was attempted to be 
precipitated through the Houfe ; 
that they were not to be allowed 
the interpofition of a moment** 
time for recolledion or delibera- 
tion, before they were to be driven 
headlpng into a declaraiioa of civil 

war. 



76] 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



war. A conference was held with 
the Commons ; an addrefs, which 
took in fubjeds of fuch a nature and 
magnitude as to ftrike the mind 
with dread and horror, prefented ; 
all extraneous information, al- 
tho* offered, pofiHvely refufed ; all 
petitions, arbitrarily rejedted ; and 
the whole of this moil awful bufmefs, 
received, debated, and intended to 
be concluded in a fmgle day ; that 
no legal grounds were laid, either 
in argument or in fad, to fhew 
that a rebellion, properly fo called, 
exifted in the province of Maifa- 
chufett's Bay, when the papers of 
the lateft date, and from whence 
altone they derived their informa- 
tion, were written ; that the overt 
a6ts, to which the fpecies of trea- 
fon affirmed in the addrefs ought 
to be applied, were not efta- 
blilhed, nor any offenders marked 
out ; but a general mafs of the 
afts of turbulence, faid to be done 
at various times and places, and 
of various natures, were all thrown 
together to make out one general 
conftrudlive treafon ; nor was there 
any fort of proof of the continu- 
ance of any unlawful force, from 
whence it could be inferred that a 
rebellion ^was at the prefent time 
exilling. 

It was further contended, that 
the cafes of conftrudive treafon had 
been already fo far extended by the 
judges, and the diftindions upon 
them were fo nice and fubtle, that 
no wife man would wifh to increafe 
their number, or to add to their 
authority ; much lefs ought fo high 
an authority as the two Houfes of 
Parliament, without the clearell 
evidence of uncontrovcrted overt- 
afts, to denounce fo cruel a judg- 
ment, as a declaration of rebellion, 
^gainil a great body of the people ; 



a declaration, in every view of it 
big with the moft horrible and dire- 
ful confequences; and which, if 
confirmed by that Houfe, will from 
that inllant authorize every fpecies 
of rapine, plunder, maffaere, and 
perfecuuon. 

This extraordinary debate was 
attended with fome iingular circum- 
ftances. A great Law Lord, who 
had been fo fevere in his charge 
againll the Americans, condemned 
alfo, in the moft explicit and unre- 
ferved terms, (to the great furprize 
of moft of his auditors) the meafure 
of laying on the duties in the year 
1767, which he declared to be the 
moii abfurd and pernicious that 
could be devifed, and the caufe of 
all our prefent and impending evils. 
If this declaration was unexpefted, 
the acknowledgment that followed 
was ftill more fo. Three great 
Lords, who were at that time ca- 
binet counfellors, and held the firit 
offices in the flate, declared fepa- 
rately in their places, that they had 
no fhare in that meafure, nor had 
ever given it any approbation ; and 
two of them condemned it in ex- 
prefs terms, while the third, who 
was ftill in high office, did not by 
any means pretend to fupport it. 
It feems they were in fome way 
over-ruled. But the manner in 
which a meafure of miniftry was 
carried againfl the opinion of mi- 
nifters was not explained. 

It cannot be wondered, that fuch 
a difclofure relative to a matter, 
which had already convulfed the 
whole .^ empire, and was ftill more 
to be dreaded in its future confe- 
quences, fhould excite the moft ge- 
neral amazement, mixed with a 
great fhare of indignation and re- 
gret in particulars. The fatal and 
over-ruling fjjcrct influence, which, 

as 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. {77 



as they faid, had (o long guided 
and marred all the public affairs of 
the nation, was accordingly de- 
plored and animadverted upon in 
different parts of rhe Houfe. 

In the courfe of the heat, which 
fprung from much collateral matter 
that was thrown in upon this occa- 
fion, a feries of arraignment, julH- 
fication, alTertion, denial, animad- 
verfion, and recrimination took 
place, in which many things paf- 
fed, that were either new in that 
Houfe, or extraordinary in their 
nature. The learned Lord, who 
had condemned the meafure of lay- 
ing on the American duties in the 
year 1767, was himfelf, partly by 
implication, and in part direftly, 
charged with having a principal 
(hare in thofe fecret counfels, which 
had been Iligmatized as the mod 
obnoxious and ruinous to the na- 
tion ; notwithftanding his repeated 
declaration, that he had not aded 
as an efficient cabinet counfellor for 
feveral years. Thefe charges were 
urged and oppofcd with a degree 
of afperity, and a harfhnefs of per- 
fonal altercation, not often heard 
in that Houfe ; with violent threats 
on the one fide, and general defi- 
ance on the other. 

At length, the previous queftion 
being put, according to the noble 
Marquis's motion, at 40 minutes 
pall one o'clock in the morning, 
was loft by a prodigious majority, 
the numbers, including the proxies, 
being 104, to 29, only, who fup- 
ported the previous queftion. The 
main queftion being then put, whe- 
ther to agree with the Commons in 
the addrefs, by inferting the words 
neceftary to fill up the blank, it 
was carried in the affirmative, by 
fomething near the fame majority. 



Both the previous queftion, and 
the main queftion, were, however, 
each of them produdive of a fepa- 
rate proteft, which were figned by 
eighteen Lords, who conclude their 
reafons of diflent in the following 
words : " Becaufe the means of 
enforcing the authority of the Bri- 
tifh legiflature, .is confided to per- 
fons, of whofe capacity for that 
purpofe, from abundant experience, 
we have reafon to doubt ; and who 
have hitherto ufed no effedlual 
means of conciliating or of redu- 
cing thofe who oppofe that autho- 
rity : this appears in the conftant 
failure of all their projefls, the in- 
fufficiency of all their information, 
and the difappointment of all the 
hopes, which they have for feveral 
years held out to the public. Par- 
liament has never refufed any of 
their propofals, and yet our affairs 
have proceeded daily from bad to 
worfe, until we have been brought, 
ftep by ftep, to that ftate of confa- 
fion, and even civil violence, whick 
was the natural refult of thefe dcf- 
perate meafures. 

" We therefore proteft againft an 
addrefs, amounting to a declaration 
of tvar, which is founded on no 
proper parliamentary information ; 
which was introduced by refufing 
to fuffer the prefentation of peti- 
tions againft it, (although it be the 
undoubted right of the fubjedl to 
prefent the fame) ; which followed 
the rejeftion of every mode of con- 
ciliation ; which holds out no fu^- 
ftantial offer of redrefs of griev- 
ances ; and which promifes fupport 
to thofe minifters who have in- 
flamed America, and grofsly mif- 
conduded the affairs of Great* 
Britain.'* 

CHAP* 



yS] HISTORY OF EUROPE, 



C K A ?. VI. 

Mejfagefrom the throne for an augmentation of the forces. Bill for rejlrain* 
ing the commerce of the Neiv-Englanti colonies, and to prohibit their fjhery 
on the hanks of is cwfoundland y ^c. brought into the Houfe of Commons. 
Great oppojition to the bill. Petition ajid evidence againf it. Petition 
and e<vidence from the tohvn of Pod infupport of the bill. Petition from 
the fakers. Long debates. Motion for an amendment over-ruled. The 
bill carried through by great majorities. Meets n.vith equal oppoftiion in 
the Houfe of Lords. Petitions and evidence as before. Great debates, 
i^ttjiionfor committing the bill, upon the fecond readings carried by a great 
majority. Motion on the third reading for an a?nendment, to include fenje- 
ral other colonies in the refridiions of the bill. The queflion carried upon 
a dinjijion. The bill pajfedy and returned nvith the amendment to the 
Commons. P rot eft. Conference ; the Commons gi<ve reafons for refuflng 
to concur in the amendment ; the Lords agree to the rejeSion. The hill re- 
ceives the royal affent, 

THE anfwer from the throne 
to the addrefs, befides the 
ttfual thanks, contained an aflurance 
of taking the molt ipeedy and effec- 
tual meafures> for enforcing due 
obedience to the laws and autho- 
rity of the fupreme legiflature ; to- 
gether with a declaration, that,when- 
ever any of the colonies fhould make 
a proper and dutiful application, 
his Majefty would be ready to con- 
cur in affording them every juft and 
reafonable indulgence ; and con- 
cluded with an earneft wiih that 
this difpofition might have an hap- 
py effedl on their temper and con- 
dua. 

The anfwer was accompanied 
with a meffage from the Throne to 
the Commons, in which they were 
informed, that as it was determined, 
n confequence of ihe addrefs, to 
take the moll: fpeedy and effeftual 
meafures for fupporting the jult 
rights of the crown, and the two 
Houfes of Parliament, fome aug- 
mentation to the forces by fca and 
land would be neceiTary for that 



purpofe. This meffage was refer- 
red, as ufual, to the committee of 
fupply. 

While meafures were thus taking 
to apply a military force to the cure 
of the diforders in America, other 
means were thought neceffary to 
come in aid of this expedient. 
The military force might indeed 
coerce and punifh the difobedient, 
and effeftually fupport the magif- 
trate in cafe of infarreftion ; but 
how to get the body of magiltracy 
to aft, or any fufficient number 
upon ordinary occafions to engage 
heartily in their caufe, did not ap- 
pear. The change in the charter 
of Maffachufett'5 Bay had not pro- 
duced the defired effeft. Even if 
it (hould, the inferior magiftrates 
muft evidently be taken in the 
country ; fheriffs, conftables, feleft 
men, grand and petty juries, mufl 
be aiding to the higher magiftrates, 
or nothing could be done ; and the 
idea of having troops in every pa- 
rilh would be ridiculous. The 
coercive plan lacing therefore ftill 

reliQ4 
t 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, [79 



relied on, it was propofed to chufe 
a punifhment lo univerfal, as by 
the inconveniencies which every 
man felt, would intereft every man 
in procuring obedience and fub- 
miffion to the late ads of parlia- 
ment. For this reafon the nii- 
niller moved for leave to bring in 
P , a bill to rertrain the trade 

^ • '°" and commerce of the pro- 
vinces of MaiTachufett's Bay, and 
New Hamplhire ; the colonies of 
Connedicut and Rhode-Ifland, and 
Providence Plantation, in North- 
America, to Great-Britain, Ire- 
land, and the Britifh iflands in the 
Weft- Indies ; and to prohibit fuch 
provinces and colonies from carry- 
ing on any fifhery on the banks of 
Newfoundland, or other places 
therein to be mentioned, under cer- 
tain conditions, and for a limited 
time. 

He fupported the propofed bill 
(of which he had given fome pre- 
vious intimation) on the following 
grounds : that as the Americans 
had refufed to trade with this king- 
dom, it was but jult that we (honld 
not futfer them to trade with any 
other nation ; that the rellraints of 
the ad of navigation, were their 
charter ; and that the feveral re- 
laxations of that law, were fo many 
ads of grace and favour ; all which, 
when they ceafed to be merited by 
the colonies, it was reafonable and 
neceffary fhould be recalled by the 
legiflature ; that the fifheries on 
the banks of Newfoundland, as well 
as all the others in North-America, 
were the undoubted right of Great- 
Britain, and fhe might accordingty 
difpofe of them as llie plcafed ; 
that as both Houfes had declared a 
rebellion in the province of MalTa- 
chufett's Bay, it was therefore jull 
tp deprive that province of the be- 



nefits which it derived from tholc 
fifheries. 

With refped to the other colo- 
nies of New-England included in 
the bill, he obferved, that though 
there was ftill a governor and go- 
vernment in the province of New 
Hampfhire, yet government was fo 
weak there, that a quantity of pow- 
der had been taken out of one of 
the King's forts by an armed mob ; 
befides, that from the vicinity o^ 
that province to Maffachufett's Bay, 
if it were not included, the purpofe 
of the ad would be defeated. Nor 
was the ill temper of the people of 
Connedicut found lefs deferving of 
their being included in the general 
punilhment, who, upon a report 
that the foldiery had killed fome 
people in Bofton, marched a large 
body of men into the province of 
Maflachufctt's ; and though that 
body rettfrned, on finding the fal- 
fny of the report, the temper and 
diipofition they (hewed, as well as 
the general Hate and condud of the 
Colony, did not by any means en- 
title them to favour. The argu- 
ment of vicinity was alfo as appli- 
cable to the lall province as to that 
of New Hampfhire. 

The miniller having dated the 
reafons on which he aded, declared, 
that he would not be averfe to fuch 
alleviations of the ad, as wonld not 
prove deilrudive of its great objed; 
and therefore he would only pro- 
pofe it as temporary, to continue 
either to the end of the year, or of 
the next fefiion of parliament ;— 
and he would alfo prcpofc, that 
particular perfons might be ex- 
cepted, upon their obtaining certi- 
ficates from the Governor of the 
province, in which they refidcd, 
of their good behaviour, ojr up- 
on their fubfcribing to a teft, ac- 
knowledging 



to} 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



knovvledging the rights of pailia- 
xoent. 

This bill, bcfides tKe matter that 
was. peculiar to its own nature, 
brought up in its courCe the whSic 
lerles of American concroverfy. 
With regard to this particular mea- 
fure, the principle of involving the 
innocent in the punifliraent of the 
guilty was alternately combated, 
with ferious argument, pathetic re- 
nio.nftrance, and pointed ridicule. 
What legiHatare had ever eUablifh- 
cd a precedent of equal cruelty and 
injullice, with the condeiiming of 
half a million of people to perifli 
with famine, for the fuppofed 
crimes of a few unknown peribns? 
Such precedents were only to be 
fought for in the hiflory of the moil 
favage and barbarous tyrants ; but 
not among the judicial a^^s. of le- 
gillators. Why were three other 
■provinces to be punilhed for a fe- 
"bellion fuppofed only in one ? or if 
they were alfo in rebellion, why 
w^re they not declared fo? One 
province was to be deprived of its 
fubfiftence, becaufe a rebellion, no 
body knew where, nor by whom, 
was, however, faid to be lurking in 
fome ^art of it. A fecond province 
. was to t3e punilhed, becaufe it hap- 
pened to be next door to re- 
bellion ; a third, becaufe it would 
be doing nothing to let that ef- 
cape ; and a fourth muft be ftarved, 
becaufe the miniilers could not 
other wife fquare their plan. Very 
bad reafons, they faid, had been 
given for punilhing the other New- 
England colonies ; but no reafon 
at all had been affigned for in- 
cludinc RhodeJjland in the common 
rellridlion : unlefs perhaps the mere 
neighbourhood might be the caufe, 
which was left to be guelTed, mi- 
niftry being fiient as to that pro- 



vince. It was faid, that in what- 
ever other matters of policy our 
miniilers might be found deficient, 
they had the raoft iiifallible receipt 
for making rebellions, aad the hap- 
pieft talent in hitting upoiji mea- 
fures for the ruin of trade andcom- 
merce, and the difmemberment of 
^a great empire, of any fet of men 
that ever coudu£led the public af- 
fairs of any couiitry. 

It was faid, that the cruelty of the 
bill exceeded the examples of hof- 
tile rigour with avowed enemies ; 
that in all the violence of our molt 
dangerous wars, it was an eflabliih- 
ed rule in the marine fervice, to 
fpare the coail-filhing craft of our 
declared enemies ; always confider- 
ing, that we waged war with na- 
tions, and not with private men ; 
and that it would be unworthy the 
character of a great and brave peo- 
ple, and even favage and bar- 
barous, to deprive poor wretches of 
their means of har^-earned liveli- 
hood, and the miferable village in- 
habitants of the fea-coaits, of their 
daily food. It was known that 
the people of New-England fubfill 
much on fi 111 ; and that the fale of that 
commodity fupplies them with the 
means of purchafmg flour and feve- 
ral other articles neceflary to life ; 
three of the provinces in queilion 
not raiiing wheat for the fourth 
part of their demand : fo that we 
now inhumanly intend to liarve 
whoje provinces, and thefe our own 
people, excepting only fuch, as a 
Governor may think proper to fa- 
vour ; a paltry pretence of lenity, 
which will ferve only to corer the 
moll fcandalous partiality, and give 
rife to unjull preference, monopoly, 
and to all kinds of the moll Iharae- 
ful and pernicious jobbs. They 
defired the propofer of the bill to 
recoiled 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. ['St 



recolleft that >Jie had frequently 
fpolcen of the multitude of friends 
he had in all thofe provinces ; and 
now, by his own meafure, he not 
only confounded the innocent with 
the guilty, but friends with enemies, 
and involved his own partizans in 
one common ruin with the reft. 

But this was not only to operate 
upon fuppofcd rebels, or upon thofe 
who had the misfortune of being 
their neighbours, or who it was 
imagined either did or might con- 
ceal rebellion ; but it was alfo to 
punifh the people of Great-Britain, 
who were charged with no delin- 
quency, not even of concealment or 
neighbourhood, and who muft lofe 
a very great fhare of their property 
which was lying in the profcribed 
provinces, in confequence of this 
bill. For, as New-England was 
not produdlive of ftaple commo- 
dities, fufficient to pay the great 
balance which it was always under 
a neceffity of owing in this country, 
it had no other means of dif- 
charging that debt than through 
the filhery, and the circuitous trade 
dependent on it : fo that to cut off 
thofe means was, in fadl, to beggar 
our merchants and manufadlurers ; 
and the Britifh legiflature was, in 
its wifdom, going to pafs a dif- 
abling bill, to prevent the payment 
of debts to its Britifh fubjefts. 

It was further contended, that 
the abfurdity of the bill was even 
equal to its cruelty and injuftice. 
That its objed was to take away a 
trade from our colonies, which all 
who underflood its nature knew we 
could not transfer to ourfelves. 
That God and nature had given the 
filheries to them, and not to us ; and 
fct limits to our avarice and criielty, 
which we could not pafs ; that 
when they were once deftroyed, we 
could neither benefit by them cur- 

VoL. XVIII. 1775. 



felves, nor reftore them to thofe, 
whom we had thus violently and 
unjuftly deprived of the means of 
fubliftence ; that diftance and local 
circumftancesftiut us out in the firft 
inftance ; and with refpeft to the 
other, that the little capital, vef- 
fels, and implements of fifhermen, 
the majority of whom muft ever 
be neceflarily poor, could only be 
kept up by the conftant returns of 
profit, and when the returns failed, 
the capital and implements would be 
loil for ever. That the people muft 
either perifh, or apply themfelves 
to other occupations, from which 
they could not be recalled at will. 
That we were thus finding out the 
means for Providence of punifhing 
our own cruelty and injuftice; for 
that thofe fiftieries, which were a 
more inexhauftible, and infinitely 
more valuable fource of wealth and 
power than all the mines in the 
new world, would not only be loft 
to ourfelves, but would be thrown 
into the fcale againft us, by falling, 
in a very great degree, into the 
hands of our natural rivals and ene- 
mies. They obferved alfo, that 
the fiftierman, having no occupa- 
tion, muft of courfe become a fol- 
dier. Thus we provoke a rebellioa 
by the injuftice of one fet of n&Sp 
and then recruit the rebellious army 
by another. 

In fupport of the bill, befides the 
arguments that were originally 
urged, the charges of injuftice and 
cruelty were denied ; and it was 
faid, that whatever diftrefs the bill 
might bring upon the colonies, they 
could not complain of the legifla- 
ture, as they not only deferved it 
by their difobedience, but had 
themfelves fet the example. That 
they had entered into the moft un- 
lawful and daring combinations, as 
far as in them lay, to ruin our 

[*/] merchants. 



82*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 

merchants, impoYcrifli our manu- 
fadurers, and to ftarve our Weft- 
India iflands. That nothing could 
be more equitable than to prohibit 
the trade of thoie who had prohi- 
bited ours. That if any foreign 
power had offered us only a fmall 
part of the infult and injury that 
we had received from our colonies, 
the whole nation would have been 
in a flame to demand fatisfadion, 
and woe to the miniilers who were 
flack in obtaining it. Were we 
then to afk the part of bullies with 
all the reft of mankind, only to be 
kicked at home by our own peo- 
ple ? 

The charge of cruelty was faid to 
be equally ill founded. This was 
a bill of humanity and mercy, as 
well as of coercion ; it being the 
only moderate means of bringing 
the difobedient provinces to a fenfe 
of their duty, without involving 
the empire in the horrors of a civil 
war. They had daringly incurred 
all the penalties of contumacy and 
rebellion, and were liable to the 
fevereft military execution, without 
any imputation of cruelty, in- 
ilead of thefe dreadful punifhments 
which they fo juftly merited, they 
,were to be brought to their fenl-es 
without any feverity, only by a re- 
flriction on their trade, which would 
laft no longer than their contumacy. 
Thus government would be fup- 
ported, without the miferies of 
war, or the effufion of blood. 

As to the charge of involving 
the innocent with the guilty, friends 
with foes, the propriety or impro- 
priety, the juftice or injuftice of 
fuch an a£t, depended on the ne- 
ceffity of the meafure. That when- 
ever this was the cafe, the neceflity 
might be ^lamented, but could not 
be helped. I'hat a town of ours, held 
by rebels or enemies, might con- 
6 



tain the beft of our friends, and 
thofe friends too might be the more 
numerous part of the inhabitants ; 
but lUU the miferies of a fiege, and 
poffibly of a famine mull be fub- 
mitted to, or the town never could 
be recovered. 

Never, faid they, was a meafure 
more truly neceflary than the pre- 
lent. The colonies had too long 
impofed upon and deluded us, by 
the bugbear of withdrawing their J 
trade, hoping, through the terror ' 
of our merchants and manufadurers, 
to bend the legiilature to a com- 
pliance with all their demands, 
until they had brought their defigns 
to fuch a ripenefs, as to be able to 
throw off the mafk, and openly to 
avow their rebellious purpofcs. 
That this was the third time, within 
a few years, in which they had 
thrown the whole commerce of this 
country into a flate of the greateft 
confufion. That both colonies and 
commerce were better loft than 
preferved upon fuch terms ; that 
life itfelf could not be worth the 
keeping in a conftant Hate of un- .; 
certainty and fear. Things were 
now come to a crifis, and the con- 
flid muft be borne. We muft either 
relinquifh our connexions with Ame- 
rica, or fix them upon fuch a fure 
and certain bafis, as would effectually 
prevent the return of thofe evils. 

The minority replied, that the 
neceflity was pretended, not reaU 
That this meafure, fo far from ne- 
ceffary, was by no means expedi^ 
ent. That the parallel with foreign 
nations did not hold. That nothing 
bound a foreign nrition but fearc 
But is that the bond of internal go- 
vernment, and the foundation of, 
fecuf ity at home ? To revenge iti- 
juries in your own domeftic dif- . 
putes is* not the way to prevent 
their return. The way to lading ' 

peace 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



fsj 



jpeace is to cut off the caufe of thofc 
difputes, otherwife they will return 
the moment the terror is over ; or 
perhaps rigour may rather pfovoke 
than terrify ; and then you iall trom 
bad to worfe. They aiked, whether 
the adts of rigour of the lail feflion 
had produced any of the effe6b 
which were expefted from them ? 

The queftion being called for 
late at night, the motion for bring- 
ing in the bill was carried upon a 
divifion by a majority of more 
than three to one, the numbers be- 
ing 261 to 85 only. 

In the further progrefs of the 
bill, a petition from the merchants 
and traders of London, who were 
interelled in the American com- 
merce, was prefented againtt it; 
upon fomc of the commercial prin- 
ciples mentioned ia the foregoing 
debate ; and particularly on the 
danger, even to our own iilheries, 
from fuch prohibition. 

A motion being made, that the pe- 
titioners fhould be heard by them- 
felves or their counfel againll the 
bill, and in fupport of their allega- 
tions, it was agreed to ; in confe- 
quence of which a long train of 
witnefles, confjfting of merchants 
and captains of ihips, who refided in 
England or North -America, and 
who had been long verfed in the 
trade and filheries of both, were 
examined at the bar of the Houfe, 
the evidence being conduced by 
Mr. David Barclay, who was ap- 
pointed agent to manage this bufi- 
nefs by the committee of American 
Aierchants. 

In the courfe of this evidence, 
(among a vafl quantity of other in- 
terefting matter) it appeared, that 
fo long ago as the year 1764, the 
four provinces of New -England 
employed, in their f«vtral £Oieries, 



no lefs than 45,880 ton of (hipping^ 
and 6002 men ; and that the pro* 
duce of their filheries in the foreiga 
markets for that year, amounted 
in ilerling money to the fum of 
322,2201. 16 s. — It alfo appeared, 
that the filheries had increafed very- 
much fmce that time ; that the 
New-England filh was much better 
than that taken by Ihips fitted out 
from Great-Britain ; that all the 
materials ufed in the filheries, ex- 
cept fait, and the timber of which 
the vefTeli are built, were taken 
from this country ; and that the 
nett proceeds of the fefh were re- 
mitted here. 

It was alio given in evidence, 
that neither the whale nor the cod 
fifhery could be carried on, to any 
degree of equal extent and advan- 
tage, either from Newfoundland or 
Great Britain, as from North- Ame- 
rica ; that there were feveral local 
circumllanccs, and fonie natural 
advantages in favour of the latter, 
which could neither be counter- 
afted or fupplied ; that with rc- 
fpeft to transferring the filheries to 
Nova- Scotia or Quebec, were go- 
vernment even to furnilh them with 
a capital, they had neither veffels 
nor men ; nor could they procure 
them from any other place thaa 
New-Eugiand ; that in any cafe, 
the flopping of one fifhery, and the 
creation of another, muft take up 
much time, and that in the inter- 
val the trade would be inevitably 
loft ; and that the jpeople belonging 
to the American hfhefies had fuch 
an abhorrente of the military 
government eiUblilhed at Hali- 
fax, and fo invincible an averfion 
to the loofe habits and Inanneri 
of the people, that nothing could 
induce cheia to remove thither, 
even fappufmg them reduced to 
l^ri 1 the 



84*] H 1ST OR Y OF EUROPE. 



the neceffity of emigration. It al- 
io appeared, that there was nearly 
a million of money owing from 
New-England to the city of Lon- 
don only. w !')"<{ 1. 

They alfo ftated to the Houfe, 
that the calamities confcquent of 
the bill mufl fall, in a marked and 
particular degree, upon people vvho, 
from the nature of their occupations, 
muft be innocent ; for as the people 
belonging to the filheries pafs the 
^reat^r part of the year at Tea, they 
?oul(l have no' (hare in the difturb- 
arites Oi* crimes which \^erfe imputed 
to otheir's. The cafe of the inha- 
bitant^ of Nantucket was particu- 
j^rly hard. This extraordinary 
pebple, Amounting to between five 
atid i(ix thoufand in number, nine 
t^hthS of whom are Quakefs, inha- 
6h a barren ifland , fifteeji mile^ 
Idn'g' by three broad,' the produdls 
of which were fcarccly capable of 
maintaining twenty faimilies. From 
fhe/bnl'y harbour which" this fterrl 
ifl^hd^^ contains;' without natutart 
plod'ufts, of any fortj "the' inhabit 
tants, by an aftonilhlng iriduftry, 
keep an 140 vefTels in conllant em- 
blqyment. Of thefe, ei'ght are em- 
ployed in the importation of provi'- 
iibns fbr the ifland, and the reft 
in the whale fifliery ; vvhich^ with 
ah invincible perfever'^'nce and cou- 
rage, they have extended from the 
fi'bzen regions of the Pole to the 
coafts of Africa, to the Brazils, 
and even as far fouth as the Falk- 
land iflands ; fome of thofe fifhing 
voyages continuing for twelve 
inipnths. ' 1.-". ~' '^[ 

A petition, from flie merchants, 
traders, and principal inhabitants 
of the town of Poole, in Dorfet- 
*fliirp, was prefented, being in 
'avowed Oppofition to that from 
LphdonT, and* in fuppoPt of ihk 



principles of the fifhery bill. Thh 
petition (which has fince been dif- 
claimed and condemned, by an* 
other from the town, corporation, 
and principal inhabitants) fet forth, 
that the rellraints upon the colonies 
would not by any means be inju- 
rious to commerce ; that the fo- 
reign markets might be amply fup- 
plied, by extending the Newfound- 
land fiiliery from England ; that the 
faid fiihery already exceeded half a 
million annually, all which centers 
in this kingdom, whereas the profits 
of the colony fifheries go elfewhere ; 
that the fifhery from the mother 
country is a conrtant nurfery for 
feamen for the navy; but that the 
American feamen are not compel- 
lable to ferve their country in times 
of war; They concluded -by foli- 
ciiing, nolefs for their own imme- 
diate' advantage than for the uni- 
%'eHall>enefic of their country, fuch 
encouragement to the Britifti fiihery 
to 'Newfoundland, as parliament 
Ihbu? J think- proper. ■ - *• 

'A'm^chant of Poole i ^ho had 
long ti-ade'd to Newfoundland, was 
eiwmined in fupport of the bill. 
He -^ildeuvoured to fhew, that if the 
New-England fifhery was flopped, 
the " foreign markets might not- 
wiSiilanding be fufnciently fup- 
plied, and in fupport of that pofi- 
tidn afferted, that the fifnery might 
be extended to any degree from 
Great^Britain, as we had men, mo- 
ney, and fhips fufficieht'for the pur- 
pofe. He, however, cautioufly 
evaded anfwering any quellions that 
might lead to conclufions different 
from thofe which he wifhed to efta- 
bliih. Being aflced, whether the 
fhips fitted out for the Newfound- 
land fifhery from Great-Britain, 
were not fitted out atone third more 
cxpence *than thofe from Nortb- 
Americii ? 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. ['Sj 



America ? he anrwered, that he 
was no judge of that matter; and 
the quellion being put, How many 
men were employed to an hundred 
ton of fhipping, on an average ? 
he had not confidered that fubjeft. 
This evidence did not appear fuffi- 
ciently fatisfadory to overthrow the 
whole weight of the former tefti- 
mony. 

In other matters, this witnefs 
was fufficientJy informed. It ap- 
peared that about 400 (hips, of 
about 36,000 tons burthen, 2000 
fiihing fliallops, of 20^000 tons 
burthen, and 20,000 men, were 
employed in the Briiifh Newfound- 
land filhery. That above 600,000 
quintals of fifti were taken annual- 
ly, which upon an average of feven 
years, were worth 14 s. per quintal, 
and with the other amounts, con- 
fiftine of falmon, cod oil, feal oil, 
and furs, exceeded half a million 
annually. And that of the 20,000 
men, from Great-Britain and Ire- 
land, employed in that filhery, 
8000, neceflarily continued in New- 
foundland all the winter. 

A petition was delivered from 
the Quakers, in behalf of their 
brethren and others, the inhabi- 
tants of Nantucket, in which they 
Itated their innocence, their indu- 
llry, the utility of their labours 
both to themfelves and the com- 
munity, the great hazards that at- 
tended their occupation, and the 
uncertainty of their gains ; and 
fnewed that if the bill pafTed into 
a law, they muft in a little time be 
expofed to all the dreadful miferies 
of famine. The fingular ftate and 
circumltances of thefe people, oc- 
cafioned fome attention to be paid 
to them. A gentleman on the fide 
of adminiftration faid, that on a 
principle of humanity lie would 



move, that a claufe fhould be add- 
ed to the bill, to prevent its opera- 
tion from extending to any whale 
fhips, which failed before the iirll 
of March, and were at that time 
the property of the people of Nan- 
tucket. 

On this petition, and indeed in 
every llage of the bill, the de^bate! 
rekindled ; and at each revival 
burned more intenfely than before. 
It was attacked upon every ground 
of policy and government; and 
with the greateft ftrength of lan- 
guage and height of colouring. 
The minority made amends for the 
fmallnefs of their numbers by their 
zeal and adivity. They contend- 
ed, that though the avowed objeft 
of this bill was the fupport of the 
legiflative authority of Great-Bri- 
tain, over America, its real tendency 
was finally to root up and deftroy 
whatever ftill remained of it ; that 
it feemed calculated to convince 
the colonies, that there was no one 
branch of fupreme authority, which 
parliament might not abufe in fuch 
a manner, as to render it reafona- 
ble to deny, and neceflary to refill 
the whole. That when at firft it 
was thought wifdom to overthrow 
eilablilhed privileges, and to com- 
bat the prejudices of whole na- 
tions, (which however founded, 
were rendered refpeftable from their 
antiquity and extent) by ftarting 
up the new claim of taxation, the 
Americans went no further than to 
deny ourright of internal taxation ; 
having gained the point of urging 
them to queftion one right, we foon 
convinced them, both by argument 
and pradlice, that an external tax 
might be made to anfwer all the 
purpofes, and to produce all the 
mifchiefs of internal taxation. They 
then denied our right of taxing for 

[*F] 3 fupply. 



86*] HISTORY OF EUROPE, 



fupply. Parliament then proceeded 
violently to deprive them of their 
charters, and to change the courfe 
of juftice and of trials. Then they 
were puihed to deny the power of 
internal legiflation. But ftill in 
the midft of all their violence and 
all their provocation to it, they 
i^ever hitherto had formally rejeft- 
ed the power of parliament to bind 
their trade. But we are now to 
convince them, that if but a ^ngle 
branch of legillative power is left 
to this country, we can diilort that 
fcranch in fuch a manner, that it 
ihall include all the purpofes of an 
unlimited tyranny. 

It was faid to be evident, that 
this bill was intended merely to 
exafperate the colonies into open 
and direfl rebellion- For though 
the minifters would be readily ac- 
quitted, fron^ having the fmalleft 
dilpofition to military atchievement 
or glory ; yet, as by the abfurdity 
pf their condu<5t, and the oppref- 
iivenefs of their defigns, they had 
thrown the colonies into a ttate of 
^ifobedience, diforder, and confu- 
sion, which it would require the 
greateft abilities tp manage or re- 
ftore to order, and yet did not 
come within any legal defcription 
of trcafon, they found themselves 
bewildered, and utterly incapable 
of condud^ing government in fo 
Bice and critical a fituation. But 
if they could bring things to the 
length of rebellion, the courfe of 
proceeding, however ruinous and 
defpcrate, would be fimple and ob- 
vious ; and it might be hoped, that 
part error would ^e forgot, and 
prefent inability pafs unobferved, 
in tl^c tumult. Upon this princi- 
ple, and no other, it was faid, the 
bill could anfwer its purpofe ; for 
^Y cutting off from the Americans 



all means of acquiring a livelihood, 
or receiving provifions, no alter- 
native was left but ftarving or re- 
bellion. 

They faid that the pretence of 
relaxing the vigour of this aft by 
powers given to certain governors 
and the majority of certain coun- 
cils, was not a corre6liye but ai^ 
aggravation of its ill principle. 
What was it but leaving the Tub - 
fiftance of whole provinces to the 
arbitrary difcretion of thofe men ? 
That arbitrary power, of lefs ex- 
tent, committed to good and tried 
men would be too great a truft ; 
but the extravagant power of this 
bill, was to be lodged in the hands 
of two governors whom the Houfc 
did not know, (as it was impoflible 
for them to know who might be 
governors, when the adl took place) 
and to the majority of two coun- 
cils, every one of whom were 
equally unknown to them. But if 
it (hould even happen, t*hat one or 
both of thefe governors and their 
council (hould be difpofed to mer- 
cy, and that the people Ihould fub- 
mit to the hardeft impofitions 
which the very minifters could wifh 
to lay upon them, ftill the condi- 
tions of redemption were clogged 
with fuch difficulties, as fcarcely 
left a poflibility of its being ob- 
tained, until a new law was paffed 
for the repeal of the prefent. I'q 
compleat (as they faid) the climax 
of abfurdity, deception and cruelty, 
in this pretence to clemency and 
juftice, the two whole provinces of 
Connefticut and Rhode ifland, were 
cut off from even thofe means of 
redemption, futile as they were ; 
for by this aft their governors had 
no power of relieving them. They 
muft go to the governor and coun- 
cil of aAOChcr^ and it might be rivaf 

and 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [*tj 



and adverfe province, for their de- 
liverance from this reftraint. For 
this extraordinary provifion no rea- 
fon could be known ; but that by 
the conllitution of thofe provinces, 
the governors were chofen by the 
people, inftead of being appointed 
by the crown. Thus the crime for 
which 200,000 people were to be 
faniilhed, confined in the form of 
government which they received 
from thjs country. And it was 
infifted, that the inevitable ope- 
ration of this bill muft be, to 
fix fo indelible an hatred of this 
country and its legiflatuie in the 
minds of the Americans, as would 
alienate them from us for ever, and 
render all future plans of reconci- 
liation hopelefs. 

It was faid, that the prefent par- 
liamentary fcheme of preferving 
its authority by deftroying its do- 
minions, was new, and unheard of 
in the hiilory of civilized nations. 
That in all other cafes of rebellion, 
the eftablilhed pradlice was, to 
punilh the rebels, but to fpare the 
country. In foreign wars the coun- 
try of an enemy was frequently 
vveajcened and wafted, becaufe by 
fo doing the llrength of an adverfe 
power was impaired ; but the fo- 
vereign ought never to forget, that 
the rtrength of his country, though 
a rebellion may for a time exill in 
it, is ftill his own llrength. Here 
we have inverted the order of things, 
and begin by deltroying the coun- 
try and rooting up its commerce 
in fuch a manner, as to render it 
ufelefs to its future poileflbrs. That 
evil principles were prolific; the 
Bofton Port-Bill begot this New- 
England Bill ; this will beget a 
Virginia Bill ; and that again will 
become the progenitor of others ; 
vntil, one by one, parliament has 



ruined all its colonies, and rooted 
up all its commerce ; until tke 
ftatutc book becomes nothing but 
a black and bloody roll of pro- 
fcriptions ; a frightful code of ri- 
gour and tyranny ; a monllrous 
digclt of ads of penalty, incapar 
city, and general attainder; and 
that wherever it is opened, it 
will prefent a title for deltroy- 
ing fome trade, or mining fome 
province. 

On the other fide, the contuma- 
cy, rebellious ads, and treafonable 
defign^ of the Americans,, were 
brought to anfwer all objedions. 
I'hey firft' provoked penalties by 
their difobedience, and then denied 
the right of the power which had 
been put under a neceflity of in- 
Aiding thofe penalties. Some gen- 
tlemen on thr.t fide, acknowledged 
the harfhnefs of the meafure, and 
faid that they adopted it with the 
greatell reludance ; but they la- 
mented, that the neceflity of the 
times, and the condud of the 
Americans, had rendered hanh 
meafures indifpenfably neceflary. 
A much greater number contendeci 
that the bill was in evtry refped 
proper and juft, and coniidering 
the offences of thofe who were its 
objeds, in a high degree merciful. 
They contended, that though the 
New-England provinces did not 
produce wheat fufhcient fof their 
confumption, they had great plenty 
of Indian corn, and did not »vant 
other refources to prevent a real fa- 
mine ; and that though their fiflierie* 
were fhut up by fea, they did not 
want filh in their rivers. A few 
went fo far as 10 regret, that the 
bill did not convey punilhments 
adequate to the crimes of the Ame- 
ricans ; and dreaded that the fa- 
mine, whi^h had been io ftrongly 
[*f] 4. prognofticated. 



88*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



progncfticated, and fo pathetically 
lamented, would not take place. 
They faid, that the bill was coer- 
cive, and that the coercion which 
put the Ipeedieft end to the difpute, 
was the moft ufeful, and in the end 
the moft merciful ; that the objed 
of confideration was not, whether 
the Americans were to be Itarvci 
or not ; but which were the moft 
eligible means of compelling them to 
fubmit, and to return to their duty. 
It was faid, that ihey had no alter- 
native but to ftarve or to rebel ; 
but they had a much eafier and 
better choice, which was to fubmit. 
If they were reduced to hard fare 
by their obftinacy, it would ftill be 
tetter than they deferved ; and if 
they even periftied by famine, it 
would not be a greater puniftiment 
than they merited. Jn its nature 
it refembled the connected guilt 
and puniihment of felf murder. 

Upon the fecond reading of the 
bill, it was carried through by the 
vaft majority of 215 to 6 J. On the 
8th of March it was read the third 
time, when a motion was made for 
the infertion of a claufe, that no- 
thing in the adl fliould extend to 
prohibit the importation into any 
of the faid provinces, of fuel, 
corn, meal, flower, or other vic- 
tual, brought coaftwife from any 
part of America. 

Jn fupport of this motion, all 
the pleas that had been before ufed 
on the fide of humanity were again 
brought up, with the addition of 
fuch frefh argument, as ingenuity, 
or the recolledion of new matter, 
could fupply. It was particularly 
urged, that this claufe was taken 
from the Bofton Port-Bill of the 
laft year ; a bill, which its ftrongeft 
advocates did not pretend to be di- 
ftinguiflied by its lenity or huma- 



nity ; could there then be a reafon 
for throwing away this year, the 
fmall ftock of humanity we poffef- 
fed in the foregoing f or for leav- 
ing a proof upon record, that the 
prefent parliament exceeded the laft 
in cruelty ? It was obierved, that 
adminiftration conftantly boafted of 
the grea: number of friends which 
government had in thole very pro-. 
V'inces ; will not their being in^ 
volved in one common ruin and 
mifery with the reft, oblige them 
to plunge defperately into one com- 
mon cuurfe of defence ? when they 
find that thefe are the mercies you 
extend to your friends, will they 
not of courfe become your enemies ? 
Befides, it was faid, that the fate 
of General Gage, and the handful 
of brave men which he command- 
ed, might probably hang upon this 
rafti and cruel adl ; when the Ame- 
ricans fee that the bloody flag is 
hoifted out, and all poflibility of 
retreat, and means of accommoda- 
tion cut off; when they fee that 
you are finally determined, not only 
upon their ruin but extermination, 
is it to be fuppofed that they will not 
be prompted to the moft violent adls; 
and that they will not exert their 
prefent fuperiority of power, to 
flave ofl^, if not to prevent the imn 
pending deftrudion. 

On the oth?r fide it was infifted, 
that coercion having become ab- 
folutely neceflfary, it was not fufii- 
cient we fhould reftrain the trade 
of the New-England colonies, 
while they refufed to trade with 
us ; they muft alfo feel the weight 
of our power, and the eftefts of 
our refentment, until they became 
experimentaily fenfible of the ill- 
confequences that attended their 
denial of t*re authority of parlia- 
ment ; and were brought to a 
thorough 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. l*^ 



thorough knowledge of their own 
littlenffs and inlignificance when 
under oar difpleafure, or that they 
dared to enter into any competi- 
tion with us of power, and thai all 
their former greatnefs and happinefs 
proceeded from our pacernal tender- 
nels and care. This was the only 
fure and conclaljve method, of 
curing the prefcnt, and of pre- 
venting future eviliof ihe fame na- 
ture. And are we to fear, that 
our friends will be alienated by the 
punilhmeiit of our and their ene- 
mies. Is it not more natural, that 
they fhould take up arms againft 
thofe who have been the means of 
bringing fuch calamities on them, 
than againft cheir friends and pro- 
te6l rs ; who beiides will ihew 
fuch a refpedable force, as to give 
them full encouragement to appear 
againft their rebellious neighbours ; 
and thus deliver not only the inno- 
cent, but confequentially even the 
guilty themieives. 

Some pains were alfo taken in 
this debate to remove or leffen the 
imputations of cruelty and inhu- 
manity which had been fo repeat- 
edly thrown upon this bill^and its 
promoters. For this purpoie, a 
gentleman who had held confider- 
able oifices for feveral years in 
North-America, declared that the 
New-England provinces were in 
fact provifion colonies ; that they 
were great grazing fettlements ; 
and though they did not apply 
themfelves fo much to tillage as 
others, they, however, befides In- 
dian corn, produced rye and barley 
ia plenty ; that though they im- 
ported wheat and flOur, the firft 
was to be confidered as an article 
of luxury, which they migiit well 
do without, and the fccond was for 
the purpofe of ^tgng out their 



fhips, of which, as that bufmefs 
would now be at an end, they could 
have no farther occafion ; fo that 
the apprehenfions of famine, he 
faid, were groundlefs. A con- 
fiderable law officer of the other 
part of the united kingdom, who 
had ufed fome very harfti et- 
preflions on the fubje<^ of fi- 
mine, which had brought on very 
fevere animadverfions from one 
fide, and did not even efcape cen- 
fure on the other, took an oppor- 
tunity upon this occafion to ert- 
deavour to foften them by expla- 
nation. 

The queftion being at length 
put, upon the motion for the addi- 
tional claufe, it was rejedled by 
about the ufual majority, the nuni- 
bers being i88 to 58 only. The 
bill was then carried. 

Nor did the Fiftiery Bill meet 
with lefs oppofition in the Houfe df 
Lords than in that of the Com- 
mons. A petition from the London 
merchants, fimilar to that which 
had been laid before the other 
Houfe, was prefented by the noble 
Marquis, who had unluccefs fully 
hboured for the reception of the 
former petitions, previous, to the 
difcullion of the American addrefs. 
Two of the witnefles were alfo exT- 
amined, who had already appear- 
ed before the Houfe of Commons, 
in behalf of the merchants. In 
their prefent evidence they took in 
fome new ground, which tended 
to fhew the vaft importance and 
extent of the American commerce. 
On the other fide, the former 
witnefs from Poole, with another 
from the fame place, who had been 
a captain of a ftiip, were examin- 
ed ; and the teftimony of two of- 
ficers of rank in the fea fervice, 
one of whom held a coniidcrable 

office 



90«] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



office in the naval department, and 
both had fcrved upon the New- 
foundland flation, was alfo re- 
ceived. All this evidence was 
brought to ihew, that the Britifli 
Newfoundland filhery might be ex- 
tended to fuch a degree as to fup- 
ply all the European markets ; i^at 
if an abfolute prohibition took 
place, fo as to exclude the Ameri- 
cans totally ^nd perpetually from 
jthe liberies, it would be of the 
greateft benefit to this nation ; and 
that upon every principle of policy 
»nd commerce, both to Hrengthen 
our navy and increafe our trade, 
they ihould be reftrided entirely 
and perpetually to our own people. 
Upon the motion for commit- 
ting the bill after the fecond read- 
ing, the noble Marquis, who had 
prefented the petition, oppofed it 
with great ability. He examined 
the general principles of the bill, 
and the means devifed for enforcing 
it. He afterwards entered, with 
great knowledge of the fubjeft, 
into a detail of the American trade 
in general, and more particularly, 
into a comparative view of that of 
New-England at different periods ; 
by this, the vaft and rapid growth 
of that colony appeared truly allon- 
ifhing ; he fhewed, that in the year 
1704, the whole amount of the 
exports to the New-England pro- 
vinces, was only about 70,000!. 
annually ; that in the year 1754, 
it had rifen to 1 80,000 1. in the 
fucceeding ten years to about 
400,000 1. ; and in the lail ten 
years, had nearly doubled that 
fum. He concluded a fpeech which 
took in a great variety of matter, 
by ^ general and total difapproba- 
|ion of all the meafures puriued re- 
l^itiye to the colonies, fmce the re- 
peal of th^ ilamp a^ i iind predi^- 



ed, that an ufeful and conftltutional 
agreement in fentiments, and a cor- 
dial reciprocity of interelb, would 
never take place between them and 
the mother country, until the fame 
principles were once more recurred 
to, and fimilar meafures adopted. 

A great law lord on the fame 
fide faid, that he rofe with the 
greateft reluftance, as he was al- 
ready wearied by the unavailing 
efforts he had continually made in 
every part of the American bufi- 
nefs ; that the great and certain 
majorities in both Houfes, difl'ering 
from his opinions, and overbearing 
with a high and powerful hand the 
feeble efforts on that fide, had al- 
moft wearied him into a defpair of 
obtaining any thing in that quef- 
tion> or on that fubjedl, by argu- 
ment or debate ; but that notwith- 
ilanding, a fenfe of his duty to 
interpofe his endeavours towards 
the vindication of jullice, and the 
fervice of his country, Ihould out- 
weigh every other confideration. 
He accordingly entered into the 
general nature, fpirit and charac- 
ter of the bill, lliewed its opera- 
tion and tendency, and examined 
its fitnefs, its wifdom, and its 
julHce, with his ufual force and 
clearnefs. 

In this courfe of legal and poli- 
tical examination, he took parti- 
cular ndtice of the nature of the 
evidence which had been brought 
before the Houfe in fupport of the 
bill. Two inconfiderable men of 
the town of Poole, contrary to the 
declared fenfe of a]l the merchants 
of England, were, he faid, brought 
to inftrudl their lordlhips in the 
political fyftcm of Great-Britain, 
and America; they were to con- 
vince them, that the profits of the 
commwce of America did not en- 

rich 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [♦ji 



l^ch this country; they were to 
fatisfy the legiflature, that the utter 
deftruflion of American trade would 
ftrengthen the navy, and invigorate 
the marine of England; and the 
words of thefe redoubtable politi- 
cians were to be taken, that if the 
New-England fifhery was deftroy- 
cd, we Ihould notwithftanding be 
able to fupply the foreign markets ; 
and that the lofs of five or fix 
hundred thoufand pounds annually, 
the value of that fiftiery, would not 
only be immediately replaced at 
home, but prove a great benefit to 
this country. Such was the im- 
portance and magnitude of the fub- 
jefts which were to be decided upon 
by fuch perfons ; but he hoped tbey 
would fee the frivolous and con- 
temptible nature of fuch evidence, 
and that fuch narrow and intereft- 
ed minds are totally unfit for fuch 
mighty difcuflions. 

The lords on the other fide, dif- 
fered greatly as to the principles 
on which they fapported this bill ; 
though they all united in the main 
point of its being necefTary. Some 
confidered it as a lenient means of 
bringing the Americans back to 
their duty ; who would have been 
avcrfe to any ftrong coercion, and 
much more to every idea of taxa- 
tion. A more numerous body, who 
feemed to comprehend its nature 
and operation more perfedly, con- 
fidered it as a bill of firmnefs and 
vigour ; as a fevere, but juft and 
neceffary 2lQ. of retaliation and pu- 
niihment ; they, however, would 
not by any means that its opera- 
tion iliould extend any further, 
than was neceffary to fill up the 
meafure of juftice, and to bring 
the refraftory colonies to a full and 
compleat fubmiffion ; they accord- 
ingly could not bear the idea of 



confidering it in any degree as a 
commercial, and ftill lefs, as a per^ 
manent regulation. Others again, 
confidered it merely as a matter of 
trade, abftradled from all ideas of 
coercion and puniihment ; as a per- 
manent commercial regulation of 
great importance, to reftrain the 
trade of the colonies, and thereby 
to ftrengthen and increafe the com- 
mercial intereft of this country ; 
thefe would not liilen to any pro- 
pofition for purchafing the obe- 
dience of the Americans, by any 
time facrificing an object, from 
which they expefted the moft ex- 
traordinary benefits. To thefe laft 
might be added the firft lord of the 
admiralty, with, perhaps, a few 
more, who confidered only its poli- 
tical operation, as a means of in- 
creaiing our maritime power. All 
thofe who wilhed to render it a 
permanent regulation, feemed to 
go beyond the defigns of the mini- 
Iter^, at leaft of thofe in the Houfe 
of Commons, who intended this 
bill merely as coercive. 

In the courfe of this debate much 
complaint was made of the garbl- 
ed, defeftive, and mutilated ac- 
counts of American affairs that 
were laid before them ; it was 
faid that public and known fa6lf 
were withheld from them ; that the 
fcraps and extradls of letters which 
were fhewn to them by the mini- 
fters, were only partial reprefenta- 
tions, calculated for particular pur- 
pofes ; that they had all along in 
this buiinefs been miffed and mif- 
informed. That the people would 
at length fee how they had been 
deceived, and how parliament was 
led blindfolded ; that it would be 
in vain then for the minifters to 
hope to cover themfelves by the 
prefent faihionable language, that 



92*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



even' thing liad been done by par- 
liament, as ft would be obvious to 
the meanefl capacity, that from 
their total want of information, 
tbey neither did nor could do any 
thing but as they were direded. 

After long and warm debates, 
the quellion was carried by a great 
majority, the numbers being iO;|., 
to 29 who oppofed the bill. 

On the zift of March, upon the 
third reading of the bill, a motion 
was made for an amendment, 'that 
the colonies of New-]erfey, Pen- 
fylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and 
South Carolina, fhould be included 
in the fame reftridions with the 
New-England provinces. In fup- 
port of this amendment, it was 
urged, that by the late accounts 
which arrived, and letters which 
were upon their table, it appeared, 
that the feveral provinces fpecified 
in it, had rendered thcmfelves 
equally culpable with thofe of New- 
England ; and that of courfe they 
ought to fuffer under one common 
puniihment ; that at the time the 
bill originated in the Houfe of 
Commons, this information was 
not received ; but that now they 
were in poffelTion of evidence fully 
iuiiicienc to authorize this amend- 
ment ; and that without it, the bill 
would be imperfed, and the pu- 
niihment partial. 

On the other fide it was faid, 
that the letters and informations 
alluded to, vi/ere no more in the 
contemplation of the Houfe, either 
ift its legiflative or deliberative 
capacity, than if they had never 
exifted ; they had not even been 
read in the Houfe ; rhey had never 
been confidered ; nor had the ac- 
cufed parties been heard in their 
own defence; fo lliat one half of 
the continent of North-America 



was to be puniflied, without any 
trial, proof, or enquiry whatever. 
That fuch a mode of proceeding 
was totally unparliamentary and 
unprecedented ; that it was no lefs 
repugnant to the eilablifhed rules 
of equity and judicial decifion, 
which always and in every inftance 
fuppofed the party accuftd had been 
heard, before judgment was pro- 
nounced ; and, that if fuch a mode ^ 
of executive fpfeedy juftice were to 
obtain in that houfe, it would be 
produftive of the moft dangerous 
and alarming confequences. 

The queftion being put upon the 
amendment it was carried by 52 
to 21 ; and the prohibitions of 
the bill confequently extended to 
the five new provinces. The que- 
llion was then put upon the bill, 
and carried by a majority of 73 to 
21 ; and it was accordingly re- 
turned to the Commons with the 
amendment. 

This bill was produftive of a 
proteft figned by fixteen lords. A- 
mong other fevere ftriftures, they ] 
reprefent it as one of thofe unhap- 
py inrentions, to which parliament 
is driven by the difficulties that • 
daily multiply upon them, from an 
obllinate adherence to an unwife 
fyllem of government. They fay, 
that government which attempts to 
preferve its authority by deftroying 
the trade of its fubjeds, and by in- 
volving the innocent and guilty in 
a common ruin, if it afts from a 
choice of fuch means, confefles it- 
fclf unworthy ; if from inability 
to find any other, admits itfelf 
wholly incompetent to the end of 
its inftitution. They feverely cen- 
fure the attempt made to bribe the 
nation into an acquiefcence in this 
arbitrary a£t, by holding out to 
them as a temptation for that pur- 

pofe. 



HISTORY OF EXfROPE. 



V93 



pofe, the fpoils of the Nevv-Eng- 
Jand fifhery ; this they reprefent to 
be a fcheme full of weaknefs and 
indecency ; of indecency, becaafe 
it may be fufpeded that the defire 
of the confifcation has created the 
guilt; and of weaknefsj becaufe it 
fuppofes, that whatever is taken 
from the colonies is of courfe to 
be transferred to ourfelves. But 
this proteft is particularly di/tin- 
guiihed, by the levere cenfure paf- 
fcd upon a Lord high in office, 
who, in the late debates, to remove 
all apprehenfion of the dangers 
which might arife from the mea- 
fures that were in agitation, threw 
out, moft unadvifediy, a charge of 



general cowardice algainil the Apaq- 
ricans. - 

The amendment, made by the 
Lords, caufed a difagreemerit be^ 
tween the title and body of the biji, 
which would have caufed great cm- 
barrafTment to the officers who weric 
to carry it into execution ; and the 
amendment was accordingly rejedled 
by the Commons. This matter oc* 
cafioned the holding of a confei*- 
ence, a few days after, between 
the two Houfes, at which, the rea- 
■foKs offered by the Commons, hav- 
ing appeared iatisfa^ory, the Lords 
■agreed in rejc^ing the amendment'; 
and the bill received the rojal'af^ 
fent on the^oth of March. '.. ' T 



CHAP. 



vir. 



r 



Augmentation of the nwoal and land forces. Lord Nrrth^s concfiiatcry m'^lio». 
Debates, The refolution pafj'ed upon a divijion, Mn Sa^whridge's annual 
motion. Annual motion on the Middlefex ekSlion. Petition and memcrial 
from the afembly of Jamaica* Petition from the city of Wat erf or d. Bill 
for refraining the trade of the fouthern colonies. Evidence in behalf of the 
fVefl- India merchants and planters. Great importance ofthefugar ijlands. 
Mri, Burke"* s conciliatory propofitions. Great importancey and ajior.ijhing 
gro'wth of the American colonies. Debates, ^he pre'vious quejlion 7no'ved 
■and carried. Mr. Hartley^ s conciliatory motion. Debates on the third 
reading of the refraining bill. The bill paffed. Petitions, militating 
*with each other. Petition from the Britip fettlers in Canada — from the 
Quakers. Addrefs, remonjirance, and petition, from the city of London, 
Encouragement to the fjheries of Great-Britain and Ireland, Motion for 
bringing up the reprefentation and remonjirance of the General Affembly of 
Nenv-Tork, Motion for an amendment put and carried. Amended moti$n 
rejected. Memorial to the Lords from the fame affembly, and petition to 
the King. Memorial to the Lords rejeSed. Petition to the Lords from 
the Britijh inhabitants of the pro'vince of ^ebec. Lord Camden^ s bill for 
repealing the ^ebec aSt. Debates. The bill rejeSled* Petition from tb§ 
fame inhabitants of ^ebec to the Houfe of Commons , Sir George Sa'vile*s 
motion for repealing the ^ebec a^. Motion rejeSed upon a di'vifion. 
Speaker* sfpeech. Speech from the throne. 

THE New-England reftraining fion, that in attending to its pro- 
ad was fo much the prin- grefs we paffed over other matters 
.cipal figure in this important fef- of which we arc now to take notice. 

Upon 



94*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



Feb. 



, Upon a motion for an 
^ ' addition of 2000 Tea- 



men to be employed for the enfu- 
ing year, the minifters were re- 
minded of their condud before 
Chriftmas, in deceiving the coun- 
try gentlemen with the appearances 
of a reduced peace eftabliihment, 
and thereby leading them gradually 
into violent and coercive meafures, 
each of which was fuppofed to be 
the lafl, while they were rendered 
incapable of feeing at any one point 
of view, either the extent of the 
expence in which they were in- 
volving their conftiiuents, or of 
the danger in which they were 
plunging themfelves and the na- 
tion. This mode of proceeding 
was reprefented as an high infult 
to the Houfe, and an open mockery 
«f that good faith and confidence, 
that ought to fubfift between the 
Miniiler and the Commons ; and 
that the application now for a grant 
©f 2000 feamen, when they knew 
that five times the number would 
not be fufficient to carry their de- 
figns into execution, was an aggra- 
vated repetition of the infult ; that 
this mode of procedure was befides 
calculated to give a full opening to 
that ruinous praftice of gaming in 
the funds, whereby thofe in the fe- 
cret of affairs had an opportunity 
of making immenfe fortunes at the 
public expence. 

The minifters avoided all precife 
explanation as to future applica- 
tions for fupply : they could not 
pretend to foretel what events might 
pofnbly happen, and could not 
therefore bind themfelves by any 
ipecific engagement ; but they ho- 
ped that this would be the laft ap- 
plication of the kind. The infi- 
nuation as to the funds was univer-. 
faliy difclaimed, and the motion 
for the augmentatipn agreed to. 



The fubje£l was however brought 
Hp, and the fame objections made 
two days after, upon a motion in 
the committee of fupply, for an aug- 
mentation of 4,383 men to the 
land forces. This motion was at- 
tended with an explanation of the 
intended military arrangements, by 
which it appeared, that the force at 
Bofton would be augmented to 
about 10,000 men, which was 
deemed fufficient for enforcing the 
laws ; and that the appointment of 
a number of additional ofHcers, (a 
meafure which was complained of, 
as incurring a needlefs expence) 
was necefTary, as it was intended to 
carry on the operations againft the 
Americans by detachments. 

This mode of carrying on the 
war, was much condemned on the 
other fide for its cruelty; for the 
indifcriminate deflruftion of friends 
as well as foes, with which it muft 
be attended ; and the total ruin of 
a country vvliich we confidered as 
our own, and which mull be the 
inevitable confequence, if the mea- 
fure could at all iucceed. But it was 
infilled, that the force, both by 
fea and land, was totally inade* 
quate to the purpofe for which it 
was ordained ; and that the na- 
tional money was to be fquandered 
away, without a poffible return of 
advantage, or even a probability of 
its attaining the ends to which it 
was direfted. For, they faid, that 
the ufeof an infignificant force muft 
infallibly have the effeft of encou- 
raging the colonies to that refin- 
ance, which it was poffible the early 
appearance of a great fleet and 
army might awe and check in the 
beginning. The augmenution was 
carried without difficulty. 

Whilft partic$ thus purfued their 
debates with much eagernefs and 
animofity, and nothijag but de- 

Bance 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, 



C*95 



fiance was hurled at America on 
the part of government, the noble 
Lord at the head of adminiilration 
amazed all parties, and feemcd for 
a time almoil to diflblve his own, 
by that famous conciliatory motion 
with refpedl to America, which 
was then, and has been fince, the 
fubjed of fo much dil'cuffion. The 
motion was for pafling the follow- 
ing refolution : — That when the 
governor, council and affembly, or 
general court of his Majeily's pro- 
vinces or colonies, ihall propofe to 
make provilion, according to their 
refpeftive conditions, circumftances 
and fituations, for contributing their 
proportion to the common defence, 
fuch proportion to be raifcd under 
the authority of the general court, 
or general aflerably of fuch pro- 
vince or colony, and difpofable by 
parliament ; and fliall engage to 
make provifion alfo for the fupport 
of the civil government, and the 
adminiilration of juftice in fuch 
province or colony, it will be pro- 
per, if fuch propofal fhould be ap- 
proved of by his Majefty in parlia- 
ment, and for fo long as fuch pro- 
vifion (hall be made accordingly, to 
forbear, in refpedl of fuch province 
or colony, to levy any duties, tax, or 
afleflment, or to impofe any further 
duty, tax, or afleifment, except on- 
ly fuch duties as it may be expedi- 
ent to impofe for the regulation of 
commerce ; the nett produce of the 
duties laft mentioned, to be carried 
to the account of fuch province, 
colony, or plantation refpedlively. 

The miniller introduced this mo- 
tion by a long fpeech, in which 
he endeavoured to Ihew that it was 
founded upon the late addrefs, par- 
ticularly the following pafTage— 
** and whenever any of the colo- 
nies Hiall make a proper applica- 



tion to us, we fhall be ready to af- 
ford them every jull and reafonable 
indulgence ;" — he, however, feem- 
ed to build more upon the princi- 
ples by which he was actuated in 
moving for that addrefs, and the 
explanations he then made to the 
Houfe, than upon the literal con- 
flrudion of any part of it. He 
faid, that it was his fenfe, and he 
believed it to be the fenfe of the 
Houfe, that parliament, in the paf- 
fmg of that addrefs, not only meant 
to fhew the Americans its firm de- 
termination in the fupport of its 
juil rights ; but alfo its tendernefs* 
and conciliatory difpofition, upoa 
the making of proper conceffions ; 
and that particularly, upon the 
great object of difpute, the point 
of taxation, although they could 
never give up the right, and mull 
always maintain the doflrine that 
every part of the empire was bound 
to bear its Ihare of fervice and bur- 
then in the common defence ; yet, 
as to the mode of contribution, if 
that, and not the queftion of right, 
was the bone of contention, if the 
Americans would propofe fuch 
means as were moft agreeable to 
themfelves, and at the fame time 
would effedually anfvver the end, 
parliament would not hefitate a 
moment to/ufpend the cxercife of the 
right ; and that they would con- 
cede to the Americans the authority 
of raifing their (hare of the contri- 
bution themfelves. 

He faid, that the addrefs re- 
quired fuch a moment as the pro- 
pofed refolution ; an explanation 
by parliament itfelf, which would 
leave no room for doubt, nor op- 
portunity of evafion ; that as it 
held out ideas of peace, it fhould 
fhew in the moft clear, explicit, 
and definitive terms, what the con- 
ditions 



96*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



ditions were upon which it might 
be obtained. This refolution mark- 
ed the ground on which negocia- 
tion might take place ; it was ex- 
plicit, it defined the terms, fpecified 
the perfons from whom the pro- 
pofals inuft come, and to whom they 
mull be made; it pointed out the 
end and purpofe for which the con- 
tfrbutions were to be given, and 
the perfons from whom the grant of 
them was to originate ; and it 
takes away every ground of fufpi- 
cion as to the application of the re- 
venue to purpofes for which the 
Americans would not grant their 
money,' by its fpecific appropria- 
tion to the public defence. 
' That this refolution would be an 
infallible touch ftone to try the iin- 
cerity of the Americans ; if their 
profelTions are real, and their op- 
poiition only founded upon the 
principles which they pretend, they 
muft, confiftently with thofe prin- 
ciples^, agree with this propcfition ; 
but if they are aftuated by fmilter 
motives, and have dangerous de- 
figns in contemplation, their re- 
fufal of thefe terms will expofe 
them to the world. We fhall then 
be prepared, and know how to aft ; 
after having {hewn our wifdom, our 
jullice, and our humanity, by giv- 
ing them an opportunity of redeem- 
ing their paft faults, and holding 
out to them fitting terms of accom- 
modation ; if they rejedl them, we 
fhall be juftified in taking the moft 
coercive meafures, and they muft 
be anfwerable to God and man for 
the confequences. 

He declared himfelf of opinion, 
that no declaration of his, or even 
of the Houfe itfelf, could bind to an 
adherence ftridlly to any former re- 
folution relative to the fubmiflion 
to be required of the colonies, pre- 



vious to a relaxation on otif fide. 
That the greatell nations, this na- 
tion included, had often made the 
moft folemn declarations, and en- 
tered into the moll religious en- 
gagements to adhere unalterably to 
certain points, which afterwards, 
when circumllances changed, they 
departed from without fcruple and 
without blame. He inftanced in 
the late Spanifh war, in which we 
declared, that we Ihould never 
make peace unlefs the point of 
fearch was given up ; yet peace was 
made without giving up the fearch. 
In the grand alliance t the parties 
engaged to each other that no prince 
of the Houfe of Bourbon fliould fit 
on the throne of Spain ; yet peace 
was made with a prince of the 
Houfe of Bourbon fitting on that 
throne. He cited many other in- 
ftances of a like derelidiion of ob- 
jefts, and difplayed great hiilorical 
knowledge and ability in applying 
it. He added, that in this in- 
flance he was the more ready to give 
way, becaufe it was found by expe- 
rience, that befides the difpleafure 
our attempt to tax hadcaufed in the 
colonies, the refult proved very 
unprcduftive in point of revenue, 
from the want of a local knowledge 
of the befl methods of impofing and 
collefting the duties. 

Upon the firft bruit of concilia- 
tory meafures being propofed by 
the minifter, it was furmifed, that 
he was either going to refign, and 
would firft make a difavowal of 
thofe public meafures which had 
been lately purfued, or that from 
feme ftrange convulfion in the in- 
ternal cabinet, the whole political 
fvftem of government was to be 
changed ; all thofe members who 
were within hearing accordingly 
haftencd to the Houfe, with the 

moft 



HISTORYOF EUROPE. 



[•97 



I 



mtjft eager expe<5lation. Nor was 
the aflonifhment lefs within doors. 
From fome perplexity in its con- 
flrudion, and obfcuricy in the 
words, the extent or drift of the mo- 
tion was not immediately compre- 
hended. The courtiers looked at 
each other with amazement, and 
feemed at a lofs in what light to 
confider the minifter. That nu- 
merous high prerogative party, who 
always loved a ftrong government, 
in whatever haikm it might be 
lodged, and accorclingly had, upon 
principle, ever oppoied any relaxa- 
tion in favour of the colonies, heard 
the propofitions with horror, and 
confidered themfelves as abandoned 
and betrayed. Even fome of the 
old Haunch friends of government, 
who had always gone with Gvtry 
adminiftration, and uniformly pur- 
fued the fame line of conduft in all 
changes of men and meafures, be- 
gan now more than to waver. In 
a word, the treafury benches feemed 
to totter, and that minillerial pha- 
lanx, which had been fo long ir- 
refiftible, ready to break, and to 
fail into irretrievable diforder. 

The oppofition to the minifter's 
motion, accordingly originated on 
his own fide. They afTerted, that 
the propofitions contained in it, fo 
far from being founded upon, were 
in dircft oppofition to every prin- 
ciple and idea of the addrcfs ; that 
by adopting it, they mull give up 
every ground they had gone upon 
ill the whole courfe of American 
meafurcs ; that it was a contradic- 
tion to all the ads and declarations 
of parliament ; that even upon the 
principles of the gentlemen in op- 
p'jfition, (to whom it was intended 
as a means of paying court) it could 
be productive of no good confe- 
quence ; but upon their own, would 

Vol. XVlli. 1775. 



be attended with numberlefs bad 
ones ; that the propofal was, in 
effcd, an acknowledgment of iome- 
thing really grievous in the idea of 
taxing America by parliament; 
that it was therefore a fhameful pre- 
varication, and a mean departure 
from principle. They finally con- 
cluded, that they would make no 
conceifions to rebels with arms in 
their hands ; and that they would 
enter into no meafure for a fettle- 
ment with the Americans, in which 
an exprefs and definitive acknow- 
ledgment from them, of the fupre- 
macy of parliament, was not a pre- 
liminary article. So high was the 
dillatisfadion on this fide, that a 
motion was made for the chairman 
of the committee to quit the chair. 
The miniller was repeatedly called 
upon his legs, either to make ex- 
planations, or to ^deavour to re- 
concile feeming contradidions. 

In this ftate of diforder and con- 
fufion, when all government and 
command feemed at an end, it was 
found neceffary to change the ground 
of argument. This talk fell to the 
lot of a gentleman of the long robe^ 
who had been for fome years in op- 
pofition, and had lately diftinguifti- 
ed himfclf for his zeal in promoting 
all the meafures for reducing the 
colonies. This learned gentleman 
undertook to interpret the fpeech 
and motion, and to prove that no- 
thing lefs was meant or efFetled by 
either than a derelidion of the 
claims or right of parliament, or a 
yielding in any degree to the info- 
lence of the Americans ; but, on 
the contrary, a more wife and cf- 
fedual method of enforcing the 
rights of the one and rcprcfling the 
infolence of the other. As -the 
fpeech of the noble propofer had 
feemed chiefly addref^ed to the op- 

[•G] pofition. 



9?*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



pofition, this was intended to gain 
the majority, whofe diflent was of 
far greater importance. He had 
the addrefs in a few minutes to 
hufh the troubled waves to peace. 

He foon convinced the malcon- 
tents, that the appearances of con- 
ccfiion, lenity, and tendernefs, 
which had fo much alarmed them 
in the motion, wereoffuch a na- 
ture, that they could not interfere 
with the molt rigid meafures which 
they wilhed to enforce. He faid, 
that the addrefs included two cor- 
refpondent lines of condudl, which 
fcemed hitherto to have efcaped 
their penetration ; one of thefe was 
to reprefs thofe that were in re- 
bellion, and to eftablifh the go- 
vernment and enforce the laws of 
this country in the colonies ; the 
other, to proteft its friends, and 
thofe that were ailing under its au- 
thority. They had already taken, 
and were in a train of taking, the 
moft decifive meafures for efFefting 
the firft of thefe purpofes ; and the 
motion went no further than to pro- 
vide for the fecond. What will 
parliament lofe by accepting this 
motion ? The right ? It exprcfsly 
refcrves it. It is fo effential a part 
of fovereignty, that parliament, if 
it would, cannot furrender it Does 
it fufpend the profitable exercife of 
the right ? So far from it, that it 
Ihews the firm refolution of parlia- 
ment to enforce the only effential 
parts of taxation, by compelling 
the Americans to provide what we, 
not they, think juft and reafonable 
for the fupport of the whole em- 
pire, without a compliance with 
which they cannot hope to make 
any terms of reconciliation with us. 
Nothing ought fo much to animate 
the ardour of the youth of this king- 
dom CO a refolute e;certioii> as this 



firm determination of parliament ; 
or encourage the gallant officers 
and troops who are going abroad to 
enforce this fpirited propofition, as 
a certainty that they were not go- 
ing to fight (as had been often re- 
proachfully urged to them) for tri- 
fles, and vain points of honour, but 
for a fubftantial revenue. The dif- 
pute was atlejigth put upon its pro- 
per footing — ^Revenue, or no re- 
venue. 

This explanation had fo good an 
efFedl, that the miniller himfelf im- 
proved upon the idea, and acknow- 
ledged, in the courfe of the debate, 
that he did not exped his propofi- 
tions would be generally received 
by the Americans, but that he in- 
tended by them to feparate the 
grain from the chaff. If it did 
no good there, it would do good 
here ; it would unite the people of 
England by holding out to them a 
dilHnd object of revenue ; as it 
united England, it would difunite 
America: whatever province came 
firft to make a dutiful offer, would 
be kindly and gently treated ; and 
if but one province accepted the 
offer, the whole confederacy would 
be broken ; and that union, which 
alone rendered them formidable* 
would be diffolved. 

The gentlemen in oppofition 
were far from controverting any of 
the charges that were brought on 
the other fide againfl the motion. 
They allowed every quality that had 
been afcribed to it except concilia- 
tion, which they utterly denied its 
poffefTing. If it led to peace, their 
eagernels for that wifhed-for objedl 
would induce them to receive it, 
under all the circumftances of con- 
tradition, prevarication, meannefs, 
and humiliation, with which it was 
faid, and they acknowledged it to 

be 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [^99 

laws, and to the general legiflative 
authority; but now they fuddcnlv 
change their language, and think 
they Ihall interell the nation, con- 
folc our manufadlurers, and ani- 
mate our foldiejjs, by perfuading 
them that it is not a contell for 
empty honour, and merely to fup- 
port ^ the dignity of parliament ; 
that it has an objed in view which 
llrikes more immediately on the 
fenfes, the acquifition 5f a fubdan- 
tial revenue ; but this attempt of 
impofition upon the people will bo 
found as futile as their other de- 
ceptions, and the propofed revenue 
as empty a phantom as the fuppofed 
honour. 

It was faid, that though the mode 
of colle€lion might admit of fome 
faving under that head, it could 
not change the nature of the tax ; 
the people are as effeftually taxed 
without their confent, by being 
compelled to the payment of a grofs 
fum, as by an aggregate of fmall 
duties to the fame amount ; but with 
this odious diiFerence,that the former 
carries all the appearance of a con- 
tribution or ranfom levied by an 
hollile army in a ftate of avowed 
warfare. That this fchemc of taxa- 
tion exceeded in oppreffion any 
other that the rapacity of mankind 
had yet devifed. In all other cafes, 
fome fpccific fum was demanded, 
and the people might form fome 
opinion of what they could confider 
as their own, for the remaining 
term of the ordinance ; but here 
they were left totally in the dark, 
as to the extent of the dem^wi ; it 
might be fixed at the half; at the 
whole, or at more than they were 
worth ; and the fame power that 
authorized the demand, might ren- 
der their bodies anfwerable for the 
dcEciency. 

[*G] 2 The 



be loaded. But inftead of poflef- 
fing that happy property, which 
with them would have atoned for 
all its bad ones, they faid it was 
infidious, bafe, and treacherous, in 
the higheft degree ; and calculated 
to render incurable all thofe mif- 
chiefs which it pretended to re- 
medy ; that it was founded upon 
the wretched principles of the 
Boflon Port bill, and would be pro- 
dudlive of firailar effeds ; the mi- 
nifter acknowledged this to be a 
cheat, as that was, and intended 
for the fame purpofe, to difunite 
the Americans ; the immediate ef- 
feft of the former, was to throw all 
the colonies, from Nova-Scotia to 
Georgia, into one common mafs of 
union ; if any further cement was 
wanting to confoHdate that mafs, 
this fcheme would fupply it moft 
abuntlantly. 

It was faid/ that the mode in 
which this motion was fupported 
by adminiflration, was the moil ri. 
diculous that ever was attempted in 
parliament; they held it out to 
one fide of the houfe as a meafure 
of concefllon ; and to the other, as 
a ftrong affertion of authority ; they 
were renewing that miferable fyf- 
tcm of low cunning and folly by 
which they were governed in the 
tea-adl, which to this country was 
to be a duty of fupply, and to the 
Americans, a tax only of regula- 
tion. It was obferved, that there 
was a fudden and total change in 
the principles upon which the mi- 
ni fters would have us fuppofe that 
we were entering into a civil war. 
In the whole courfe of this bufinefs, 
until the prefcnt day, they had con- 
ftantly denied their having any 
contell about an American revenue ; 
they reprefentcd the whole to be 
a difpute for obedience to trade 



loo*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



The ridiculous circumftances that 
mull attend this mode of taxation, 
fuppofing it pofliblc to be carried 
into execution, were ftrongly paint- 
ed. The colonies were to be held 
in durance by fleets and armies, 
until they (hould fingly and fepa- 
rately offer to contribute to a fer- 
vice, the nature of which they could 
not know^ in a proportion which 
they could not guefs, and on a flan- 
da rd which they will be fo far from 
being able to afcertain, that parlia- 
ment which is to hold it, has not 
ventured even to hint what they ex- 
pei\. Thus the Houfe is to be con- 
verted into an audlion-room, the 
fpeaker to hold the hammer, and 
the colonies to be held prifoners of 
war, until they confentto a ranfom, 
by bidding againfl each other and 
againft themielves, and until the 
king and parliament fhall call to 
ftrike down the hammer, and fay— • 
enough. If the firfb offer of an af- 
fembly was not deemed fufHcient, 
it was afked what the remedy would 
be ? The bufinefs mull of courfe 
go back to America, and the fleets, 
armies, and durance mufl of courfe 
continue, until further offers were 
made by another affembly, and 
thefe were again difcuffed in ano- 
ther feffion, and perhaps by another 
parliament ; thus the abfurdity and 
imprafticability of this propofition 
were equal to its opprelfivenefs. 
The bufinefs would be in an eternal 
rotation between Europe and Ame- 
-rica, and nothing ever be finifhed; 
while our di{lra(5lions, confufions, 
and expence would every hour in- 
creafe. Upon the whole they con- 
cluded, that the Americans would 
receive thefe infidious propofitions 
with the greatefl indignation ; that 
as they would fhew them more 
clearly the ncceffity, fo they would 



confirm them the more flrongly in 
their union and oppofition. That 
revenue from a free people mufl be 
the confequence of peace, not the 
condition on which it is to be ob- 
tained ; and that if we attempted 
to invert this order, we fhouid have 
neither peace nor revenue. 

Notwithflanding the general dif- 
fatisfaftion with which this motion 
was received by the friends of ad- 
minillration, who thought their 
dignity not a little lowered by it, 
and believed the efFeds of concili- 
ation or difunion propofed by it, 
to be very uncertain, it was thought 
better not to give a triumph to op- 
pofition by rejefting a propofition 
made by the minifler. It was 
thought alfo, that this refolution 
being fufceptible of a variety of in- 
terpretations, as had appeared in 
the debates, fuch an interpretation 
might be hereafter adopted, as 
fhouid be mofl fuitable to their 
circumilances. Accordingly, though 
fome of thofe who in the beginning 
had openly declared themfelves, 
and could not recede, voted (on 
grounds totally adverfe to them) 
with oppofition, the refl of the 
numbers went as ufual; and the 
quellion was carried on a divifion 
274 to 88. 

We fhouid have cbferved before, 
that upon the ifl of this month, 
Mr. Sawbridge, having previoufly 
obtained a call of the Houfe, re- 
peated his annual motion for fliort- 
ening the duration of parliament. 
The motion was fupported ; but as 
ufual produced no debate ; admi- 
nifiration being totally filent upon 
the fubjedl. It was, probably, from 
the fame certainty of the event, 
that the majority was not quite fo 
great as in the preceding year and 
parliament, the numbers upon a 
divifion 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [*ioi 



divifion being 195 againft, to 104 
who fupported the motion. 

Sir George Saville*s annual mo- 
tion relative to the Middlefex elec- 
tion, was this year taken out of his 
hands, being yielded with pro- 
priety to the gentleman who was 
immediately affeded by that deci- 
iion. Mr. Wilkes, who was now 
Lord-Mayor, and who reprefented 
the county of Middlefex in parlia- 
ment, took up in perfon his own 
caufe, and two d^ys after the de- 
bate on the conciliatory motion, 
moved, ** That the refolution of 
•* this Houfe of the 17th of Fe- 
" bruary 1769," * that John Wilkes, 
' Efq; having been in this feflion 
' of parliament expelled this Houfe, 
' was, and is, incapable of fitting 
* in the prefent parliament,* " be 
" expunged from the journals of 
** this Houfe, as being fubverfive of 
" the rights of the whole body of 
" eleftors of this kingdom." 

This motion was ably fupported 
by the lord- mayor, who was alfo 
well feconded ; and a confiderablc 
debate enfued, in which much of 
the ground we have formerly traced, 
was again gone over. The queftion 
was overruled by a majority of 6S, 
which taking in the uncommon ful- 
nefs of the Houfe upon the prefent 
occafion, was nearly upon a pro- 
portional par with that of the pre- 
ceding year ; the numbers now be- 
ing, in fupport of the motion, 171, 
to 239, by whom it was. rejected. 

On the day that the New-Eng- 
land fi(hery-bill had paflfed the 
Houfe of Commons, adminiltration 
were called upon by a gentleman in 
oppofition, for a copy of a letter 
written by the noble minifter at the 
head of the American department, 
to the lieutenant-governor of New- 
York, and dated upon the 10th of 



Dec. 1774; as containing matter 
of information worthy the confider- 
ation and attention of the Houfe. 
This application the miniilers refuf- 
ed to comply with ; who faid they 
were the fole judges what matter was 
or was not proper to be laid before 
the Houfe ; that a fpirit of curiofity 
might prompt people to require the 
feeing of many papers, which it 
would be very improper to expofe 
to public view ; and that from the 
nature of executive government, 
many matters muft ncceflarily be 
kept fecrct. That if they could be 
proved to have abufed this truil 
they were refponfible. 

This occafioned much cenfure on 
the audacity of refufing to lay ne- 
ceffary information before the 
Houfe, efpecially when particular 
papers were called for and fpecificd ; 
and many refle£lions were made 
upon^ the fhameful tamenefs which 
fubmitted to fuch daring infolence, 
and to be led blindfold in matters 
upon which the fate of the nation 
and empire immediately depended. 
A motion was alfo made for an ad- 
drefs to his majefty, that the paper 
in queftion might be laid before the 
Houfe ; but it paffed in the nega- 
tive. 

It was then obferved, that a pe- 
tition and memorial of an extraor- 
dinary nature, from the aflembly 
of the ifland of Jamaica, to the 
king in council, was reported to 
have been received fome confider- 
able time before, and the minifters 
being queftioned as to the fad, 
were alio afked, whether that was 
among the fecrets of ftate which 
was not fit to be communicated to 
parliament. This omiffion the mi- 
nifters attributed to inattention, and 
to their not confidering it as a mat-, 
ter of any great coniequence ; but 

L*CJ 3 they 



loa*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



they now confcnted to lay it before 
the Houfe. 

This petition and memorial from 
theafTembly of Jamaica, was drawn 
up in very ftrong terms. In cx- 
preffing the moft perfect duty and 
allegiance to the throne, and the 
llrongeft attachment to, and reli- 
ance on their fellow-fubjc^s in 
Great- Britain, they however ob. 
fcrved', that thefe difpofitions were 
founded on that moft folid and 
durable balls, the continued en- 
joyment of their perfonal rights, 
and the fecurity of their property. 
They recite thei^- conftant good be- 
Jhaviour, and flate even their weak- 
. ncfs and inability of refiftance, as 
evidences that they cannot be ac- 
tuated by fadlious or dangerous mo- 
tives ; and proceed to fliew, that 
the moft dreadful calamities to their 
ifland, and th^ inevitable deftruc- 
tion of the fmall fugar colonies, 
snuft be involved in a continuance 
of the prefent unnatural conteft 
with the Americans. They after- 
wards enter into a full, free, and 
argumentative difcuffion of the late 
claims of the mother country, and 
of the rights of the colonies ; the 
former of which they combat, and 
dcfeud the latter with great force. 
They abfolutely deny that their an- 
ceftors, the fettlers or conquerors of 
the colonies, could receive any 
rights or privileges from their fel- 
low-fubjcfts in England at the time 
cf their Emigration ; the peers could 
not communicate their privileges, 
and the people had no rights, but 
thofe of which the former were 
equally poffefTed ; but the crown, 
whofc prerogatives were totally in- 
dependent of both, for the great 
purpofes of colonization, commu- 
nicated to all the colonies, though 
in different degrees, a liberal^ ft) are 



of its own royal powers of govern- 
ment. Thefe powers, as well as 
their original rights and privileges, 
have been confirmed to them by 
every means which can be devifed 
for affording fecurity to mankind ; 
charters, proclamations, profcrip- 
tion, compadl, protedlion, and obe- 
dience. From the foregoing, and 
other premifes, the^ infer and de- 
clare, that the colonifts are not fub- 
jedls to the people of England ; and 
infift on their own rights of legifta- 
tion. They afterwards fay, that 
they equally deplore, and behold 
with amazement, a plan, almoft 
carried into execution, for reducing 
the colonies into the moft abjed^ 
ftateof flavery ; and they fupplicate 
the throne, and demand and claim 
from the fovereign, as the guarantee 
of their juft right?, that no laws ftiall 
be forced upon them, injurious to 
their rights, as colonifts, or Englifh- 
men j and that as the common pa- 
rent of his people, his majcfty would 
become a mediator between his Eu- 
ropean and American fubjeds. 

About the fame time, a petition 
from the city of Waterford in Ire- 
land was prefented to the Houfe, 
fetting forth the fatal confequences 
that will refult to that city in par- 
ticular, and to the kingdom in ge- 
neral, from a continuance of the 
prefent unhappy differences between 
Great-Britain and the colonies ; 
they ftate, that in that cafe, they 
will be deprived of the only valu- 
able branch of export which they 
are permitted to carry on with the 
colonics, that of their linen manu- 
faftures ; a misfortune which they 
already begin too fenfibly to feel. 
The fiftiery-bill had ayr i , 
fcarcely cleared .he March 9th. 
Houle of Commons, when the mi- 
nifter brought in another, *' To 
reftrain 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. ['loa 



reftrain the trade and commerce of 
the colonies of New-Jerfcy, Pen- 
fylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and 
South-Carolina, to Great- Britain, 
Ireland, and the Britilh iflands in the 
Weft-Indies, under certain condi- 
tions and limitations." As mca- 
fures of this nature were now fami- 
liar, he only thought it neceflary to 
obferve, that as the fouthcrn pro- 
vinces had acceded to the non-im- 
portation and non - exportation 
agreement, as well as the northern, 
it was conformable to reafon and 
juftice that they Ihould equally feci 
our rcfentment, and experience the 
fame degree of puniihment. 

Nothing that could be called a 
debate arofe upon this motion. The 
ftrange flufluation and contradic- 
tion that appeared in our public 
councils, was, however, commented 
upon on both fides of the Houfe, 
and lamented on one. It was faid, 
that only a few days before, they 
were mocked with conciliatory pro- 
poUtions, and nothing was to be 
heard but conceifion and moder- 
ation ; temptations were to be held 
out to the better difpofed colonies, 
to induce them to break the confe- 
deracy ; the wheat was to be fepa- 
rated from the chafF, the eledl from 
the reprobate ; but now we arc told, 
that the only way to reftore peace 
and harmony, to reconcile the Ame- 
ricans cordially to our government, 
and to fave our commerce from 
that deftru6lion which feems almoft 
inevitable, is to lump them all in- 
difcriminately, without diftindion 
of friend or foe, in one common 
puniihment ; and to drive the whole 
continent of America into defpair, 
as a neceiTary preparative to their 
being reftorcd to good temper. 

During the time that this bill 
was in agitation, a long feries gf 



important evidence in behalf of the 
Well-India merchants and planters, 
and in fupport of the petition 
which they had lately prefented, 
was laid before the Houfe. The 
celebrated Mr. Glover, the author 
of Leonidas, appeared as agent and 
manager for the petitioners upon 
this occafion. This gentleman con- 
dudled the bufinefs with great abi- 
lity, and gained much applaufe by 
the eloquence and vaft extent of 
commercial knowledge he difplay- 
ed, in a very long fpeech which 
he delivered at the bar of the 
Houfe, upon fumming up, com- 
bining and explaining the different 
parts of the evidence. In this 
fpeech he ftated, with uncommon 
precifion, the immcnfe value of the 
objedls that were under confider- 
ation ; endeavoured to fhew, that 
the fpirit which had forfome time 
been fo prevalent, both within 
doors and without, for the extort- 
ing of pecuniary contributions from 
the colonies, was inconfiftent with 
true policy, with a right knowledge 
of commerce, of their circumftances, 
or of the benefits we already derived 
from them; and expatiated moft 
pathetically upon the fatal confe- 
quences which he apprehended from 
a perfeverance in the prefent mea- 
fures. 

It appeared by thi^ evidence, 
that the fugar colonies were to be 
confidered aJ vaft manufa6>ories, 
with this peculiar diftiniflion from 
others, that they were obliged to 
raife their owb materials ; that the 
cane was the raw material ; fugar, ^ 
melafTes, and rum, the manufadlure; 
that the raifing of provificn was, 
and muft neceifarily continue to be 
a very fecondary objeft ; that if . 
neceffity (hould at any time render ^ 
it otherwife, th? manufa^urc muft • 

[•G] 4 of 



I04*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



of courfe decline, in proportion to 

the attention paid to the other ; 
but that the fcarcity of land in the 
fmftU iflands, the great value of 
cultivable land, for the purpofe of 
raifmg the material in all, together 
with the exceffive price of labour, 
and many infurmountable natural 
impediments, rendered the raifing 
of any thing near a fufficient flock 
of provifions utterly imprafticable. 
That the middle colonies of North- 
America were the great fources of 
fupply to the Welt-India iflands, 
not only for provifion, but for an 
article equally necelTary, which is 
iinderftood under the term of lum- 
ber, and by which is meant every 
kind of timber and wood that is 
ufed in building and the cooperage, 
excepting only fome particular 
cafes, wherein great llrength and 
durability are required, and in 
which the hard woods peculiar to 
the tropical regions are preferable. 
It was alfo clearly Ihewn, that no 
plher fources of fupply could be 
opened eiiji.^r in America or in 
Europe, which, with refpeft to time, 
quantity, and many other circum- 
ilanceSt could prevent the dreadful 
eiFefts of a famine in the fugar 
iflands ; an event which would be 
gendered Hill the more dreadful, by 
the vaft fuperiorlty of the negroes 
to the white people in number, 
and the horrible barbarities which 
mufl be expcdled from them, in 
circum (lances of calamity that would 
deftroy all order and dillinftions 
among the moft pivilized nations. 
And that if there were even a poffi- 
bility of averting this fatal event, 
the iflands would notwithflanding 
be ruined, as their great flaple 
pommodities of fugar and rum 
would be ufelefs for want of cafks 
\Q contain them j and they could 



not receive flaves from any part of 
Europe, upon fuch terms as they 
were able to comply with. 

This courfe of enquiry and evi- 
dence has been the means of ren- 
dering the vaft importance and va- 
lue of the fugar colonies more ge- 
nerally underlined, than they per- 
haps would otherwife have been, 
and they are matters which may 
well exercife the fpeculations of the 
prefent, and the admiration of 
future ages. It appeared by a 
very moderate calculation, in which 
large allowances were made for 
every poffible excels, that the capi- 
tal in thofe iflands, confifling in 
cultivated lands, buildings, negroes, 
and flock of all kinds, did noc 
amount to lefs than the immenfe 
fum of fixty millions flerling. 
That their exports of late years to 
Great-Britain run to about 190,000 
hogfheads and puncheons of fugar 
and rum annually ; amounting in 
weight to near 95,000 tons, and 
in value to about 4,000,000 1. exclu- 
five of a great number of fmaller 
articles, and of their very great 
export to North-America. That 
their growth was fb rapid, and im- 
provement fo great, that within a 
very few years, their ejipcrt of fu- 
gar to this kingdom \»as increafed 
40,000 hogfheacis annually, amount- 
ing to about 800,000 1. in value. 
It feems probable, though it could 
not be precifely alcertained, tha*t 
mere than one half of that vaft ca- 
pital of 60,000,000 1. was either 
the immediate property. Or was 
owing to perfons refident in this 
country. It alfo appeared, that 
the revenue gained above 700,000 1. 
a year upon the dired Well-India 
trade, exclufive of its eventual andi 
circuitous produds, and of the 
African trade. It was fully fhewn, 

tha| 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [*io5 



tl\at this immenfe capital and trade, 

as weM as the African, neither of 

which could fubfift without the 

other, were from nature and cir- 

cumftance both totally dependent 

upon North- America. Such were 

the flakes which we were now fet- 

ting at hazard. . 

, , , J In a few days after, 
March 22d. ^^^ 2^^^^ J^^^ j^i3 

conciliatory propofitions with re- 
ipeft to the colonies. Thefe pro- 
pofitions were contained in a fet of 
refolutions, and were accompanied 
and elucidated by that celebrated 
fpeech, which has been fmce pub- 
liflied, and is in every body's 
hands. 

He obferved, that the queftions 
on which they were that day to de- 
cide, were. Whether they ought to 
concede ; and what that conceffion 
ought to be ; and that to enable 
them to determine both on the one 
and the other of thofe great quef- 
tions with a firm and preciie judg- 
ment, it was neceffary to confider 
diftindly the true nature, and the 
peculiar circumftances of the ob- 
jed before them ; becaufe after all 
their ftruggles, whether they would 
or not, he infilled, that they mufl 
govern America, according to that 
nature, and to thofe circumftances ; 
and not according to their own 
imaginations ; not according to ab- 
ftradl ideas of right ; nor by any 
means according to mere general 
theories of government. 

Upon this principle he examined 
and explained, with the utmoft mi- 
nutencfs and accuracy, the internal 
and external, the natural and acci- 
dental circumftances of the colonies ; 
he confidered them with refpeft to 
fituation, refources, extent, num- 
bers, amazing growth of popula- 
fipn^ ra|>icl increafe of commerce. 



fifheries, and agriculture ; from 
thefe he (hewed their ilrength and 
importance ; he then enquired into 
that unconquerable fpirit of free- 
dom, by which they are diftinguifti- 
ed from all other people now exill- 
ing in the known world ; this vio- 
lent paffion for liberty he traced 
from the fources of defcent, educa- 
tion, manners, religious principles, 
forms of government, and diftance 
from the original mover of govern- 
ment. 

From all thefe circumftances he 
deduced the line of policy which 
Ihould be purfued with regard to 
America. The detail was enriched 
and illullrated with a number of the 
moft interefting fads, and curious 
obfervations, tending to ellablifti 
the ideas of American government 
which he had laid down ; to fhew, 
that it muft be adapted to the feel- 
ings, to the eftablifhed habits and 
received opinions of the people ; 
and that all fchemes of govern- 
ment which had been or fhould be 
propofed, without paying a due at- 
tention to thefe matters, would be 
found ineifedtual, dangerous, or 
ruinous. 

We (hould deem it inexcufable 
to quit this part of the fubjeft, 
without laying before our readers 
the aftoniihiiig growth of the colo- 
nies within a Tittle more than half 
a century, and the prodigious fhare 
they contributed to our greatnefs ; 
a matter of the iirll importance to 
ourfel»es ; which perhaps cannot ia 
any degree be paralleled in the hif- 
tory of mankind ; and which will 
equally excite the admiration, and 
exercife the fcepticifm of future 
ages. This gentleman, in taking 
a comparative view of the trade of 
this country at different periods, 
made it appear, that the whole 
cxporti 



io6*3 HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



exports to North - America, the 
Weft-Indies, and Africa, in the year 
X704, amounted only in value to 
569,9301. That in the year 1773, 
which was taken upon a medium, 
as being neither the higheft nor the 
loweft of thofe which m^ght have 
been applied to of late, the ex- 
ports to the fame places, (including 
thofe from Scotland, which in the 
year 1 704 had noexiftence) amount- 
ed to no lefs than 6,024,171!. be- 
ing in the proportion of nearly 
eleven to one. He alfo (hewed, 
that the whole export trade of Eng- 
land, including that to the colonies, 
amounted at the firft period of 
1704, only to 6,509,000!. — Thus 
the trade to the colonies alone, was 
at the latter period. Within lefs than 
Mf a mllJion of being equal to 
what this great commercial nation 
carried on at the beginning of the 
prcfent century with the whole 
world. And ftating the whole ex- 
port commerce of this country at 
prefent, at fixtecn millions, that 
to the colonies, which in the firft 
period conftituted but one twelfth 
of the whole, was now very conft- 
dcrably more than one third. 

However aftonilhing this general 
increafe of the whole colonies may 
appear, the growth of the province 
of Penfylvania is ftill more extra- 
ordinary. In the year 1704, the 
whole exports to that colony 
amounted only to 1 1,459 !• ^^^ ^^ 
1772, they were rifen to 507,9091. 
being nearly fifty times the original 
demand ; and almoft equal to the 
whole colony export at the firft pe- 
riod. 

The mover, before he ftated his 
pwn propofitions, examined and 
controverted the different fchemes 
which had been either propofed, 
or talked of for the government of 



America ; particularly the idea of 
governing by force ; a iHethod, 
which being very cafy and plaufi- 
ble in theory, and requiring no flciU 
nor ability in the dcfign or com- 
prehenfion, the grofa of mankind 
are fond of recurring to, in all 
cafes which perplex their under- 
ftanding. This favoarite idea he 
combated with great force, upon 
the different grounds of its tempo- 
rary nature ; its uncertainty ; its 
deftroying the obje^l in the very 
endeavour to preferve it ; and that 
we have no fort of experience in 
favour of force as an inftrument in 
the rule of our colonies. That on 
the contrary, their growth and 
their utility have been owing to 
methods altogether different. 

He then laboured to prove, that 
without enquiring whether it was 
to be yielded as a matter of right, 
or granted as a matter of favour, "^ 
the only method of governing the 
colonies with fafety and advantage,, 
was by admitting them to an i»te~ 
reji in our conjiitution ; and, by re- 
cording that admiffion in the jour- 
nals of parliament, to give them as 
ftrong an afTurance as the nature of 
the thing would admit, that we : 
mean for ever to adhere to that fo- ^ 
lemn declaration of fyftematic in- 
dulgence. 

In the ftating and profecution of 
this fubjed, he difclaimed all dif- i 
cufiions of right ; the queftion be- 
ing to be confidered folely as % 
matter of policy ; he was not en- 
quiring whether they had a right 
to render their people miferable ; 
but whether it was not their intereft 
to render them happy ? they were 
not to take the opinion of a lawyer 
on what they might do ; but they 
were to confult reafon, humanity, 
juftice, and ^rue policy, in what : 

thex ' 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [♦107 



they ought to do. He likewife dif- 
claimed all manner of new projefls 
whatever ; profeiTing to derive the 
theoretic part of his propofitions 
from :he ancient conllitutional po- 
licy of thi> kingdom with regard 
to reprefentation, as that policy has 
been declared in ads of parliament ; 
and the pradical, from plain mat- 
ters of fadt, acknowledged as fuch 
in the journals of the Houfe ; he 
would only bring them back to that 
road which an uniform experience 
had marked out as the bell ; and 
in which they had walked wiih fe- 
curity, advantage, and honour, un- 
til the year 1763; that other me- 
thods might be more ingenious ; 
but in conllitutional difcuflioQS, it 
was much more fafe to attend to 
experience, and to the pradice of 
their ancellors, than' to any fpecu- 
lations however refined or plaufible. 
That thofe ancellors, who had left 
them fuch inellimable legacies, and 
fuch living monuments of their 
wifdom, as that conftitution, and 
thofe colonies, were the fafeft 
guides they could follow in any 
thing that related to the prefer- 
yation of either. 

He then went into an hiftorical 
detail of the manner of admitting 
Ireland, Wales, and the counties 
palatine of Cheftcr and Durham, 
into an intereft in the conftitution : 
The Hate of things preceding that 
admiilion, and the confeqqences 
.which followed. He Ihewed from 
all thefe inftancej, that this intereft 
in the Britilh conftitution;, was not 
only the caufe of the internal hap- 
pinefs of thofe countries, but of 
their union with and obedience to 
the crown and fupreme legiflature. 

From this experience, the com- 
munication to the members of an 
intereft ia the conftitution, became 



the great ruling principle of Britifl^ 
policy ; the mode of applying it 
being varied according to circum- 
ftances. Where the diftrifts could 
be taken into the conftitution, they 
were united, as in the cafe of 
Wales, and the counties palatine. 
Where that was not the cafe, the 
conftitution was fent to them, as ia 
Ireland. Similar conftitutions, ac-^ 
commodated to their refpedive cir- 
cumftances, were given to the colo- 
nies ; and as long as the fpirit of 
thefe conftitutions was preferved, 
every thing went on happily. Wher^ 
it was violated, every thing fell intQ 
confufion. 

His whole plan therefore was to 
go back to our old policy ; and tp 
record it in the journals, as a fet- 
tled ground of future parliamentary 
proceedings, in order to guar^ 
againft the mifchiefs of our late in- 
conftancy. He made the dodlrin^, 
language, and mode of reafoning, 
contained in the preambles to for- 
mer a6ls of parliament, the models 
whereby to frame his refolutions ; 
and meant by them to eftablifti the 
equity artd juftice of a taxation of 
America, by grant j and oot by 
impofition. To mark the legal com- 
petency of the colony aflembiie^ for 
the fupport of their government ia 
peace, and for public aids in ttm& 
of war. To acknowledge that this 
legal competency has had a qutjfut 
and beneficial exercije ; and that ex- 
perience has (hewn the benfjit e/^ 
their grants, and \^^ futility ^ par- 
liamentary taxation as a mct,ho.d of 
fupply. 

This was the fubftance of tbe fix 
firft refolutions. To thefe were 
added fome others relative to the 
fettlement of an indcpendant: judi- 
cature ; for regulating the court of 
admiralty ; and for the iifp«jal o? 

the 



io8*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



the late coercive ads of parliament. 
The firfl resolution upon which the 
debate began, was as follows. — 
** That the colonies and planta- 
•< tions of Great-Britain in North- 
** America, confilting of fourteen 
<* feparate governments, and con- 
*• taining two millions and upwards 
<* of free inhabitants, have not had 
«* the liberty and privilege of eledl- 
•* ing and fending any knights and 
•* burgeffes, or others, to reprefent 
** them in the high court of par- 
«« liament." 

On this motion, and on the 
whole matter, the debate was long 
and animated. It was objeded, in 
general, that thefe refolutions aban- 
doned the whole objedl for which 
we were contending. That in 
words indeed they did not give up 
the right of taxing ; but they did 
fo in effeft. The firft refolution, 
they faid, was artfully worded, as 
containing in appearance nothing 
but matters of faft ; but if adopted, 
confequences would follow highly 
prejudicial to the public good. 
That the mere truth of a propofi- 
tion did not of courle make it nc- 
cefiary or proper to refolve it.' As 
they had frequently refolved not 
to ddmlt the unconftitutional claims 
of the Americans, they coU*ld not 
admit refolutions dired'ly leading 
to them. They had no afTurance, 
that if they (hould adopt thefe pro- 
portions, the Americans would 
miike any dutiful returns on their 
fide ; and thus the fcheme, purfuedv 
through fo many difficulties, of 
compelling that refradory people 
to contribute their fair proportion 
to the expences of the whole em- 
pire, would fall to the ground. 
The Houfe of Lords would not, 
they faid, permit another plan, 
fomewhat of the fame kind, fo 



much as to lie on their table ; 
and the Houfe of Commons had 
in this fcflion already adopted 
one, which they judged to be con- 
ciliatory upon a ground more con- 
fident with the fupremacy of par- 
liament. It was afTerted, that 
the American affemblies had made 
provifion upon former occafions— 
but this, they faid, was only when 
prefied by their own immediate 
danger ; and for their own local 
ufe. But if the difpofitions of the 
colonies had been as favourable as 
they were reprefented, ftill it was 
denied, that the American aflem- 
blies ever had a legal power of 
granting a revenue to the crown. 
This they inlifted to be the privi- 
lege of parliament only ; and a 
privilege which could not be com- 
municated to any other body what- 
foever. In fupport of this dodrine, 
they quoted the following claufe 
from that palladium of the Englilh 
conflitution, and of the rights and 
liberties of the fubjed, commonly 
called the Bill, or Declaration of 
Rights ; viz. that ** Levying mo- 
" ney for, or to the ufe of the 
** crown, by pretence of prerogati-ve, 
*' without grant of parliament, for 
" a longer time, or in othtrr man- 
" ner, than the fame h or fliall be 
** granted, is illegal." 

This claufe, they infilled, clearly 
enforced the cxclufive right in par- 
liament of taxing every part of the 
empire. And this right, they faid, 
4vas not only prudent, but neceflary. 
Tne right of taxation muft be in- 
herent in the fuprernc power ; and 
being the molf eflential of all 
others, was the moft necefi'ary, not 
only to be referved in theory, but 
exercifed in pradice ; or it would, 
in effed, be loft, and all other 
powers along with it. This principle 

wa.9 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. ['log 



was carried (o far, that it was faid 
any minifter ought to be impeached, 
who fuffered the grant of any fort 
of revenue from the colonies to the 
crown. That fuch a praftice in 
time of war, might poflibly be to- 
lerated from the neceffity of the 
cafe ; but that a revenue in time 
of peace could not be granted by 
any of the aflemblies, without fub- 
verting the conftitution. In the 
warmth of profecuting this idea, 
it was aflerted, by more than one 
gentleman on that fide, that the 
cftablifhment of a parliament in 
Ireland, did not by any means pre- 
clude Great-Britain from taxing 
that kingdom v/hcnever it was 
thought neceflary. That, that right 
had always been maintained, and 
cxercifed too, whenever it was 
judged expedient ; and that the 
Britifh parliament had no other rule 
in that exercife, than its own dif- 
cretion. That all inferior afTera- 
blies in this empire, were only like 
the corporate towns in England, 
which had a power, like them, of 
making bye- laws, for their own 
municipal government, and no- 
thing more. 

On the other fide, it was urged, 
that the claufe in the declaration of 
rights, fo much relied on, was cal- 
culated merely to refb-ain the pre- 
rogative, from the raifmg of any 
money within the realm, without 
the confent of parliament ; but that 
it did not at all reach, nor was in- 
tended to interfere, with the taxes 
levied, or grants pafTed by legal 
afttmbiies out of the kingdom, for 
the public fervice. On the con- 
trary, parliament knew at the time 
of pafling that law, that the Iri(h 
grants were fubfifting, and taxes 
conliantly levied in confequcnce of 



them, without their once thinking, 
either then or at any other time, of 
cenfuring the praftice, or condemn- 
ing the mode as unconftitutional. 
It was alfo faid, that different par- 
liaments at different periods, had 
not only recognized the right, but 
gratefully acknowledged the benefit 
which the public derived from the 
taxes levied, and the grants pafTcd 
by the American affemblies. As to 
the diftindion taken of a time of 
war and the neceffity of the cafe — 
they faid it was frivolous and wholly 
groundlefs. The power of the fub- 
jed in granting, or of the crown 
in receiving, no way differs in time 
of war, from the fame powers ia 
time of peace ; nor is any diftinc- 
tion on fuch a fuppofition made in 
the article of the Bill of Rights. 
They argued therefore, that this 
article of the Bill of Rights is con- 
fined to what it was always thought 
confined, the prerogative in this 
kingdom; and bound indeed the 
crown ; but could not, in fecuring 
the rights and liberties of the fub- 
jeft in this kingdom, intend to an- 
nihilate them every where elfe. 
That as the conftitution had per- 
mitted the Irilh parliament and 
American affemblies to make granta 
to the crown ; and that experience 
had fhewn, that thefe grants had 
produced both fatisfadion and re- 
venue, it was abfurd to rifque all 
in favour of theories of fuprcmacy, 
unity, fovereign rights, and other 
names, which hitherto had led to 
nothing but confuf.on and begg.iry 
on all fides, and would continue to 
produce the fame mifcrable eirVdts, 
as long as ihey were perCfted in. 
That the mover had very wifely 
avoided thefe fpeculativc qucflions, 
and confined himielf to expciience ; 

and 



110*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



and it would be well if they could 
perfuade therafelves to follow that 
example. 

The. previous queftion was moved 
on the firfl propofition and carried 
by 270 to 78. 

The ill iuccefs that had attended 
all conciliatory propofitions hi- 
therto, excepting thofe which ori- 
ginated from government, did not 
deter another gentleman on the 
fame fide, (Mr. Hartley) within a 

March 27th. J"y few day« after. 
' from making a limnar 
attempt. This was regulated on 
the conciliatory propofition moved 
by Lord North. It propofed that 
a letter of requifition Ihould be 
fent to the colonies by a fecretary 
of ftate on a motion from that 
Houfe, for contribution to the ex- 
pences of the whole empire. On 
his plan, the ineftimable privilege 
of judging for themfelves of the 
expediency, fixino; the amount, and 
determining the application of the 
grants, would flill be left in the 
afremblies. The compulfory threat 
would be left out. It removed the 
objeflion of a revenue raiP^d with- 
out confent of parliament, fir^ce 
this requifition would be made at 
their exprefs defire.— Other mo- 
tions followed, not for the repeal, 
(as in the propofitions lately nega- 
tived) but the fufpenlion of certain 
afts for three years. 

As this motion bore fome re^ 
femblance to that rejeded in the 
Houfe of Lords at the beginning 
of the feffion, though fupported 
and combated with ability, it is 
not neceflary here to repeat the 
topics, to which the unhappy ftate 
of the times has fo often obliged 
us to recur. The motion was re- 
jefted without a divifion. 

During the progrefs of the fecond 



reftraining bill, an additional claufe 
was moved for by the minifterp 
whereby the counties of Newcaftle, 
Kent, and Sulfex, on Deleware^ 
in North- America, were included 
in the prohibitions of that bill. 
This motion was carried without 
a divifion ; but was produdive of 
fome pointed obfervation on its 
being unprecedented and unknown 
in the annals of parliament, and 
on the injuftice and cruelty of con- 
demning people unheard, and even 
without enquiry. To thefe charges 
it was anfwered in general, that 
thofe counties were equally culpa- 
ble with the other provinces, and 
that the papers before the Houfe 
contained fufficient information to 
jufti fy the infer tion of that claufe. 

Upon the third read- . 'l cth 
ing of the bill, conli- " ^ 
derable debates arofe, and a young 
nobleman of the firft rank and 
greateft hopes was much diftinguifli- 
ed, not only by his oppofition to 
the bill, and his total condemna- 
tion of the whole feries of Ameri- 
can meafures; but by the very 
pleafing fpecimen of modefty and 
ability which he now exhibited in 
his firft fpeech. He however de- 
livered his fentiments with great 
refolution and firmnefs ; declared 
that he was glad a debate had taken 
place, as it afforded him an op- 
portunity of avowing his political 
creed, and of making fome open 
profeflion of his fentiments on fo 
very important, and very ferious a 
national queftion. That from the 
fuUeft convidion of his foul, he 
difclaimed every idea both of poli- 
cy and right internally to tax Ame- 
rica : he difavovved the whole fy- 
ftem. It was commenced in ini- 
quity ; purfued in refentment ; and 
coold terminate in nothing but 

blood. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [*iii 



blood. And he pledged himfeir, 
that under whatfoever ihape in fu- 
turity it might be revived, by 
whomlbever produced and fupport- 
cd, it (hould, from him, meet the 
moft conilant, determined, and in- 
variable oppoiltion. He predicted 
that this bill would immediately 
bring on a civil war. 

From the other* fide it was an- 
fwered, that his apprchenfions of a 
civil war were not grounded in any 
knowledge of the Americans, who 
would bluller indeed, but never 
fight, or think of oppofing General 
Gage, with arms ; and as to the 
cruelty of this a^, it was to be no 
longer Csvere than they were rebel- 
lious. The matter having been be- 
fore amply difcufTed, the debate was 
not long, noi the attendance con- 
fiderable on the part of the mino- 
rity. The bill pafled without dif- 
ficulty. 

During thefe tranfafHons fevcral 
petitions were received from manu- 
faduring towns in Great -Britain 
and Ireland again ft the coercive 
adls. Some counter petitions were 
alfo received, calling tor an enforce- 
ment of the laws of Great-Bri- 
tain as the only means of preferv- 
ing a trade with the colonies, and 
a/Terting that the trade hitherto had 
fuifered none, or an inconfiderable 
diminution by the combination of 
the Americans. Much altercation 
arofe on the truth of h6ks alledged 
on both fides, as well as on the 
manner of obtaining the fignatures, 
and the quality of thofe who fign- 
cd. The minority infixed, that 
the moft who figned thefe war pe- 
titions (as they called them) were 
j)erfons of none or a remoter intereft 
m the American trade ; but of that 
defcription of warm and adlive 
party men commonly called Tories, 



—And they entered into feveral 

examinations to prove the truth of 
the former part of their aftertioo- 
This produced many long and hot 
debates. 

Other petitions were prefcntcd 
to the crown and equally difregard- 
ed. One from the Britifti fetiiers 
in Canada ngainft the Quebec bill, 
in which they ftate, that upon the 
faith of the royal proclamation of 
the 7th of Oilober 1763, they had 
fettled in that province, purchafed 
houfes and lands, and entered fo 
extenfively into trade, commerce, 
and agriculture, that the value of 
land and the wealth of the inha- 
bitants were thereby more than 
doubled ; and after ftating their 
dutiful behaviour to government, 
and the peace and amity in which 
they live with the new fubjeds, 
grievoufly complain, that they find 
themfelves, by the late aft of par- 
liament, deprived of the franchifet 
which they inherit from their an- 
ceftors, and cut off from the benefit 
and protedion of the Englifli laws ; 
that in their ftead they are to be 
governed by the laws of Canada, 
to which they are utter ftrangcrs ; 
and which they confider to be dis- 
graceful to them as Britons ; ruinous 
to their property, by taking away 
the invaluable privilege of trials by 
juries j and deftrudive to their per- 
fonal liberty and fecurity, as well 
by diflblving the habeas corpus 
ad, as by the extraordinary poweis 
which are lodged in the handi of 
the governor and council. 

The Quakers alfo prefented a 
petition, in which, befides en- 
deavouring to dilFufe the influence 
of that fpirit of peace, which is 
the predominant principle in their 
religious fyftem, they liberally 
(without attempting tQ . confine 
loyalty 



Ill*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 

loyalty to their own feft) declare 
themfelves perfuaded, that there are 
not in Ills majefty's extenfive domi- 
nions, fubjedls more loyal, and 
ihore zealoufly attached to his royal 
perfon, his family', and govern- 
ment, than in the provinces of 
America, and amongft all religious 
denominations. 

In this feafon of public difcon- 
tent, when all men's minds were 
agitated on one fide or other, the 
city of London, not difcouraged 
by the fate of all its applications 
for a number of years pail, once 
. ., , more approached the 
April lotb. .hronef with an ad- 
drefs, remonftrance, and petition ; 
upon a fubjeft, and in a manner, 
as little calculated to obtain a fa- 
vourable reception as any of the 
preceding. In this remonftrance, 
they recapitulated the whole cata- 
logue of American grievances ; de- 
clared their abhorrence of the mea- 
fures, which had been purfued, and 
were then purfuing, to the oppref- 
fion of their fellow-fubjeds in the 
colonies ; that thefe meafures were 
big with all the confequences which 
could alarm a free and commercial 
people ; a deep and perhaps fatal 
wound to commerce ; the ruin of 
manufaftures ; the diminution of 
the revenue, and confequent in- 
creafe of taxes ; the alienation of 
the colonies ; and the blood of his 
majefty's fubjeds. But that they 
looked with lefs horror at the con- 
fequences, than at the purpofe of 
thofe meafures. Not deceived by 
the fpecious artifice of calling def- 
potifm, dignity ; they faid, they 
plainly perceived, that the real 
purpofe was, to ellablifh arbitrary 
power over all America. 

They juftify the refiftance, to 
which, they fay, hi,s majefty's faith- 



ful fubjefts have been driven by 
thefe grievances, upon the great 
principles of the conftitution, ac- 
tuated by which, at the glorious 
period of the revolution, our an- 
ceflors transferred the imperial 
crown of thefe realms to the illu- 
ftrious Houfe of Brunfwick. They 
fay, ** Your petitioners are per- 
** fuaded, that thefe meafures ori- 
*' ginated in the fecret advice of 
** men who are enemies equally to 
'' your majefty*s title and to the 
" liberties of your people. That 
*' your majelty*s miniiters carry 
" them into execution by the fame 
•' fatal corruption which has en- 
" abled them to wound the peace 
" and violate the conftitution of 
" this country — thus they poifon 
*' the fountain of public fecurity, 
*' and render that body which 
" fhould be the guardian ef liber- 
** ty, a formidable inftrument of 

*« arbitrary power." " Your 

** petitioners do therefore moft 
" earneftly befeech your majefty, 
" to difmifs immediately, and for 
*' ever, from your councils, thofe 
** minifters and advifers, as the 
*' firfl: ftep towards a redrefs of 
" thofe grievances which alarm 
" and affli<5l your whole people. 
*« So fhall peace and commerce be 
♦* reftored, and the confidence and 
" affedion of all your majefty 's 
" fubjeds be the folid fuppcricrs 
*' of your throne." 

As Mr. Wilkes was now Lord 
Mayor, he of courfe attended offi- 
cially to prefent this remonftrance, 
and was cautioned by the Lord in 
waiting, that his majefty expcdcd 
he ftiould not fpeak to him. The 
following anfwcr was delivered 
from the throne, ** It is with the 
" utmoft aftoniftiment that I find 
^* any of my fubjeds capable of 
*' encouraging 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [*ii3 



^^ encouraging the rebellious dif- 
** pofuion which unhappily exifts 
** in feme of my colonies in North 
" America. Having entire con- 
*' fidence in the wifdom of my 
** parliament, the great council of 
** the nation, I will fte^dily pur- 
** fue thofe meafures which they 
«* have recommended for the fup- 
" port of the conftitutional rights 
" of Great-Britain, and the pro- 
*' tedion of the commercial in- 
«« terefts of my kingdoms." This 
remonftrance was produdive of a 
particular mark of refentment. In 
a few days after its being prefent- 
ed, a letter was received by the 
Lord Mayor from the Lord Cham- 
berlain, in which, as chief magif- 
trate of the city of London, he 
acquainted him from his majelVy, 
that he would not receive on the 
throne, any addrefs, remonftrance, 
or petition, of the Lord Mayor 
and Aldermen, but in their cor- 
porate capacity. 

As the American fiftieries were 
now aboliflied, it became neceffary 
to think of forae meafures for fnp- 
plying their place, and particularly 
to guard againft the ruinous confe- 
quences of the foreign markets ei- 
ther changing the courfe of con- 
fumption, or falling into the hands 
of ftrangers, and thofe perhaps 
inimical to this country. The con- 
fumption of fi(h oil, as a fubftitute 
for tallow, was now become fo ex- 
tenfive, as to render that alfo an 
objed of great national concern ; 
the city of London alone expend- 
ing about 300,0601. annually in 
that commodity. Whatever pre- 
fent purpofes the evidence lately 
before the Iloufe might anfwcr, in 
(hewing that there was a fufficient 
fund of money, (hips, men, and 
inclination ready, for an imme- 

VoL. XVIU. 1775. 



diate transfer of the fifheries, not 
only without lofs, but with great 
gain and benefit, it foon became 
evident, that the minifter did not 
chufe to rifque matters of fuch infi- 
nite importance upon the veracity 
of thofe reprefentations. 

It feemed alfo neceffary in the 
prefent ftate of public aftaira, that 
the kingdom of Ireland Ihould be 
taken more notice of, and fome 
greater confideration paid to her 
interefts, than had been the prac- 
tice for many years. The queftion 
between the colonies and parlia- 
ment, particularly in the' manner 
in which it had been lately argued, 
was not calculated to quiet that 
kingdom. The repofe of all the 
parts ftill at reft was never more 
neceffary. In the crifis to which 
matters were now evidently tend- 
ing, little doubt remained, that 
even affiftance would be requifite 
from that country; befides, her 
patience, her fufferings, and her 
forbearance, were to be held up as a 
mirrour, and in contrail to the co- 
lonies; and though thefe merits 
had long paffed unregarded, this 
did not fcem a fit feafon to en- 
courage an opinion, that a iimilar 
condud would never obtain any re- 
ward. The nature of the benefit 
was however to be confidered, and 
nothing could feem better adapted 
than a donation which would be 
an advantage inftcad of a lofs to 
the giver. A ftiare in the firft 
fruits of a fpoii, was alfo a lure of 
undoubted efficacy for enticing fu- 
ture fervice. It was not, in iifelf, 
very confiderable ; but it was faid, 
it might be confidered as a begin- 
ning ; and fmall benefits carry 
weight with thofe who had not 
been habituated to great favours. / 

It was fticwn in the couri'e of 
[•//J . the 



114*3 HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



the late evidence before the Houfe, 
that the exports from this country 
to Ireland amounted to 2,400,000!. 
annually ; befides her fupporting a 
large and excellent Handing army, 
at all times ready for our defence ; 
and the immenle fums of her ready 
cafh, which her numerous ab- 
fentees, penfioners, and placemen 
fpend in this country. Yet from 
oppreflive reftriftions in trade, fomc 
of them highly impolitic and pre- 
judicial to ourfelvcs, that country 
is cut off from the benefit of her 
great natural ftaple commodity, as 
well as excluded in general from 
the advantages which {he might 
derive from her admir&ble fitua- 
tion, and her great number of ex- 
cellent harbours. 

The minifter accordingly moved 
for a committee of the whole Houfe, 
to confider of the encouragement 
proper to be given to the fifheries 
of Great-Britain and Ireland. This 
attention to Ireland was generally 
approved of, and after fome con- 
verfation upon the hardlhips which 
that country fuffered, it was pro- 
pofed by fome gentlemen who were 
particularly attached to its intereils 
to extend the motion, by adding 
the words trade and commerce, and 
thereby afrbrding an opportunity of 
enquiring particularly into the ftate 
of that kingdom, and of gi:anting 
fuch relief and indulgence in thofe 
refpefts, as could be done without 
prejudice to ourfelves. The mini- 
fter did not obje(5l to the reafon- 
ablenefs or expediency of entering 
upon this fubjei^ at a proper time ; 
but faid that the propofed amend- 
ment would introduce a mafs of 
matter, much too weighty and ex- 
teniive for prefent confideration ; 
that he would therefore confine the 



motion to the immediate obje(5l of 
the iilheries, leaving the other 
matter at large. 

The committee in . .. , 
its progrefs granted ^P'^il 27th. 
feveral bounties to the fhips of 
Great-Britain and Ireland, for their 
encouragement in profecuting the 
Newfoundland fifhery ; and the 
minifter went farther than his ori- 
ginal avowal, by two refolutions 
which he introduced and pafled in 
favour of the latter kingdom. By 
the firft of thefe it was rendered 
lawful to export from Ireland, 
clothes and accoutrements for fuch 
regiments on the Irilheftabliftiment 
as tverc employed abroad ; and by 
the fecond, a bounty of five (hil- 
lings per barrel, was allowed on 
all flax-feed imported into Ireland. 
This laft refolution was pafled to 
prevent the evils that were appre- 
hended to that country, from the 
cutting off its great American 
fource of fupply in that article. 
Another refolution was alfo paflTed, 
by which the Irilh were allowed to 
export provifions, hooks, lines, 
nets, tools and implements, for the 
purpofes of the fifliery. Some 
Gentlemen of Ireland however 
complained that claufes were infi- 
dioufly llolen into the aft to pre- 
vent its operating in any confider- 
able extent, and to prevent the 
employment of Englifli capitals in 
that kingdom. The committee, 
befides, agreed to the granting of 
bounties for encouraging the whale- 
fifliery, in thofe feas that were to 
the fouthward of the Greenland 
and Davis's ilreights fiflieries ; and 
upon the fame principle took off* 
the duties that were payable upon 
the importation of oil, blubber, 
and bone from Newfoundland, &c. 

Thev 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [*ii5 



They alfo took off the duty that was 

payable on the importation of feal- 

Ikins. 

j^ , Towards the clofe 

May 1 5 tn. ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ gy^j^^ 

acquainted the Houfe, that he had 
received a paper of great import- 
ance from the General i\flembly of 
the province of New- York , a pro- 
vince which yielded to no part of 
his Majefty's dominions in its zeal 
for the profperity and unity of the 
empire, and which had ever con- 
tributed, as much as any, in its pro- 
portion, to the defence and wealth 
of the whole. He obfervcd, that 
it was a complaint, in the form of 
a remonftrance, of feveral adls of 
parliament, fome of which, as they 
affirmed, had eftabliflied principles, 
and others had made regulations, 
fubverfive of the rights of Englifh 
fubjedls. That he did not know 
whether the Houfe would approve 
of every opinion contained in that 
paper ; but that as nothing could 
be more decent and refpedful than 
the whole tenor and language of 
the remonftrance, a mere miftake 
in opinion, upon any one point, 
ought not to prevent their receiving 
it, and granting redrefs on fuch 
other matters as might be really 
grievous, and which were not ne- 
cefTarily conneded with that erro- 
neous opinion. He reprcfented this 
dire£l application from America, 
and dutiful procedure of New York, 
in the prefent critical jan(i:^ure, as 
a moll defirable and even fortunate 
circumftance ; and ftrongly urged, 
that they never had before them fo 
fair an opportunity of putting an end 
to the unhappy difputes with the co- 
lonies as at prefent ; and he con- 
jured them, in the moll earneft man- 
ner, not to let it efcape, as poffibly 
thjB like might never again return. 



He then moved. That the re- 
prefentation and remonftrance of 
the General Aflembly of the colo- 
ny of New- York, To the Honour- 
able the Knights, Citizens, and 
Burgeffes, of Great-Britain, in 
Parliament afTembled, be brought 
up. The minifter immediately 
moved an amendment, which was 
an indireft though efFedlual nega- 
tive upon the motion, by inferting, 
that the faid Affembly claim to 
themfelves rights derogatory to, 
and inconfiftent with, the legifla- 
tive authority of parliament, as de- 
clared by an a£t of the 6th of his 
prefent Majefty, entitled, &c. It 
was contended in oppofition to the 
motion, that the honour of parlia- 
ment required, that no paper' Ihould 
be received by that Houfe, which 
tended to call in queftion its unli- 
mited authority ; that they had al- 
ready relaxed in very effential 
points, but they could not hear any 
thing which tended to call in quef- 
tion their right of taxation ; that 
the declaratory aft muft be repealed, 
before fuch a paper was admitted 
to be brought up ; that the Houfe 
never received even petitions of that 
nature ; but that here the name 
of a petition was ftudioufly avoided, 
left any thing like an obedience to 
parliament Ihould be acknow- 
ledged. 

On the other, fide it was faid, 
that without regard to any abftraft 
queftions upon the authority of par- 
liament, or the rjghts of individuals, 
a particular cofffideration was due, 
in the prefent circumftances, to the 
temperate conduft and exemplary 
good behaviour of the province of 
New- York. In the midftof all the 
violence which overfpread the con- 
tinent, that colony preferved her 

[*H] 2 legiflaturc 



»i6*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 

legjflature and government entire ; 
and when every thing feemed elfe- 
where tending to a civil war, fhe 
dutifully fubmitted her complaints 
to the juftice and clemency of the 
mother country. That aflembly 
which was now applying to them, 
in fuch moderate and refpeftful 
terms, for a redrefs of grievances, 
was the fame, which not long be- 
fore had been fo highly applauded 
by the minifter, for refufing to ac- 
cede to the aflbciation of the gene- 
ral congrefs. Were the minifters 
then determined, or did they think 
it could anfwer any ufeful purpofe, 
to drive every part of America into 
an equal ftate of defperation ? There 
were times and feafons when wife 
men would avoid the difcuflion of 
odious queflions. There were times 
in which it was highly prudent to 
let claims of right, however found- 
ed, lie dormant. New- York, it 
was faid, was already in bad odour 
with her filler colonies from the 
coolnefs and temperance of her 
condu<^ ; with what face can fhe 
refill their reproaches, or perfevere 
in that moderation, when it is 
known that fhe is treated with a con- 
tempt and difregard, which could 
not perhaps be jullified with refpedl 
to the moil contumacious f When 
it is known, that fo far from ob- 
taining a redrefs of grievances, her 
complaints of them will not even be 
heard? What anfwer, faid they, 
can be given by the friends of the 
authority of parliament to thofc, 
who ihall reproach them with their 
confidence in its declarations to 
fuch as fhould dutifully apply for 
redrefs of grievances i The pre- 
didlions of thofe who faid it would 
be vain to look for redrefs from 
parliament, are verified. Thofe 
who promifed better things are dif- 



graced. What refource will New- 
York have, in fuch circumftances, 
but by endeavouring to regain the 
efteem and confidence of the other 
colonies to exceed them in violence ? 

During the debates, the queftion 
was repeatedly called for, and be- 
ing at length put upon the mir 
nifter's amendment, it was carried 
upon a divifion by a majority of 
1 86 to 67 ; and the queftion being 
then put upon the amended motion, 
it was rejeded without a divifion. 

The affembly of New-York had 
alfo tranfmitted a memorial to the 
Lords, and a petition to the King. 
The Duke of Manchefter brought 
in the memorial to the Lords, and 
moved for its being read. This 
motion brought on much difcuf- 
fion ; but which ferved fufficiently 
to fhew the general temper and 
complexion with refped to the 
fubjedl. It was faid, that the title 
of the paper rendered it inadmif- 
fible, as the term memorial vj2.s> only 
applicable to the reprefentations 
which pafTed between fovereigns ; 
that the noble mover had not fuffi- 
ciently explained the contents, and 
that it might contain fome matter 
not fit to be heard. In the fame 
fpirit, fome remedies were pro- 
pofed ; that if the noble Duke did 
not chufe to explain the contents, 
he might read the paper in his 
place, as a part of his fpeech ; or 
if that was thought too troublc- 
fome, the clerk might ftand by 
him, and read it for him. 

To thefe objedions it was an- 
fwered, that the lowed commif- 
fioned ofHcer in the f^rvice had an 
unquellioned right to prefent a me- 
morial to his Majelly, in any cafe 
of real or fuppofed grievance ; fo 
ihat the term in queftion did not at 
all militate with their dignity j 

that 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, [*ii7 



that the noble mover of the quef- 
tion had fufficiently explained the 
matter, by reading the prayer of the 
memorialj^ and fhewing that it was 
for a redrefs of grievances ; that 
for farther particulars he referred 
them to the original which he pro- 
poffd to be read ; declining, ren- 
dering himfelf refponfible for the 
fate of the petition, by the expla- 
nations which he might give of the 
contents. The propofed remedies 
were rejefted with indignation, and 
an end at length put to this alter- 
cation by calling the queiUon, 
when, upon a divifion, the motion 
for reading the memorial was re- 
jedled by a majority of 20, the 
numbers being 45 againft, to 25, 
who fupported the queftion. Such 
was the fate of the applications 
made by the afTembly of New-York 
for a redrefs of their fuppofed griev- 
ances. Nothing done in parlia- 
ment feemed to be better calculated 
to widen the breacli between Great- 
Britain and the colonies. 

The day before this cranfaflion, 
a petition to the Lords from the 
Britiih inhabitants of the province 
of Quebec, was prefented to that 
Houfe by Lord Camden. This 
petition was founded upon the fam< 
principles with that which was 
lately prefented to the throne ; and 
the petitioners, after llating the 
grievances which they fuffered in 
confequence of the late law, con- 
clude by imploring their Lordlhips' 
favourable interpofition, as the he- 
reditary guardians of the rights of 
the people, that the faid ad may 
be repealed or amended, and that 
the petitioners may enjoy their con- 
iHcutional rights, privileges, and 
franchifes. 

Some endeavours were alfo in- 
cfFc^^ually uCed to prevent the read- 



ing of this petition. It was aiked 
by what means it came into the 
noble Lord's hands ? how they 
could be fatisHed that it came really 
from the perfons to whom it was 
attributed ? And the propriety of 
receiving any petition, which did 
not come through the hands of the 
Governor and Conncil, was called 
in queftion. To thefe it was re- 
plied, that the firft was a matter of 
very little confequence ; the peti- 
tion had been for fome time in 
town, and had been refufed by 
every Lord in adminiftration ; as 
to the fecond, the agent for the pro- 
vince would remove every doubt on 
that head ; and as to the third, it 
was faid to be a new and danger- 
ous doftrine, that petitions for the 
redrefs of grievances could only be 
tranfmitted through the hands of 
thofe, whofe intereft it might be to 
fupprefs them totally, and who 
from fituation were liable to be 
themfelves the authors of thofe 
grievances. 

The noble Lord who introduced 
the petition then obferved, that up- 
on the fulleft examination of the 
late law, he found it fo thoroughly 
impolitic, pernicious, and incom- 
patible with the religion and con- 
iHtution of this country, that no 
amendment, nor any thing fliort of 
a total repeal, would be fufficient. 
He arranged his objtdions to it 
under the following heads ; viz. 
The extenfion of the limits of Que- 
bec — the eftablifhment of Popery 
there — and the civil defpotifm ia 
which the inhabitants of that im- 
menfely extended province are to 
be perpetually bound, by being de- 
prived of all Jharc in the legiflative 
power, and fubjeded ia life, free- 
dom, and property, to the arbitrary 
ordinances of a Governor and Coun- 

[•-tfj 3 cil. 



ii8*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



cil, appointed by, and dependant 
upon, the crown. 

The noble Lord expatiated upon 
thefe different I'ubjedls, and having 
brought a great number of fads and 
arguments to ihew the impolicy, 
injuftice, tyranny, and iniquity of 
that law, declared, that it defer ved 
to be reprobated by the unanimous 
voice of parliament, and that if 
there remained the fmallefl regard 
for liberty and the conftitution in 
one part of the Koufe, or for the 
Proteftant religion in the other, 
they mull neceffarily concur in their 
cenfure. He then propofed a bill, 
which was read to the Houfe, for 
the repeal of the late a6l, and which 
was not to take effed until the ift 
of May, 1776, thereby to afford 
time for the providing of a proper 
form of government for that pro- 
vince. 

This meafure was ffrongly op- 
pofed by adminiftration, and a mo- 
tion was made by the nobleman who 
prefided at the head of the Ameri- 
can department, that the bill fhould 
be rejefled. They contended on 
that fide, that the French Cana- 
dians were rendered exceedingly 
happy by the late law ; in fupport 
of which affertion, they produced 
an addrefs to General Carleton the 
Governor, upon his arrival in that 
province, and another to the King, 
wherein they expreffed their thanks 
' and gratitude for being reftored to 
their antient rights and privileges. 
Thefe, they faid, were indubitable 
proofs how much the people were 
pleafed, and expeded to be bene- 
fitted by the change, and removed 
every doubt of the utility of the 
prefent fyflem. They reprefented 
the Britifh fettlers, fuppofmg them 
to have concurred unanimoufly in 
;he matter of the petition, to be. 



comparatively, only a handful of 
people ; and infifted, that upon tib 
one principle of good policy, juf- 
tice, or public faith, near an hun- 
dred thoufand peaceable loyal fub- 
jedls Ihould be rendered unhappy 
and miferable, merely to gratify 
the unrcafonable requeft of two or 
three thoufand pcrfons, who wiftied 
for what was impradicable, and 
thought themfelves deprived of what 
they had in pofleflion. 

As much cenfure had been ex- 
preffed or implied, both within 
doors and without, relative to the 
whole condufl of the bilhops in the 
Canada tranfaftions, as if they had 
not only neglefted, but abandoned 
the interefts of the Proteftant reli- 
gion, the. reverend Father of that 
venerable bench now flood up to 
juftify the Quebec adl, fo far as it 
related to religious matters ; which 
he did upon the principles of tolera- 
tion, the faith of the capitulation, 
and the terms of the definitive 
treaty of peace. After long de- 
bates, in which much extraneous 
matter feemed to be purpofely 
brought in, and a long law conteft, 
between a learned Lord high in 
office and the noble framer of the 
bill, the motion for its rejeftion 
was carried upon a divifion, at ten 
o'clock at night, by the majority 
of 60, the numbers being 88, who 
oppofed, to 28 Lords only, who fup- 
ported the bill. The two royal 
Dukes, and brothers, were in the 
minority upon this divifion. 

About the fame time, an« ^ , 
other petition from the fame ^ 
inhabitants of Quebec, was pre- 
fented to the Houfe of Commons 
by Sir George Saville, in which, 
hsfidcs the matters they had ftated 
in the two former, they reprefent- 
ed, that a petition to his Majelly, 

in 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [*ii9 



in the name of all the French in- 
habitants of that province, and up- 
on which the late law had been 
avowedly founded, was not fairly 
obtained, and had neither received 
the concurrence, nor even been 
communicated to the people in ge- 
neral ; on the contrary, that it had 
been carried about in a fecret man- 
ner, and figned by a few of the 
nobleffe, advocates, and others who 
were in their confidence, through 
the fuggeftions, and under the in- 
iluence of the clergy ; and they af- 
firmed, that the inhabitants in ge- 
neral, the French freeholders, mer- 
chants, and traders, were as much 
alarmed as themfelves, at the in- 
troduftion of the Canadian laws. 
They concluded by praying, that 
the faid ad may be repealed or 
amended, and that they may have 
the benefit and proteftion of the 
Englilh laws, in fo far as relates to 
perfonal property ; and that their 
liberty may be afcertained, accord- 
ing to their antient conllitationai 
rights and privileges. 

The gentleman who introduced 
the petition, having exercifed that 
acutenefs of difquifition, and that 
livelinefs of imagery, by which 
among other eminent qualities he is 
diflinguifhed, in examining and lay- 
ing open the weak or obnoxious 
parts of the Quebec adl, and throw- 
ing a new light even upon thofe 
which had already undergone the 
higheft degree of colouring, con- 
cluded his fpeech with a motion, for 
repealing the late ad for the better 
government of the province of Que- 
bec. Though this motion pro- 
duced fome confiderable debates, 
the fubjed was already fo much 
exhaufted, that they could not be 
very interefHng ; excepting that 
the minifter, in the courfe of them. 



avowed his intention, if it ftiould 
become neceiTary, of arming the 
Canadians againft the other colo- 
nies. He, however, declared his 
firm perfuafion, that the troubles in 
America would be fettled fpeedily, 
happily, and without bloodlhed. 
The motion was rejeded upon a 
divifion by a majority of more than 
two to one, the numbers being 174 
to 86. 

The money-bills which received 
the royal affent, at the clofe of the, 
felfion, were accompanied with a 
fpeech from the Speaker to his 
Majefty, ftating the heavinefs of 
the grants, which nothing but the 
particular exigencies of the times 
could juftify in a feafon of profound 
peace ; he, however, gave an af- 
furance, that if the Americans 
ihould perfift in their refolutions, 
and the fword muft be drawn, the 
Commons would do every thing in 
their power to maintain and fupport 
the fupremacy of this legiilature. 
He befides praifed the late law for 
determining controverted eledions, 
and concluded by exprefling his 
confidence, that the money now 
granted would be faithfully applied 
to the purpofes for which it was" 
appropriated. 

In the fpeech from , ,^„ ^^. 
the throne, the moil May 26th. 
perfed fatisfadion in their con- 
dud, during the courfe of this 
important feffion, was expreffed. 
It was faid, that they had main- 
tained, with a firm and fteady refo- 
lution, the rights of the crown and 
the authority of parliament, which 
ihould ever be confidered as infe- 
parable ; that they had proteded 
and promoted the commercial in- 
tereils of thefe kingdoms ; and 
they had, at the fame time, ^iven 
convincing proofs of their readinefs 

['/ij4 . (as 



I20*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 

(as far as the conflitution would prevented the intended redudion of 
allow them) to gratify the wilhes, the naval eftablilhment from being 
and remove the apprehenfions of compleated; and great thanks were 
the fubjeds in America ; and a returned for the chearfulnefs and 
perfuafion was entertained, that the public fpirit with which they had 
moll I'alutary effects mull, in the granted the fupplies. It concluded 
end, refult from meafures formed with the ufual recommendation, to 
and conduced on iuch principles, prelerve and cultivate, in their fe- 
A favourable reprefentation was veral counties, the fame regard for 
made of the pacific difpofition of public order, and the fame difcern- 
other powers, and the ufual af- ment of their true interefts, which 
furance given of endeavouring to have in thefe times diftinguilhed 
fecure the public tranquillity. Much the charafter of his Majefty's faith- 
concern was exprefled, that the un- ful and beloved people ; and the 
happy diilurbances, in fome of the continuance of which cannot fail to 
colonies, had occafioned an aug- render them happy at home^ and 
mentation of the land-forces, and refpeded abroad. 

CHAP. VIII. 

Si ate of affairs in America during the Jit ting of parliament. Preparations, 
Ordnance Jeized in Rhode Ijland, A fort taken, and ponvder feixed in 
Ne-w Hajnppire. Refolntions of the general congrefs approved of and con^ 

firmed in different places — rejected by the affemhly ojf Neio-Tork. Pro- 
ceedings of the ne^w pro'vincial congrefs in M.^J/achufett^s Bay. Detach- 
vient Je7it to feixe onfome cannon at Salem, Difpute at a dra<w-bridge. 
Affair at Lexington and Concord. Lofs on both Jides, Province rife in 
arms. Bcjlcn in-vejled by great bodies of the militia. Provincial congrefs 
addrefs the people of Great-Britain. Meafures purfued for the array and 

fufport of an army \ pay of the officers and foldiers fixed, and rules for its 
regulation and government publijhed. Capitulation voith the inhabitants of 
Bcjion not adhered to. Continental congrefs meet at Philadelphia. Refolutions 

for the raifing of an army, the ejlablijhment of a paper currency, and to pre^ 
vent the Britijh fijheries from being fupplied <Tvith provifeons. Application 
from the people of Neiv-Tork to the congrefs. Croi.un-Point andTiconderoga 

fur prized. Generals and troops arrive at Bofion. Engagements in the 
iflundi near Bofion, General congrefs refolve that the co7nphil betvjeen the 
crcnvM and the province of Maffachufett"* s Bay is diffolved. Ered a gene- 
ral pofi -office. Proclamation of rebellion by Gen. Gage. Adion at Bunker^ s 
Hill. Light-houfe burnt, Confequences of the ^hiebec ail. Declaration 
of the general congrefs y in anj-xver to the late proclamation. Addrefs to the 
>nhiihiiants of Gi eat- Britain — — /o the people of Ireland. Petition to the 
king. Qecrgia accedes to the general confederacy. Gen. Wafhington ap- 
pointed commander in chief of all the American forces by the general congrefs, 

nU 1^ I N G thefe tranfaelions America. Whatever hefitation or 
at home, niiairs were every doubt might before have operated 
<Jay becomiji^ more dangerous in with the timid, or principles of 

cautior\ 



r 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [*iai 



caution and prudence with the mo- 
derate, they were now all removed 
by the determinations of the ge- 
neral congrefs. Thefe became im- 
mediately the political creed of the 
colonics, and a perfect compliance 
with their refolutions was every 
where determined upon, as foon as 
the general fenfe of the people could 
be obtained. The unanimity which 
prevailed throughout the continent 
was amazing. The fame language 
was held by town and provincial 
meetings, by general aflemblies, by 
judges in their charges, and by 
grand juries in their prefentments ; 
and all their a6ls tended to the fame 
point. It was a new and wonder- 
ful thing to fee the inhabitants of 
rich and great commercial coun- 
tries, who had acquired a long efta- 
blifhed habitual reliih for the fu- 
perfluities and luxuries of foreign 
nations, all at once determined to 
abandon thofe captivating allure- 
ments, and to rellrain themfelves 
to bare neceffkries. It was fcarcely 
an objedt of greater admiration, 
that the merchant fiiould forego 
the advantages of commerce, the 
farmer fubmit to the lofs of the fale 
of his products and the benefits of 
his induftry, and the feaman, with 
the numberlefs other perlbns de- 
pendant upon trade, contentedly 
refign the very means of livelihood, 
and truft to a precarious fubfil^ence 
from the public fpirit or charity of 
the opulent. Such however was 
the fpedacle, which America at 
that time, and flill in fome degree, 
exhibited to the world. 

Great hopes vverc however placed 
on the fuccels of the petition from 
the continental congrefs to the 
throne. Nor was ir fuppofed, that 
their general applicarion to the 
people cf England vvoal J have been 



unprodndive of efFecfl. A ftill 
greater reliance was not unrcafon- 
ably placed upon the efFedt which 
the unanimity and determinations 
of the congrefs would produce, in 
influencing publick opinions and 
meafures at home. 

Thefe hopes and opinions had 
for a time a confiderable efFeft in 
rertraining thofe violences which 
afterwards took place. But how, 
ever well they might feem to be 
founded, and however general their 
operation, the principal leaders, 
and mod experienced men, did not 
appear to build much upon them, 
and accordingly made lome pre- 
paration for the worlt that might 
happen. The fouthern colonies 
began to arm as well as the north- 
ern, and to train and exercife their 
militia ; and as foon as advice was 
received of the proclamation iflued 
in England to prevent the exporta- 
tion of arms and ammunition to 
America, meafures were fpeedily 
taken to remedy the defeat. For 
this purpofe, and to render them- 
felves as independent as poflible of 
foreigners for the fupply of thofe 
eiTential articles, mills were ereA- 
cd^ and manufaftorics formed both 
in i^hiladelphia and Virginia, for 
the making of gunpowder, and en^ 
couragement given in all the colo- 
nies for the fabrication of arms of 
every fort. Great difHcuIties how- 
ever attended thefe beginnings ; 
and the fupply of powder, both 
from the home manufafture and 
the importation, was for a long 
time fcanty and precarious. 

The Governor's proclamation 
againll^ the provincial congrefs in 
MafTachufetts Bay, had not the 
fmalleil efFeft, cither upon the pro- 
ceedings of that aflcmbly, or the 
condudt of the people, who paid an 
7 implicit 



122*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



implicit obedience to its determin- 
ations. As exprefles continually 
pafled between that body and the 
general congrefs, no doubt can be 
entertained, that its meafures were 
regulated by their opinion. The 
critical fituation of the capital was 
.an objeft of much confideration ; 
nor was it eafy to determine in 
what manner to provide for the 
fafety. of the inhabitants, and to 
prevent its becoming a fore thorn 
in the fide of the province, if mat- 
ters fhould proceed to extremity. 
From its natural advantages of fi- 
tuation, with the works thrown up 
on the Neck, Bofton was already 
become a very llrong hold ; and 
was capable, with little difficulty, 
of being rendered a place offuch 
Hrength, as, under the proteflion 
of a navy, would leave but little 
hope of its being ever reduced. 
From the fame eaufes it was liable 
to be converted, at the difcretion 
of the Governor, into a fecure pri- 
fon for the inhabitants, who would 
thereby become hoftages for the 
condud of the province at large. 

Different propofals were faid to 
be made to prevent or remedy 
thefe evils. One was, iimply, to 
remove the inhabitants ; another, 
to fe^»a valuation upon their ellates, 
burn the town, and reimburfe them 
for their loffes. Both thefe fchemes 
were found to be clogged with fo 
many difficulties as rendered them 
imprafticable. Force was the on- 
ly expedient which could be ap- 
plied with fuccefs; but they did 
not as yet feem difpofed to proceed 
to that extremity. Jn the mean time, 
numbers of the principal inhabi- 
tants quitted the town , under the real 
or pretended apprehenfion of im- 
mediate violence from the troops, 
or of being kidnapped and fent to 



England, to Hand trial for fappofed 
offences. 

The provincial congrefs, having 
done all the bufinefs that was thought 
proper or neceffary for the prefent, 
diffolved themlelves towards the end 
of November, having firfl appoint- 
ed another meeting to be held in 
the enfuing month of February. 
This ceflation afforded an oppor- 
tunity to the friends of government, 
or loyalifts, as they now called 
themfelves, to fhew themfelves in 
a few places ; to try their ftrength 
and numbers, and to endeavour to 
refill the general current. Some 
afibciations for mutual defence were 
accordingly formed, and a refufal 
was made, in a few towns, to com- 
ply with the refolutions of the pro- 
vincial congrefs ; but the contrary 
fpirit was fo prevalent, that thofe 
attempts were foon quelled. The 
diffentients were overwhelmed by 
numbers. All thefe attempts came 
to nothing. 

As foon as an account was re- 
ceived at Rhode Ifland, of the pro- 
hibition on the exportation of mi- 
litary flores from Great-Britain, 
the people feized upon and removed 
all the ordnance belonging to the 
crown in that province, which lay 
upon fome batteries that defended 
one of the harbours, and amounted 
to above forty pieces of cannon of 
different fizes. A captain of a 
man of war, having waited upon 
the governor to enquire into the 
meaning of this procedure, was in- 
formed, with great franknefs, that 
the people had feized the cannon 
to prevent their falling into the 
hands of the king's forces ; and 
that they meant to make ufe of 
them to defend themfelves againft 
any power that fhould offer to mo- 
left them. The aifembly of that 

ifland 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. ['izj 



ifland alfo paflcd refolutions for 
the procuring of arms and military 
ftores, by every means, and from 
every quarter in which they could 
be obtained, as well as for train- 
ing and arming the inhabitants. 

The province of New Hampftiire 
had hitherto preferved a greater 
degree of moderation than any 
other of the New-England govern- 
ments. As fooi», however, as in- 
telligence arrived of the tranfadions 
at Rhode-Tfland, with a copy of their 
refolutions, and of the royal pro- 
clamation which gave rife to them, 
a fimilar fpirit operated upon that 
people. A body of men accord- 
n th '^^i'^y a^embled in 

^^ ' arms, and marched to 
^"7"^' the attack of a fmall 
fort, called William and Mary, 
confiderable only for being the 
objeft of the firft movement in the 
province. This was eafily taken, 
and fupplied them with a quantity 
of powder, by which they were 
enabled to put themfelvcs into a 
liate of defence. 

No other afts of extraordinary 
violence took place during the win- 
ter. A firm determination of re- 
fiftance was, hovyever, univerfally 
fpread, and grew the ftronger by 
the arrival of the King's fpeech, 
and the addrefles of the new par- 
lian:ent; which feemed, in the 
opinion of the Americans, nearly 
to cut off all hopes of reconciliation. 
It is remarkable that all the afts 
and public declarations, which here 
were recommended as the means of 
pacifying, by intimidating that 
people, conftantly produced the con- 
trar/efFedl. The more clearly a de- 
termination was (hewn to enforce an 
high authority, the more Itrenuoufly 
the colonills feemed determined to 
xefift it. The affembly of Penfyl- 



vania, which met by adjournment 
towards the clofe of the year, was 
the firft legal convention which una- 
nimoufly approved of and ratified 
all the adls of the general congrefs, 
and appointed delegates to reprc- 
fent them in the new congrefs, 
which was to be held in the enfu- 
ing month of May. 

The proceedings were fimilar in 
other places, whether tranlafted 
by the affemblies, or by provincial 
conventions of deputies. The con- 
vention of Maryland appointed a 
fum of money for the purchafe of 
arms aad ammunition. A provin- 
cial convention, which was held at 
Philadelphia in the latter end of 
January, paffed a number of refo- 
lutions for the encouragement of 
the moft necefTary maniifadures 
within themfelves ; among which, 
fait, gunpowder, faltpetre, and 
fteel, were particularly recommend- 
ed. They alfo paffed a refolution, 
in which they declared it to be their 
moft earneft wifh and defire to fee 
harmony rcftored between Great- 
Britain and the colonies ; and that 
they would exert their utmoft en- 
deavours for the attainment of that 
moft defirable objedl. But that if the 
humble and loyal petition of the 
congrefs to his Majefty fhould be 
difregarded, and the Britiih admi- 
niftration, inftead of redrefling their 
grievances, fhould determine by 
force to effeft a fubmiffion to the 
late arbitrary acls of parliament, in 
fuch a fituation they hold it their 
indifpenfable duty to refift fuch 
force, and at every hazard to de- 
fend the rights and liberties of 
America. 

The affembly of New- -r 
York, which met in the J^"* ^^' 
beginning of the year, ''^' 
was, however, a fingle exception to 

the 



124*3 HISTORY OF EUROPE. 

the reft of the continent. In this 
aff-mbly, after very confiderable 
debates upon the queltion of ac- 
ceding to the refolutions of the ge- 
neral congrel's, it was rejeded up- 
on a divifion, though by« a very 
fmall majority. They afterwards 
proceeded to ftate the public griev- 
ances, with an intention of laying 
them before the king and parlia- 
ment ; a mode of application in 
which they were much encouraged 
by the lieutenant-governor, and 
from which they prefaged the hap- 
pieft effefts, flattering themfelves, 
that when all other means had fail- 
ed of fuccefs, they (hould have the 
lalling honour of procuring a tho- 
rough reconciliation between the 
mother country and the colonies : 
a hope, however fruitlefs, which 
probably had a great effed in their 
late determination. It was alfo 
faid, that this method had been fug- 
gefted to them from authority in 
England. They accordingly drew 
up that petition to the king, me- 
morial to the lords, and representa- 
tion and remonilrance to the com- 
mons, the incfficacy of which we 
have already feen. 

The new provincial con- 
grefs, which met at Cam- 
bridge, in Maffachufeits Bay, did 
not deviate from the line which had 
been chalked out by their predecef- 
fors. Among other refclutions they 
publi filed one, to inform the people, 
that from the prefent difpofition of 
the Britifh miniilry and parlia- 
ment, there was real caui'e to fear, 
that the reafonable and juft appli- 
cations of that continent to Great- 
Britain for peace, liberty, and iafe- 
t)% would not meet with a favour- 
able reception ; but, on th€ con- 
trary, from the large reinforcement 
of troops expcdled in that colony. 



Feb. 



the tenor of intelligence from Great- 
Britain, and general appearances, 
they have reafon to apprehend, that 
the fuddea deftrudion of that co- 
lony in particular was intended, 
for refufing, with the other Ameri- 
can colonics, tamely to fubmit to, 
what they termed, the moll igno- 
minious flavery. 

They therefore urged, in the 
llrongeft terms, the militia in ge- 
neral, and the minute men in parti- 
cular, to fpare neither time, pains, 
nor expence, at fo critical a junc- 
ture, in perfefting themfelves forth- 
with in military difcipline. They 
pafled other refolutions for the pro- 
viding and making of fire-arms 
and bayonets ; and renewed more 
llridlly the prohibition of their pre- 
deceffors, againft fupplying the 
troops at Bofton with any of thofe 
necelTaries which are peculiarly re- 
quifite for the military fervice ; the 
markets at Bofton being ftill open 
to the fupply of provifions. As 
we have made ufe of a term which 
has hitherto been unknown in mi- 
litary tranfadions, it may require 
fome explanation. By minute men 
arc to be underftood a feled num- 
ber of the militia, who undertake to 
hold themfelves, upon all occafions, 
and at the fhorteft notice, in rea- 
dinefs for a(flual fervice. By their 
alertnefs they have fmce (hewn that 
the name was not mifapplied. 

A circular letter from the fecre- 
tary of ftate for the American de- 
partment, forbidding, in the king's 
name, and under pain of his dif- 
pleaiure, the eledion of deputies 
for the enfuing general congrefs, 
was productive of no manner of ef- 
fed; the eledions every where 
took place, even in the province of 
New-York, notwithltanding the 
late refolution in their afTembly. 

Things 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [*,25 



Things continued very quiet at 
Bolton. To which the injunflions 
of the different congrefles perhaps 
contributed as much, as the (hips 
of war that crowded the harbour, 
or the force that was llationed in 
the town. The calm was however 
precarious and fallacious on both 
fides. Combuftiblc matter had 
been gathered in abundance. More 
was in preparation, and the leall 
fpark was likely to kindle a general 
conflagration. 

Governor Gage having received 
intelligence that fome brafs cannon 
were depofited in the town of Sa- 
lem, fent a detachment of troops 
under the command of a Held ofti- 

17 1 c cer, on board a tranfport, 
Feb. 20. . J r • 

m order to leize upon 

and bring them to Bofton. The 
troops having landed at Marble- 
head, proceeded to Salem, where 
they were difappointed as to find- 
ing the cannon ; but having fome 
reafon to imagine they had been 
only removed that morning in con- 
fequence of their approach, it in- 
duced tiiem to march further into 
the country in hopes of overtaking 
them, In this purfuit they arrived 
at a draw-bridge over a fmall river, 
where a number of the country 
people ^trc aflembled, and thofe 
on the oppofite fide had taken up 
the bridge to prevent their paflage. 
The commanding officer ordered 
the bridge to be let down, which 
the people peremptorily refufed, 
faying, that it was a private road, 
and that he had no authority to 
demand a paflage that way. For 
to the Jail moment the languar^je of 
peace was preferved, and until the 
fword was decifively drawn, all re- 
iillance was carried on upon fome 
legal ground. Upon this refufal, 
the olhcer determined to make ufe 



of a boat, thereby to gain poflef- 
fion of the bridge ; but the coun- 
try people perceiving his intention, 
feveral of them jumped into the 
boat with axes, and cut holes thro* 
her bottom, which occafioned fome 
fcuflie between them and the foU 
diersinand about the boat. Things 
were now tending to extremities, 
as the commander feemed deter- 
mined to force his paflage, and the 
others as rcfolutely bent to prevent 
it. In this fituation, a neighbour- 
ing clergyman, who had attended 
the whole tranfadlion, remonftratcd 
with the lieutenant-colonel, upoi) 
the fatal confequences which would 
inevitably attend his making ufe 
of force. And finding that the 
point of military honour, with re- 
fpc«5l to making good his paflTage, 
was the principal objeft with that 
gentleman, it being then too late 
in the evening to profecute his ori- 
ginal defign, he prevailed upon the 
people to lee down the bridge, 
which the troops took pofl"eflion of ; 
and the colonel having puflied a 
detachment a little way into the 
country, in exercife of the right 
which he aflumed, they immedi- 
ately after returned, without mo- 
lellation, on board the tranfport. 
Thus ended this iirll expedition, 
without efl^e*^, and happily without 
mifchief. Enough appeared to 
Ihew upon what a flender thread 
the peace of the empire hung ; and 
that the leall exertion of the mi-i 
litary would certainly bring things 
to ex t rem i ties. The people, finco 
the a(ih for calling away their char- 
ter, and lor proteding the foldicry 
from any trial in the province, 
confldercd thcmfelves as put under 
military j^overnment. Every motioi\ 
of that body became fufpei^led, and 
was in their eyes an exertion of 

the 



126*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



the moft, odious and mofl dreadful 
tyranny. 

* This appearance of refiftance 
feems, on the other lide, to have 
greatly irritated the military, for 
from this time they appear to have 
lived upon worfe terms with the in- 
habitants of Boflon than they had 
hitherto done ; fome general and 
wanton infults, as well as particular 
outrages having been complained 
of. But the crifis was now faftap*. 
preaching, in which all lefler evils 
and calamities were to be loft and 
forgotten in the contemplation of 
thofe of a great and ferious nature. 

'1 he provincials having colle-fl- 
^ed a confiderable quantity of mili- 
tary ftores at the town of Concord, 
where the provincial congrefs was 
alfo held. General Gage thought 
it expedient to detach the grenadiers 
and light infantry of the army, 
under the command of lieutenant- 
colonel Smith, and major Pitcairn 
of the marines, in order to deftroy 
them. It is faid and believed, that 
this expedition had another objeft 
in view, which was to feize on the 
perfons of Meffrs. Hancock and 
Adams, thofe great and obnoxious 
leaders of the faflion which op- 
pofed the new fyftem of govern- 
ment. The detachment, which 

, was fuppofed to conlift of about 900 
men, embarked in boats at Bofton 
on the night preceding the 19th of 
April, and having gone a little 
way up Charles river, landed at a 
place called Phipps's Farm, from 
whence they proceeded with great 
filence and expedition towards Con- 
cord. Several officers on horfe- 
back in the mean time fcoured the 
loads, and fecured fuch country 
people as they chanced to meet with 
at that early time. Notwithftand- 
ing thefe precautions, they difco- 



vered, by the firing of guns and 
the ringing of bells, that the coun- 
try was alarmed, and the people 
aftually began to ailemble in the 
neighbouring towns and villages 
before day-light. 

Upon their arrival at Lexington, 
about five in the morning, they 
found the company of militia, be- 
longing to that town, affembled on 
a green near the road ; upon which 
an officer in the van called out, 
Difperfe, you rebels ; thronu donvn 
your armsy and difperfe : the foldiers 
at the fame time running up with 
loud huzzas, fome fcattering (hots 
were firft fired, and immediately 
fucceeded by a general difcharge, 
by which eight of the militia were 
killed and feveral wounded. 

Thus was the firft blood drawn in 
this unhappy civil conteft. Great 
pains were taken on each fide to fhew 
the other to have been the aggrefTor 
upon this occafion. A matter of 
little confequence, in a political 
view, as things were now too far 
advanced to leave room for a pro- 
bable hope of any other than fuch a 
final ifTue. It was faid in the Ga- 
zette, that the troops were firft 
fired upon from fome neighbouring 
houfes. There is fome obfcurity 
in this bufinefs, for it appears, from 
the general tenor of the evidence, 
as well of fome of our own people 
who were taken prifoners, as of a 
great number of the provincials, 
all whofe depofitions were regularly 
taken and attefted by proper ma- 
giftrates, that the firing both at 
Lexington and Concord was com- 
menced by the troops. Indeed it 
feems evident, that a fingle com- 
pany of militia, ftanding, as it may 
be faid, under the muzzles of our 
foldiers guns, would have been 
fufficient pledges to prevent any 

outrage 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [•127 



outrage from their friends and 
neighbours in the adjoining houfes. 
After this execution, the detach- 
ment proceeded to Concord, the 
commanding officer having previ- 
oufly difpatched fix companies of 
light infantry to poflefs two bridges 
which lay at fome diftance beyond 
the town, probably with a view of 
preventing any of the llores from 
being carried off that way ; or, if 
he had orders about the feizure of 
perfons, to prevent the efcape of 
thofe whom it was his objcdt to fe- 
cure. A body of militia, who oc- 
cupied a hill in the way, retired at 
the approach of the troops, and 
paiTed over one of thofe bridges, 
which was immediately after taken 
pofleifion of by the light infantry. 
The main body having arrived at 
the town, proceeded to execute their 
commiffion, by rendering three 
pieces of iron cannon unferviceable, 
deftroying fome gun and other car- 
riages, and throwing feveral bar- 
rels of flour, gunpowder, and muf- 
ket ball into the river. In the mean 
time, the militia which retired from 
the hill, feeing feveral fires in the 
town which they apprehended to 
be of houfes in flames, returned to- 
wards the bridge which they had 
lately paflied, and which lay in their 
way thither. Upon this movement, 
the light infantry retired on the 
Concord fide of the river, and be- 
gan to pull up the bridge ; but 
upon the near approach of the mi- 
litia, (who feemed ftudioufly to 
have avoided all appearance of be- 
ginning the attack, and made as if 
they only wanted to pafs as common 
travellers) the foldiers immediately 
fired, and killed two men. The 
provincials returned the fire, and a 
(kirmilh enfued at the bridge, in 
which the former fecm to have been 



under fome difad vantage, and were 
forced to retreat, having feveral 
men killed and wounded, and a 
lieutenant and fome others taken. 

About this time the country rofc 
upon them. The troops were at- 
tacked on all quarters ; flcirmifli 
fucceeded upon fkirmiih ; and a 
continued, though fcattering and ir- 
regular fire, was fupported through 
the whole of a long and very hot 
day. In the march back of fix 
miles to Lexington, the troops were 
exceedingly annoyed, not only by 
the purfucrs, but by the fire from 
houfes, walls,- and other coverts, all 
of which were filled or lined with 
armed men. 

It happened fortunately, that Ge- 
neral Gage, apprehenfive of the 
danger of the fervice, had detached 
Lord Percy early in the morning 
with 16 companies of foot, a de- 
tachment of marines, and two 
pieces of cannon, to fupport Colonel 
Smith's detachment, and that they 
were arrived at Lexington, by the 
time the others had returned from 
Concord. This circumftance was 
the more fortunate, as it is reported 
the firft detachment had by that 
time expended all their ammuni- 
tion ; but if that even had not been 
the cafe, it fcarcely feems poflible 
that they could have efcaped being 
cut off or taken in the long fubfe- 
quent retreat of fifteen miles. 

This powerful fupport, efpecially 
the cannon, afforded a breathing- 
time to the firft detachment at Lex- 
ington, which they already much 
wanted. The field pieces obliged 
the provincials to keep their dif- 
tance. But as foon as the troops 
refumed their march, the attacks, 
as the country people became more 
numerous, grew in proportion more 
violent, and the danger was con- 
tinually 



128*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



tinually augmenting, until they ar« 
rived about fun-fet at Charlcftown ; 
from whence they paffed over di- 
reftly to Bofton, under the protec- 
tion (as the provincials fay) of the 
guns of the Somerfet man of war ; 
the troops being entirely fpent and 
worn down, by the cxceflive fa- 
tigues they had undergone. They 
had marched that day near 35 
miles. 

The lofs was not To great on ei- 
ther fide, as the length, irregu- 
larity, and variety of the engage- 
ment might feem to indicate ; 
which may be attributed to the 
provincials not being at firft power- 
ful in number, and to their being 
afterwards kept at fome dillance by 
the field pieces. The king's troops, 
as may be expected, were the 
greater fufFerers, having loft in 
killed, wounded, and prifoners, 
273 men, of which 65 were killed, 
2 lieutenants, and above 20 private 
men taken prifoners, and Colonel 
Smith, with another lieutenant-co- 
ncl and feveral officers, wounded. 
By the provincial account, which 
gives the names and places of abode 
of thofe who fell on their fide, their 
lofs in killed and wounded (includ- 
ing thofe who fell by the firft fire in 
the morning at Lexington) amonnt- 
cd only to about fixty, of which 
near two thirds were killed. 

By the neareft calculation that 
can be made, there were from 1800 
to 2000 of the belt troops in the 
fervice (being about half the force 
that was then flationed at Bofton) 
employed upon this expedition. 
The event fufficlently fhewed how 
ill informed thofe were who had (o 
often afferted at home, that a regi- 
ment or two could force their way 
through any part of the continent, 
and chat the very fight of a grena- 



dier's cap would be fufficient to pat 
an American army to flight. 

Upon this occafion, «ach fide 
charged the other with the moft 
inhuman cruelties. Civil wars pro- 
duce many fuch charges ; but we 
have good reafon, and fome au- 
thority for believing, that thefe ac- 
counts, if at all true on either fide, 
were much exaggerated. On one 
fide it is certain, that an officer and 
fome of the foldiers who were 
wounded and prifoners, gave pub- 
lic teftimonials of the humanity 
with which they Were treated; and 
that the provincial commanders 
fcnt an offer to General Gage, to 
admit his furgeons to come and 
drefs the wounded. 

Although on the other fide, the 
regulars were charged with killing 
the old, the infirm, the unarmed, 
and the wounded, without mercy ; 
with burning feveral houfes, and 
plundering every thing that came 
in their way ; we have had too 
conftant and uniform an experience 
of the honour of our officers, and 
the humanity of our foldiers, not 
to confider this account as equally 
exaggerated. 

This affair > immediately called 
up the whole province in arms ; 
and though a fufficient number 
were fpeedily affembled effedually 
to invell the king's troops in Bofton, 
it was with difficulty that the crowds 
who were hattily marching from 
different parts, could be prevailed 
upon to return to their refpedive 
homes. The body of militia which 
furrounded Bofton, amounted, as it 
was faid, to above 20,000 mfen, 
under the command of the Colonels 
Ward, Pribble, Heath, Prefcot, 
and Thomas, who for the prefent 
adled as generals, and having fixed 
their head quarters at Cambridge, 

formed 



HISTORY Oe EUROPE. l*iig 



fbrmcd a line of encampmenr, the 

' right mnv; of which extended from 

li: - ' n CO Roxbury, and the left 

•) i\' -tck, the diftance between 

ihe points being about thirty miles. 

This line they ftrengthened with 

I artillery. They were Ipeedily join- 

' cd by Colotiel Putnam, an old and 

I brave provincial officer, who had 

acquired- experience and reputation 

in the two Ull wars. He encamped 

with a large detachment of Con- 

nefticat troops in fuch a pnfitioo, 

US to b€ readily able to fupport 

thofe who xvere before the town. 

In the mean time the provincial 
congreis, which was now removed 
to Watertown, drew up anaddrefs 
to the inhabitants of Great-Britain, 
in which they Hated the molt mate- 
rial particulars, relative to the late 
engagement, and took pains to 
fliew, that hoftiliiies were firft com- 
menced, and blood drawn, both at 
Lexington and Concord, by the re- 
gulars. They complain of the ra- 
vages comnfiitted by them in tlrcir 
retreat ; place much dependence on 
the honour, wifdom, and valour of 
Britons, from which they hope their 
interference in preventing the pro- 
fecution of meafures, which, they 
reprefent, as equally ruinous to the 
mother country and the colonies j 
they make great profeffions of 
loyalty ; but declare, that they will 
not tamely fubmit to the permea- 
tion and tyranny of a cruel mini- 
ftry, and (appealing to Heaven for 
the juftice of their caufe) that they 
are determined to die or be free. 

The provincial congrefs alfo 
pafTed a vote for the array and fup- 
port of an army ; fixed the pay of 
the officers and foldiers, and pub- 
lilhed rules and orders for its regu- 
lation and government. To pro- 
vide for the military expence, ihey 
Vol. XVill. 1775. 



paffed a vote for the ifTuing of a 
confiderable fum in paper currency, 
which was to be received in all cafey 
as money, and the faith of the pro- 
vince pledged for its payment. A& 
the term for which they were chofea 
was to expire on the 30 th of May v 
they gave notice for thp eleftion of 
a new congrefs, to meet on the 31ft 
of that month at the fame places 
and tabe continued for fix months/ 
and no longer. They , , , 
alfo paffed a refoiu- ^^^^X Sta- 
tion, that Genernl Gage had, by 
the late tranfa£tion^, and many 
other means, utterly dilqualified 
himfelf from ferving that colony as 
a governor, or in any other capa* 
city, and that therefore- no obe- 
dience was in future due to him | 
but that on the contrary he ought 
to be confidered and guarded againrt, 
as an unnatural and inveterate ene- 
my to the country. 

The affair at Lexington (though 
fome fuch event mull have beea 
long forefeen and expeded) excited 
the greateft indignation in the other 
colonies, and they prepared for 
war with as much" eagernefs and 
difpatch as if an enemy had already 
appeared at each of their doors. 
The bravery fliewn by the militia 
in this their firll effay, and the fup- 
pofed advantages they had obtained 
over the regulars, werq matters of 
great exultation ; while thofe who 
tell in the adtion were regretted 
with the deepeft concern, and ho- 
noured, not only as patriots, but as 
martyrs, who had died bravely in 
the caufe of their country. The 
outrages and cruelties charged upon 
the king's forces, however unjuftry 
founded, produced a great effcd, 
and increafed the public (ever. 

In fome places the magazines 
were feized, and in Nevv-Jerfev^hs 

[*/] treufury ; 



130*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



treafury ; a cotifidcrable^' fum of 
iponey in which was appropriated 
to the payment of the troops they 
were railing. At the iame time, 
without waiting for any concei t or 
advice, a l^op was almoft every 
where put to the exportation of 
provilions ; and in fome places all 
exportation was ilopr, till the opi- 
nion of the general congrefs upon 
that fubjeft was known. Lord 
North's conciliatory plan, or the 
refolution founded upon it, was to- 
tally rejeded by the affeniblies of 
Penfylvania and New-Jerfey ; nor 
was it received any where. 

In the mean time, the governor 
and forces at Bofton, as well as the 
inhabi rants, continued clofely block- . 
ed up by land ; and being (hut out 
from all fupplies of frelh provifions 
and vegetables, which the neigh- 
bouring countries could have af- 
foVded by fea, they began to expe- 
rience thofe^ inconveniences which 
afterwards amounted to real diflrefs. 
As the inhabitants had now no 
other refource for their fubfiftance 
than the king's llores, the provin- 
cials were the more flri(S in pre- 
venting all fupplies, hoping that 
the want of provifions would lay the 
governor under a necefTity of con- 
fenting to their departure from the 
"town ; or at leafl that the women 
and children would be fuffered to 
depart, which was repeatedly ap- 
plied for. Jt is probable that the 
governor confidered the inhabitants 
as necefiary hoftages for the fecurity 
of the town, atleaft, if not of the 
troops. However it was, he at 
length entered into a capitulation 
with the inhabitants, by which, 
upon condition of delivering up 
their arms, they were to have free 
liberty to depart with all their 
Other efFeds. The inhabitants ac- 



cordingly delivered up their arms ; 
but to their utter difmay and ailo- 
nilhment, the governor refufed to 
fultil the conditions on his fide. 
This breach of faith, and the con- 
fequences that attended it, were ,^. 
much complained of. Many, how- I 
ever, both then, and at different 
times after, obtained permiflion to 
quit the town ; but they were 
obliged to leave all their eiFe£ls 
behind ; fo that thofe who had 
hitherto lived in eafe and af- 
fluence, were at once reduced to 
the extremity of indigence and mi- 
fery. The general congrefs ranked 
amwigft their bitterert complaints, 
the fufferings of the inhabitants in 
this refped. They fay that paff- 
ports were granted or retained in 
fuch a manner, that families were 
broken and the dearell connexions 
feparnted ; part being compelled 
to quit the town, and part retained 
againft their will. This, by far 
the mofl diflionourable to goi'ern- 
ment, we are obliged in fairnefs to 
ftate according to the provincial 
narrative, no other having appeared 
to contradift or qualify it. The 
poor and the helplefs were all fent 
out. 

The continental con- yr , 

grefs having met at the ^ 
time appointed at Philadelphia, 
foon adopted fuch meafures as con- 
firmed the people in their refolution 
and conduct. Among their firft 
ads were refolutions for the raifing 
of an army, and the ellablifhment 
of a large paper currency for its 
payment ; the ** United Colonies" 
(by which appellation they refolved 
that they Ihould be known and di- 
flinguiflied for the future) being fe- 
curities for realizing the nominal 
value of this currency. They alfo 
llriaiy prohibited the fupplying of 

the 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [*i3i 



the Britifti fifheries with any kind 
of provilion ; and to render this or- 
der the more etfeclual, liopt all ex- 
portation to ihofe colonies, iilands, 
and places, which ftill retained their 
obedience. This meafure, which 
does not feem to have been expell- 
ed, or even apprehended at home, 
occafioned no Imall diltrefs to the 
people at Newfoundland, and to all 
thole employed in the ti(heries ; 
inforauch that to prevent an abfo- 
lute famine, feveral Ihips were un- 
der a neceflity of returning light 
from that ftationi to carry out car- 
goes of provifions from Ireland. 

The city and province of New- 
York, notwithilanding their former 
moderation, feemed, upon receiv- 
ing an account of the late adlion, 
to receive ahb a plentiful portion 
of that fpirit which operated in the 
other colonies. A mofl numerous 
aflbciation was accordingly formed, 
and a provincial congrefs eleded. 
But as fome regiments from Ireland 
were expeded fpeedily to arrive 
there, and that capital^ befides, 
lies open to the fea, its fituation 
became very critical. In thefc cir- 
cumftances, a body of Connc6licut 
men arrived in the neighbourhood 
of that city, avowedly for its protec- 
tion, and probably alfo to fupport 
the prefent difpofition of the peo- 
ple. Their llrength was not, how- 
ever, fuffieient to afford an effectual 
proieflion ; nor, if it had been 
greater, would it have availed 
. againll an attack by fea. The city 
Accordingly applied, through its 
delegates, to the continental con- 
grefs for inllruftions how to aft 
upon the arrival of the troops. The 
congrefs advifed them for the pre- 
fent, to ad defenfively with refped 
to the troops, h far as it could be 
dgae aonfiilently with theii: own fe- 



curity ; — to fufFer them to occupy 
their barracks, fo long as they be- 
haved peaceably and quietly ; but 
not to iufFer them to ercd any for- 
tification, Or in any manner to cut 
off tie communications between the 
city and country ; and if they at- 
tempted holUlities, that they fhould 
defend themfelves, and repel force 
by force. They alfo recommended 
to them to provide for the worfl 
that might happen, by fecuring 
places of retreat for the women and 
children ; by removing the arms 
and ammunition from the maga- 
zines ; and by keeping a fuffieient 
number of men embodied for the 
protedion of the inhabitants in ge- 
neral. The departure of fo many 
helplefs objeds from the places of 
their habitation, was a very afFed- 
ingfpedicle. That once flourifh- 
ing commercial city was now be- 
come almofl a defart* It was by 
its own inhabitants devoted to the 
flames. It happened, perhaps hap- 
pily for New -York, that the troops 
being more wanted at Boflon, were 
not landed thefe. 

In the mean time, feveral private 
pcfrfons belonging to the back parts 
of ConnedicutjMafTachufett's, and 
New-York, undertook at their owa 
rifque, and without any public com- 
mand or participation, an expedi- 
tion of the utraoft importance, and 
which not only in its confequences 
moft materially affeded the intereft 
and power of government in the 
colonies ; but had brought th« 
queftion to the critical nicety of a 
point, and the dccifion to depend 
merely upon accident, whether we 
fhould have a fingle poffeflion Uft 
in North- America. 1 his was the 
furprize of ficonderoga, Crown- 
Point, and other fortreifes, fituated 
upon the great Ukii, and command- 

[*/] 2 ing 



132*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



ing the paffes between the Britifh 
colonies and Canada. It feems 
that fome of thofe who were among 
the firlt that formed this defign, 
and had fet out with the greateft 
privacy in its profecution, met by 
the way with others, who, without 
any previous concert, were embark- 
ed in the fame proje6l ; fo extenfive 
was that fpirit of enterprize which 
thefe unhappy contefts called into 
aftion. Thefe adventurers, amount- 
ing in the whole to about 240 men, 
under the command of a Colonel 
Eafton, and a Colonel Ethan Al- 
len, with great perfeverance and 
addrefs, furprized the fmall garri- 
fons of Ticonderoga and Crown 
Point. Thefe fortrefles were taken 
without the lofs of a man* on either 
iide. They found iri the forts a 
confiderable artillery, amounting, 
as they faid, to above 200 pieces 
of cannon, beiides fbme mortars, 
howitzs, and quantities of various 
ilores, which v/ere to them highly 
valuable ; they alfo took two vei- 
iels, which gave them the com- 
mand of Lake Champlain, and ma- 
terials ready prepared at Ticonde- 
roga for the building and equipping 
«^f others. 

>T .u During thefe tranf- 
May 25th. ^a;^^^ ^j^^ Q^„^^^,, 

^owe, Burgoyne, and Clinton, ar- 
rived at Boflon from England, to- 
gether with a confiderable number 
of marines, and draughts from 
other regiments, to fupply the va- 
caTicies there. Thefe were fooii 
followed by feveral regiments from 
Ireland, fo that the force at Bofton, 
with refpeft to number, the good- 
Befs of the troops, and the charac- 
ter of the commanders, was become 
tery refpedable ; and it was gene- 
rally believed, that matters could 
not continue much longer in their 
thea fituation. 



Nothing remarkable had yer 
happened fince the commencement 
of the blockade, except two fmall 
engagements which arofe from the 
attempts of either party to carry off 
the Hock of fome of thofe fmall 
iflartds, with which the Bay^ of 
Boflon is inlerfperled, and which 
afforded the mixed fpeftacle of 
Ihips, boats, and men, engaged by 
land and water. In both thefe 
fkirmifhes (each of which continued 
for many hours) the king*s troops 
were foiled, with fome lofs ; and 
in the laft, which happened at 
Hogg and Noddle's-Iflands, an arm- 
ed fdhooner being left by the- tide, 
the people, after Handing a fe- 
verfe fire of fmall arms, and two 
pieces of artillery from the Ihore, 
were at length obliged to abandon 
her, and fhe was burnt by the pro- 
vincial^ 

Notwithftandfng the late rein- 
f6fc€ttiCnt$, and the arrival of ge- 
nerals of the nvoft a.6{\ve charafter, 
the troops continued for fome time 
v^ry quierat Boflon. On the other 
fide, ir is probable that an attempt 
would have been made to florm 
that town, while the people were 
hot in blood after the affair of 
Lexington, if a concern for the pre- 
fervation of the inhabitants had not 
prevailed over every other confider- 
ation. It mull however be allowed, 
thai from the number ofveffelsof 
v/ar, which nearly furrounded the 
pehinfula, as well as the vaft ar- 
tillery by which it was protefled, 
arid the excellency of the troops, 
that fuch an attempt mull have been 
attended with great difficulty and 
danger, and that the dellruflion of 
the town mull have been laid down 
as an inevitable confequence. There 
were other matters alfo of confider- 
ation. A repulfe to new troops, or 
the carnage that would even attend 

fucccfs 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [»! jj 

pcfft-ofHce at Philadelphia, whick 
extended through all the unit«d 
colonies ; and fome time after, 
placed Dr. Franklin, who had been 
difgraced and removed from that 
office in England, at the head of 
it. Thus had they, in eiFecfl, though 
only under the name of recommend- 
ation and counfel, affumed all the 
powers of a fupreme government. 
About the fame time ^ . 

General Gage iflued a J""ei2th. 
proclamation, by which a pardoa 
was offered in the king*s name, to 
all thofe who (hould forthwith lay 
down their arms, and return to 
their refpedive occupations and 
peaceable duties, excepting only 
from thd benefit of the pardon, 
Samuel Adams and John Hancock, 
whole offences were faid to be of 
too flagitious a nature to admit of 
any other confideration than that 
of condign punifhment. Ail thofe 
who did not accept of the proffered 
mercy, or who fhould protedl, afCft, 
fupply, conceal, or correfpond with 
them, to be treated as rebels and 
traitors. It alfo declared, that as 
a flop was put to the due courfe of 
jultice, martial law Ihould take 
place till the laws were reftorcd to 
their due efEcacy. It is neediefs to 
obferve, that this proclamation had 
as little effedt as any of thofe that 
preceded it. Hancock was about 
that time chofen prefident of the 
continental congrefs. 

This proclamation was looked 
upon as the preliminary to imme- 
diate adlion. Accordingly, from 
that moment both fides held them- 
{cXscii in readinefs for it. The pofl 
of Charleltown had hitherto been 
ne^leded by both the parties. The 
provincials thought it neceffary for 
them, whether they fhould chufe to 
ad on the defentive or offenfive. 
Vn 3 They 



fttcccfs in fo arduous a con Hid, 
might have been attended with fa- 
tal confequences ; the people were 
not only new to war, but they 
were in a new and flrange ftate and 
fituations they were entering into 
an untried, unthought of, and un- 
natural conteft, loaded with the 
mod fatal confequences, without 
experience to guide, or precedent 
to dired them ; they had not yet 
in general renouncea all hopes of 
an accommodation, and thofe who 
had not, would totally condemn 
any violence which fhut them ont 
from fo defirable an event ; in fuch 
a wavering flate of hope, fear, and 
uncertainty, much caution was to 
be ufed, as any untoward event, 
might fuddenly damp the ardour 
of the people, dilTolve their refolu- 
tions, and (hake fill their confe- 
deracies to pieces. 

T o.u In the mean time 

June bin, , ,• .. i 

•' the continental con- 

orefs refolved, that the compad 
between the crown and the people 
of Mallachufett's-Bay, was difToiv- 
ed, by the violation of the charter 
of William and Mary ; and there- 
fore recommended to the people of 
that province, to proceed to the 
eflablifhment of a new government, 
by elcding a governor, affiflants, 
and houfe of affembly, according 
to the powers contained in their 
original charter. They pafled aho- 
ther refolution, that no bill of ex- 
change, draught, or order, of any 
officer in the army or navy, their 
agents, or contradors, fhould be 
received or negociated, or any mo- 
ney fupplied to them by any per- 
fon ; and prohibited the fupplying 
of the army, navy, or fhips em- 
ployed in the tranfport fervicc, with 
provihons or neceffaries of any 
kind. They alfo credcd a general 



134*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 

They accordingly made the necef- 
fary preparations, ai^d fent a body 
cf men thither at night with the 
greateft privacy, to throw up works 
upon Bunker*s-Hill, an high ground 
that lies juft within the ifthmus, or 
neck of land that joins the penin- 
fuja to the continent. This penin- 
fula is very fimilar to that on which 
Bofton Hands, excepting that the 
?{lhmus is confiderably wider, and 

that Bunker's-Hill is much higher 

than any hill in the latter. The 

towns are only feparated by 

Charles -River, which in that part 

is only about the breadth of the 

Thames between London and 

Southwark ; fo that Charleftown 

{eemed to hold the fame con- 
nexion with Bofton, that the Bo- 
rough does with that city. 

The party that was fent upon 

this fervice, carried on their works 

with fuch extraordinary order and 

filence, that though the peninfula 

was furrounded with (hips of war, 

they were not heard during the 

night, and ufed fuch incredible dif- 

patch in the execution, that they 

had a fmall but ftrong redoubt, 

confiderable 'entrenchments, and a 
bread- work, that was in fome parts 
cannon proof, far advanced tov"- ards 
, , completion by break 

June 17th. ^^/^y^ The fight of 

the works, was the firft notice that 
alarmed the Lively man of war 
early in the morning, and her guns 
called the town, camp, and fleet 
to behold a fight, which feemed 

little lefs than a prodigy. 

A heavy and continual fire of 

cannon, howitzers, land n^ortars, 

was from thence carried on upon 

the works, from the fliips, floating 

batteries, and from the top of 

Cop's Hill in Bofton. Such a great 

?u^d inceflant roar of artillery, would 



have been a trial to the firmnefs of 
old foldiers, and muft undoubtedly 
have greatly impeded the comple- 
tion of the works ; it is however 
faid, that they bore this fevere hre 
with wonderful firmr.efs, and feem- 
ed 10 go on with their bufinefs as 
if no enemy had been riear, nor 
danger in the fervice. 

About noon. General Gage cauf- 
ed a confiderable body of troops to 
be embarked under the command of 
Major-General Howe and Briga- 
dier-General Pigot, to drive the 
provincials from their works. This 
detachment'confifted of ten compa- 
nies of grenadiers, as many of light 
infantry, and the 5th, 38th, 43d, 
and 5 2d battalions', with a proper 
artillery, who were landed and 
drawn up without oppofition, under 
the fire of the fliips of war. The 
two generals found the enemy fo 
numerous, and in fuch a pofture of 
defence, that they thought it ne- 
ceflary to fend back for a reinforce- 
ment before they commenced the 
attack; they were accordingly join- 
ed by fome companies of light in- 
fantry and grenadiers, by the 47th 
regiment, and by the firft battalion 
of marines, amounting in the whole^ 
as reprefented by General Gage*a 
letter, to fomething more than 
2000 men. 

The attack was begun by a moft 
fevere fire of cannon and howitzers, 
under which the troops advanced 
very flowly towards the enemy, and 
halted feveral times, to aflbrd an 
opportunity to the artillery to ruin 
the works, and to throw the pro- 
vincials into confufion. Whatever 
it proceeded from, whether from 
the number, fituation, or counte- 
nance of the enemy, or from all 
together, the king's forces feem to 
have been unufually ftaggered in 

this 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, ["i jj 



thh attack. The provincials threw 
fome men into the houles of 
CharleitowTiy which covered their 
right flank, by which means. Ge- 
neral Pigot, who commanded our 
left wing, and to whole activity, 
bravery, and firmnefs, much of this 
day's luccels was owing, was at 
once engaged with the lines, and 
with thole in the houfes. In this 
conflict, Charleftown, whether by 
carcaffes thrown from the Ihips, or 
by the troops, is uncertain, was un- 
fortunately ict on fire in feveral 
places, and burnt to the ground. 
The provincials ftood this fevere 
and continual fire of fmajl arms 
and artillery, with a refolution and 
perfeverance, which would not have 
done difcredit to old troops. They 
did not return a ihot, until the 
king's forces had approached almoft 
to the wofks, when a mod dreadful 
fire took place, by which a number 
of our biavefl men and officers fell. 
Some gentlemen, who had fervcd 
in the mofl dillinguifhed adions of 
the lafi: war, declared, that for the 
time it lafted, it was the hotted 
engagement they ever knew. It is 
then no wonder, if under fo heavy 
and dellrudive a fire, our troops 
were thrown into fome diforder. It 
is faid, that General Howe was 
for a few feconds left nearly alone; » 
and it is certain, that moil of the 
officers near his perfon were either 
killed or wounded. His coolnefs, 
firmnefs, and prefence of mind on 
this occafion cannot be too much 
applauded. It fully anfwered all 
the ideas fo generally entertained 
of the courage of his family. It 
is faid, that in this critical mo- 
ment. General Clinton, who ar- 
rived from Bofton during the en- 
gagement, by a happy manoeuvre 
rallied the troops almoft inllanca- 



neoufly, and brought them agaia 
to the charge. 'However that was, 
their ufual intrepidity now produced 
its ufual efFedls ; they attacked the 
works with fixed bayonets, and ir- 
refilUble fury, and forced them in 
every quarter. Though many of 
the provincials were deititute of 
bayonets, and, as they affirm, their 
ammunition was expended, a num- 
ber of them fought defperately 
within the works, and were not 
drove from them without difficulty. 
They at length retreated over 
Charleftown neck, which was en- 
filaded by the guns of the Giafgovv 
man of war, and of two rioating 
batteries. They fufFered but little 
lofs from this formidable artillery, 
though the dread of it had pre- 
vented fome regiments who were 
ordered to fupport them from ful- 
filling their duty. 

Thus ended the hot and bloody 
affair of Bunker's-Hill, in which 
we had more men and Officers killed 
and wounded, in proportion to the 
number engaged, than in any other 
acflion which we can recoiled. The 
whole lofs in killed and wounded, 
amounted to 1054, of whom 226 
were killed ; of thefe, 19 were com- 
miffioned officers, including a lieu- 
tenant-colonel, 2 majors, and 7 
captains ; 70 other officers were 
wounded. Among thole who were 
more generally regretted upon this 
occafion, were Lieutenant colonel 
Abercromby, and the brave Major 
Pitcairne of^ the marines. The ma- 
jors Williams and Spendlove, the 
laft of whom died of his wounds 
fome time after the aclion, had alfo 
fealed their lives with fuch diftin- 
guifhed honour, as to render their 
lofs the more fenfibly felt. The 
event fufficiemly fliewed the bravery 
of the king's troops. There was 

[♦/] 4 fcarcely 



136*3 HISTORY OF EUROPE, 



icarceJy a fmgle offi<:er who had not 
fome. opportunity of iignaiizing 
himfelf; the generals and field 
officers ufed the moft extraordinary 
exertions. All thefe circumftances 
■concur in {hewing the hard and 
dangerous fervice in which they 
were engaged. The battle of Que- 
bec, in the late war, with all its 
glory, and the vaftnefs of the con- 
lequenCes of which it was produc- 
tive, was not fo deftruflive to our 
officers, as this affair of a retrench- 
ment caft up in a few hours. Jt 
was a matter of grievous refleftion, 
that thofe brave rtien, many of 
whom had nobly contributed their 
ihare, when engaged againft her 
natural enemies, to extend the mi- 
litary glory of their country into 
every quarter* of the globe, ihould 
now have fuifered fo feverely, in 
only a prelude to this unhappy ci- 
vil conteft. 

The fate of Charleftown was alfo 
a matter of melancholy contempla- 
tion to the ferious and unprejudiced 
of.ali paiti'js. Tt was the hrft fet- 
tkment made in the colony, and 
was confidered as thei mother of 
Eodon, that town owing its birth 
and nurture to" emigrants from the 
former. Charkilown was large, 
handibme, and v^ell built, both in 
refpedl to its public and private 
edihcss ; it contained about 400 
houfes, and had the greatell trade 
of any port in the pruvince except 
Bollon. Jt is faid, that the two 
ports cleared out a thoufand vefTels 
annually for a foreign trade, exclu- 
five of an infinite number of coaft- 
ers. It is now buried in its ruins. 
Such is the termination of human 
labour, induflry, and wifdom ; and 
ilich are the fatal fruits of civil dif- 
(entions. 

Th^e king's troops took five pieces 



of cannon out of fix, which the 
provincials brought into the penin- 
fula ; and they left about 30 wound- 
ed behind them. No other pri- 
foners were taken. Their lofs, ac- 
cording to an account publilhed by 
the provincial congiefs, was com- 
paratively fmall, amounting to about 
450 killed, wounded, miffing, and 
prifoners. On our fide they are 
confident, that thd llaughter was 
much more confiderable ; but of 
this we had no particulars, as the 
account faid, that the provincials 
buried a great number of their dead 
during the engagement. This is 
an extraordinary circumftance. But 
the lofs they lamented moft, was 
that of Dr. Warren, who adting as 
a major-general, commanded the 
party upon thisoccafion, and was kil- 
led, fighting bravely at their head, 
in a little redoubt to the right of the 
lines. This gentleman, who wa.s 
rendered confpicuous by his general 
merit, abilities, and eloquence, had 
been one of the delegates to the firft 
general, and was at this time pre- 
fident of the provincial congrefs ; 
but quitting the peaceable walk of 
his profeffion as a phyfician, and 
breaking through the endearing 
ties of family fatisfaftions, he Ihew- 
«d himfelf equally calculated for the 
field, as for public bufinefs or pri- 
vate ftudy, and fiied his blood gal- 
lantly in, what he deemed, the fer- 
vice of his country. They loft 
fome other officers of name, one of 
whom, a lieutenant colonel, died of 
his wounds in the prifon at Bofton. 

Both fides claimed much honour 
from this adion. The regulars, 
from having, it was faid, beaten 
three times their own number out 
of a ftrongly fortified poll, and un- 
der various other diiadvantages. 
On the other fide, they rcprefented 

the 



HISTORY 0,F EUROPE. [*iij 



the regulars as amounting to 3000 
;nen, and raced theix own number 
only at 1500 ; and pretended, that 
this fmall body not only withilood 
their attack, and repeatedly re- 
paired them with great lofs, not- 
vvichilanding the powerful artillery 
they had brought with them, but 
that they had at the fame time, and 
lor feveral hours before, fuftained a 
moil intolerable fire, from. the fliips 
of war, floating batteries, and fix- 
ed battery at Bolton, which pre- 
vented them from being able in 
any degt-ee to finiih their works. 
What their exacl number was can- 
not be eafily knowh. It was not 
probably fo large as it was made in 
the Gazette account ; nor fo fmall 
as in that given by the Americans. 
However, the provincials were by 
no means dilpirited by the ev^nt of 
this engagement. They had Ihewn 
a great degree of adivity and flcill 
in the conitrudicn of their works ; 
and of conllancy, in maintaining 
them under many difadvantages. 
'^i bey faid, that though they had 
loft a poll, they had aimoft all the 
elFedls of the moll compleat vic- 
tory ; as they entirely put a (lop to 
vV offenfive operations of a large 
aj^ny fent to fubdue them ; and 
which tiiey continued to blockade 
in a narrow town. They now ex- 
ulted, that their adions had tho- 
roughly refuted thofe afperfions 
which had been thrown upon them 
in England, of a deficiency in fpx- 
rit aud refojution. 

From this time, the troops kept 
poiTefiion of thp peninfula, and for- 
tified Bunker's-Hill and the en- 
trance ; fo that the force at Bollon 
was now divided into two diilin<fl 
parts, and had two garrifons to 
maintain. In one fenfe, this was 
^kiU i;0 tke trpoi$, as it enlarged 



their quarters ; they having hejsa 
before much incommoded by the 
ftreightnefs in which they were con- 
fined in Bofton, during the exceiTivje 
heats that always prevail there at 
that feafon of the year; but this 
advantage w^s counterbalanced by 
the great additional duty which 
they were now obliged to perform. 
Their fituation was irkfome and 
degrading. They were furrounded 
and infulted by an enemy whom 
they had been taught to defpife. 
They were cut oif from frefh provi- 
fions, and all thofe refrelhments of 
which they flood in the greateft 
need, and which the neighbouring 
countries afford, d in the* greatelt 
plenty. Thus their wants were 
continual and aggravating remem- 
brancers of the circum fiances of 
their fituation. Bad and (alt pro- 
vifions, with confinement and the 
heat of the climate, naturally filled 
the hofpiials ; and the number' of 
fick and wounded was now faid to 
amount to 1600. Under thefe cir- 
cumftances it was rather wonderful 
that the number vv'as »ot greater. 
But few in com pari fon died. 

The provincials, after the sdionat 
Bunker's-Hill, immediately threw 
up^ works upon another hill oppofitc 
to it on their fide of Charlcllown 
neck ; fo that the troops were as 
clofely invefted in that peninfula as 
they had been in Bollon. They 
were alfo indefatigable in fecuring 
the moll expofed pofls of their lines 
with flrong redoubts covered with 
artillery, and advanced their woiks 
clofe to the fortifications on Bollon 
neck; where, with, equal boldnefs 
and addrefs, they burnt an advanced 
guard houfe belonging to our peo- 
ple. As the latter were abundantly 
furnifhed with all manner of mili- 
tary llores and artiUery, they were 

not 



I38»] HISTORY OF EUROPE, 



BOt fparing in throwing (hells, and 
fupporting a great cannonade upon 
the works of the provincials, which 
had little other efFedt than to inure 
them to that fort of fervice, and to 
wear off the dread of thofe noify 
meffengers of fate. On the other 
fide, they feemed to have been cau- 
tious in expending their powder. 

A regiment of light cavalry which 
arrived at Bofton from Ireland, and 
which were never ,able to fet foot 
beyond that garrifon, ferved only 
to create new wants, and to in- 
creafe the incommodities of the 
people, as well as of the army. 
The hay which grew upon the 
iflands in the bay, became now an 
object of neceffary attention, as 
well as the Iheep and cattle which 
they contained ; but the provincials 
having procured a number of whal- 
ing-boats, and being mailers of the 
feore and inlets of the bay, were, 
notwithftanding the vigilance and 
number of the fhips of war and 
armed veflels, too fuccefsful in 
burning, dellroying, or carrying 
away, thofe eflential articles of fup- 
ply. Thefe enterprizes brought 
on feveral fkirmilhes, and they grew 
at length fo daring, that they burnt 
the light-houfe, which was fituated 
on an ifland at the entrance of the 
harbour, though a man of war lay 
within a mile of them at tlie time ; 
and fome carpenters being after- 
wards fent, under the protection of 
a fmall party of marines, to ered a 
temporary light-houfe, they killed 
or carried off the whole detach- 
ment. 

During thefe tranfaflions a kind 
of predatory war commenced, and 
has fmce continued, between the 
Ihips of war, and the inhabitants 
on different parts of the coafts. 
The former, being refufed the fup- 



plies of provifions and necefTaries 
which they wanted for themfelves 
or the army, endeavoured to obtain 
them by force, and in theie at- 
tempts were frequently oppofed, 
and fometimes repulfed with lofs by 
the country people. The feizing 
of fhips in conformity to the new 
laws, or to the commands of the 
admiral, was alfo a continual fource 
of animofity and violence, the pro- 
prietors naturally hazarding all 
dangers in the defence, or for the 
recovery of their property. Thefe 
contefls drew the vengeance of the 
men of war upon leveral of the > 
fmall towns upon the fea coalls, 
fome of which underwent a feverc 
challifement. j 

The pernicious confequenccs of ! 
the late Quebec- ad, with refpeit to 
the very purpofes for which it was 
framed, were now difplayed in a 
degree, which its moft fanguine op- 
ponents could fcarcely have exped^ 
ed. Jnftead of gaining the French 
Canadians to the interelt of govern- 
ment by that Ikw, the great body 
of the inhabitants were found as 
adverfe to it, and as much difgufted 
at its operation, as even the Britifh 
fettlers. General Carleton, the go- 
vernor of that province, who had 
placed much confidence in the raif- 
ing of a confiderable army of Ca- 
nadians, and being enabled to 
march at their head to the relief of 
General Gage, (a matter which 
was fo much relied upon at home, 
that 20,000 Itands of arms, and 
a great quantity of other military 
flores had been fent out for that 
purpofe) found himfelf now totally 
difappointed. The people faid that 
they were now under the Britifh 
government ; that they could not 
pretend to underfland the caufes of 
the prefent difputes, nor the juftice 

of 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [^139 



of the' claims on either fide; that 
they did, and would (hew them- 
felves dutiful fubjeds, by a quiet 
and peaceable demeanor, and due 
obedience to the government under 
which they were placed ; but that 
it was totally inconfiftent with their 
ftate and condition, to interfere, or 
in any degree to render themfelves 
parties, in the conteds that might 
arife between that government and 
its ancient fubjecls. It was in vain 
that the governor iffued a procla- 
mation for afTembling the militia, 
and for the execution of martial 
law ; they faid they would defend 
the province if it was attacked ; 
but they abfo'utely refufed to march 
out of it, or to commence hoftilities 
with their neighbours. The go- 
vernor, as the lalt refort, applied to 
the Bifliop of Quebec, to ufe his 
fpiritual influence and authority 
with the people towards difpofing 
them to the adoption of this favou- 
rite meafure, and particularly that 
he would iflue an epifcopal mandate 
for that purpofe, to be read by the 
pariih pricfts in the time of divine 
fervice j but the biftiop excufed 
himfelf from a compliance with this 
propofition, by reprelenting, that 
an epifcopal mandate on fuch a 
fuhjed, would be contrary to the 
canons of the Roman Catholic 
church. The ecclefiaftics, in the 
place of this, iffued other letters, 
which were however pretty gene- 
rally difregarded. The noblefle 
alone, who were chiefly confidered 
in the Quebec-aft, fliewed a zeal 
againft the Englifli colonifts. But, 
feparated as they were from the 
great body of the people, they ex- 
hibited no formidable degree of 
ilrength. 

Oilier endeavours which were 
^fed to involve the colonies in do- 



meftic troubles proved equally abor- 
tive. Confiderable pains were taken, 
by the means of feveral agents who 
had influence on them, to engage 
thofe numerous tribes of Indians 
that ftretch along the backs of the 
colonies, to cauie a diverfion, by 
attacking them in thofe weak and 
tender parts. But neither prefents, 
nor perfuafions, were capable of 
producing the defired cffe£i. From 
whatever chance or fortune it pro- 
ceeded, thofe favage warriors, whp 
had at other times been fo ready to 
take up the hatchet without fupport 
or encouragement, now turned a 
deaf ear to all propofals of that na- 
ture, and declared for a neutrality. 
They ufed much the fame reafons 
for this condud that the Canadians 
had done ; they did not anderftand 
the fubjed ; were very forry ibr 
the prefent unfortunate difputes ; 
but it was not iit^ nor becoming for 
them, to take any part in quarrels 
between Englilhmen, for all of 
whom, on both fides of the water, 
they had the highed affedion. 
This was an objed of too much 
importance to be overlooked by the 
congrefs. They accordingly em- 
ployed proper perfons to cultirate 
favourable difpufitions in the In- 
dians ; and by degrees took fuch 
meafures as obliged the agents for 
government to provide for their 
own fafety. It is faid, that fome of 
the Indians made propofals to take 
up arms on their fide ; but that 
they were only requefled to obfervc 
a ftrid neutrality. 

General Gage's late proclamation 
increafed the animofity, indigna- 
tion, and rage, which were already 
fo generally prevalent, and brought 
out a declaration from . . , , 
the general congrefs, J^^ 
which, in the nature of thofe general 
appeals 



HO*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



f P^jeals that are made to mankind, 
as well as to heaven, ia a declar- 
ation of war, fet forth the caufes 
9ad necefiity of their taking up 
arins. Among the long liil of 
i;hcfe fyppofed ^aufes, befides the 
laie hoflilities, they ftate the en- 
deavours ufed to iniligate the Ca- 
nadians and 'adians ,to iUcack them, 
and fcvercly ^-eproach General 
Gage, for/ what ibey call, perfidy, 
cryelty, and breach of faith, in 
breaking the conditions which he 
tad entered into with the inhabi- 
tants of. Bodon ; they are not lefs 
free in their cenfure of the army, 
whom they charge with the burning 
cf Charlv^rtown, wantonly and un- 
neceiTiirily. 

In llating their refources, they 
reckon upon foreign aili.llance as un- 
doubtedly attainable, if neceffary. 
Tiiey, however, afterwards fay, that, 
left this declaration fhould difquiet 
the minds cf their friends and ^"el- 
|ow-fubjeds in any part of thp em- 
pir.e, they affure them, that they 
mean not to diiTolve that union 
which has fo long and happily fub- 
lilkd between them, and which 
they fincercly wiHi to fee reftored; 
that necefiity has not yet driven 
them to that defperate meafure, or 
jnduced tliem to excite any biher 
uaiion to war againft them ; they 
have not raifed armies with ambi- 
tious deligns of leparaung from 
Great- Britain, and eftablifliing in- 
dependent f:ates ; they fight not for 
glory or for conqudt.— This de- 
claration was read with great, fe- 
ripus and even religious Iblemnity, 
to the different bodies of the army 
Who were encamped around Bofion, 
and was received by them witli loud 
acclamations of approbation. 

This declaration was followed,by 
an addfcfs to the inhabitants of 



Great-Biitain ; ano^ther to the peo. 



and 



a petition t« 



thefe writings were 



pie of Ireland . 
the king. All 

drawn up in a very mafterly man- 
ner; and are, in refped to art, ad- 
drefs, and execution, equal to any 
public declarations made by any 
powers upon the greatell'occafions. 
The congrefs had in their de- 
claration, without naming it, re- 
probated the principles of Lord 
North's conciliatory proportion, 
which they call an infidious ma- 
noEuvre adopted by parliament. 
They, however, afterwards took 
the refolution more formally into 
confideration. It had been com- 
municated to them by diredion, or 
at leall permiffion from that mini- 
fter, in the hand-writing of Sir 
Grey Cowper, one of the two prin- 
cipal fecretaries of the treafury. 
In the courfe of a long and 'argu- 
mentative difcuffion, they condemn 
it, as unreafonable and infidious ; 
that it is unreafonable, becaufe, if 
they declare they will accede to it, 
they declare, without refervation, 
that they will purchafe the favour 
of parliament, not knowing at the 
fame time at what price they will 
pleafe to ellimate their favour ; that 
it is infidious, becaufe individual 
colonies, having bid, and bidden 
again, till they find the avidity of 
the feller too great for all their 
powers to fatisfy, are then to return 
into oppofition, divided from their 
fifter colonies, whom the minifter 
will have previoufly detached by a 
grant of eafier terms, or by an art- 
ful procraftination of a definitive 
anfwer. They conclude upon the 
whole, that the propofition was 
held up to the world, to deceive it 
into a belief, that there was nothing 
in difpute but the fno^/e of levying 
taxes ; and that parliament having 

now 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [•141 



>\v been To gocd as to give up 
lat, the colonics mud be unrea- 
)nable in the higheft cfegrec if 
ihey were ntjc pcrfeftly fatisfied. 

The colony of Georgia at length 
ioined in the general aifiancE. A 
' rovincial congrefs having' afTem- 
led in the beginning of the month 
f July, they Ipeedily agreed to all 
the refoiutions of the two general- 
congrefll's in their utmoft extent> 
and appointed five delegates to at- 
tend the prefent. As it were to 
make amends for the delay, they 
at once entered into all the fpirit of 
the refoiutions formed by the other 
colonies, and adopied fimilar ; aild 
declared, that though their province 
was not included in any of the op- 
prcflive ads lately pafled againll 
America, they ccnfidered chat cir- 
cumitance as an infulc rather than 
a favour, as being done only with 
a view to divide them from their 
Americati brethren. They alfo 
addfeffed a petition, uhdfci- the ritle 
of an humble addre^fs and reprefe'tir- 
ation, to his majefty ; which, how- 
ever threadbare the fubJ£<5t had al- 
ready been worn, was not defitient 
in a certain freihnefs of colouring, 
which gave it the appearance of 
novelty. From this acceffion to the 
confederacy, they henceforward af- 
funafed the appellation of the Thir- 
fcen United Colonics. 

In the mean time the general 
congrefs, in ^compliance with the 
wifhes of the people in general, 
and the particular application of 
the New- England provinces, ap- 
pointed George Walhington, Efq; 
a gentleman of affluent fortune in 
Virginia, and whd had acquired 
confiderable military experience in 
the command of different bodies of 
the provincials during the laft war, 
to be general snd commander in 



chief of all the American forces- 
They alfo appointed Artemus 
Ward, Charles Lee, Philip Schuy- 
ler, and Jfrael Putnamy Efqrs. to 
be major-generals ; and Horj^tio 
Gates, Efi^;' adjutant- general. OF 
thefegeneralroflfcers, Lee and Gates 
vCere Engllf^ gentlemen, who had 
acquired honour in the laft war j 
a^d who from difgufl or prinfcipre 
now joined the Americans" Ward 
and Putnam wereof Maffachufett's- 
Bay, and Schuyler of New- York, 
The congrefs alfo fixed and affign- 
ed the pay of both officers and lo?- 
diers ; the latter of whorn w«re 
much better provided for than thofe 
upon ouf eiTabiifhmient. ' 

The Generals Wafliington and 
Lee arrived at the ca. -tip ba fore Bbf- 
ton in the beginning of July. They 
Were treated ^^ith the higheH: ho- 
nours in every place through which 
they patTed ; were efcorted by large 
detachments of volunteers, cam- 
pofed cf gentlemen, in tbe diffe- 
rent prdviiices ; and received pub- 
lic addreffes from the provincial 
congreffes of New-York and Maf- 
iachufett's-Bay. The military fpi- 
rit was now fo high and fo general, 
that v.ar and" irs preparations occu- 
pied the hands and tne minds of 
all orders of people throughout the 
continent. Perfons of fortune and 
family, who were not appointed 
officefs, entered chearfully as pri- 
vate men, and ferved with alacrity 
in the ranks. Even many of the 
younger quakers forgot their pafiivc 
principles of forbearance and non- 
rcliltance, and talking lip arms, 
formed themfelves into companies 
at Philadelphia, and applied with 
the greateft labour and, alTiduity to 
acquire a proficiency in military 
exercifcs and difcipline. It was 
faid, (but no computation of- that 

for: 



t42*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



fort can be afccrtained) that no 
lefs than 200,000 men were in 
arms and training throughout the 
continent. 

The blockade of Bofton was con- 
tinued with little variety, through- 
the year, and during a confiderable 
part of the enfuing. The troops, 
as well as the remaining inhabi- 
tants, iuitered much from fevers. 



fluxes, and the fcurvy, which were 
brought on through confinement, 
heat of weather, and badnefs of 
provifions. Other matters which 
originated in this feafon, partica- 
larly the proceedings on the fide of 
Canada, being extended in their 
principal conlequenccs into the en- 
fuing year, will with more pro- 
priety find a place in its hiilory. 



CHAP. IX. 

SpMn, Priparaiions againji Algiers, Siege of Melille raifed. Spanijh 
armament effeSi a landing near Algiers ; engagement nuith the Moors 3 
Spaniards repulfed, and obliged to retire to their Jkips, War continued 
n^ith Morocco, Italy. Cardinal Brafchi eleded Pope. CharaBer and 
condu Si of the nen,v pontiff, tnquijttion aholijhed in Milan, Scarcity bf 
€orn, and dijlreffes of the people in France ; great dijiurbances ; coronation 
at Rheims. InfurreSiion and devajiations of the pea/ants in Bohemia, 
Grand commijjion appointed. EdiSlfrom the court of Vienna in fa<vour of 
the peafantSy puts an end to the troubles. Poland. Treaty of cGm?nerce 
luith the King of PruJJia. Regulations in fa'vour of the DiJJidents. 
RuJJia, Execution of Pugatfcheff. Taxes laid on for the fupport of the 
late ivar taken off. Various other regulations for the benefit of the people. 
Trade on the black fea. Turky. Death of Meheinet Aboudaab. Death 
oftheChiekDaher, Siege of Baffora. 



EUROPE has not for a long 
time, been fo deftitiite of mat- 
ter for political fpeculation, as in 
the year of which we treat. The 
keeping up of vaft Handing armies, 
and an avidity for increafing them 
equal to what the moft immediate 
danger could excite, are now be- 
come fo common, as neither to pro- 
duce furprize or apprehenlion. Re- 
views, encampments, with the con- 
tinual marching and manoeuvring 
of troops, are grown equally fami- 
liar ; they are confidered as com- 
mon occurrences, and paflcd over 
without notice or obfervation. The 
fmall princes find other amufements 
to call oiF their attention from mi- 
litary and political affairs 3 matters 



in which, in the prefent ftate of a 
few overgrown powers, they are in- 
deed but little concerned. The 
gt-eat powers are fo nearly poized, 
as neither wantonly to feek, nor 
much to dread a rupture. Thus a 
general diftribution of flrength is 
capable of producing the fame ef- 
feds, which a general imbecility 
has often done. Europe, however, 
has the feeds of contention at all 
times plentifully lodged in her bo- 
fom, and her fertile foil, in a fa- 
vourable feafon, makes them fhoot 
with wonderful luxuriance. A fmall 
change in the circumftances of any 
of the leading parties, would foon 
involve the reft in its confequences, 
and might, wiUiout the concurrence 

of 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [*i4;J 



cf any improbable, or even very 
Extraordinary events, give a new 
'jLCc to the prefenc political ryftem. 

It was relerved for the Spanifti 
monarch, to attrad this year the 
general attention. The vaft pre- 
parations he made for chaftiiing 
the rtates of Barbary, feemed fo 
much beyond their objed, that the 
tribe of politicians, who are gene- 
rally apt to refine upon the fimpleft 
things, and to fufped fome myilery 
in the moil obvious, predicfled dan- 
ger to more than one of his neigh- 
bours. Indeed thefe preparations 
were fo mighty, that they might 
well alarm any of thofe who fup- 
pofed themfclves liable to be their 
objedl ; and it is not improbable 
that fome apprehenfions were raifed, 
which were only removed when 
their ultimate deftination was afcer- 
tained by the event. 

The Hate of Algiers, however, 
expedled and prepared for this at- 
tack. Their prefent Dey is a man 
of ability ; and has taken certain 
meafures which render it fufpeded, 
that he has formed a defign of per- 
petuating that government in his 
family. He left nothing undone to 
render the place fecure j and pro- 
cured fome Chrillian engineers to 
conllrud new batteries, and 
ftrengthen the old works. Though 
the tortifications are confidcrable, 
and covered by an enormous artil- 
lery, an enemy has Itill greater ob- 
Itacles to encounter in the nature of 
the climate, and of the adjoining 
country ; the heat of the weather, 
with the fcarcity of vvater, and the 
lightnefs and fandinefs of the foil, 
rendering the fubfiftence and oper- 
ations of an army extremely diffi- 
cult. To thefe obftruAions may 
be added a ftill greater in the dan- 
gerous nature of a moil turbulent 



fea, and of an open inhofpitablc 
coaft, which for a long extent af- 
fords no fhelter to the fleet, which 
muft indifpenfibly cover and fup- 
port an army in fuch an enterprife. 
The Algerines arc not, how«ver, 
deftitute of a bold and daring mili- 
tia ; but have a ftill much greater 
refource, in the courage and num- 
bers of the native moors, and nu- 
merous tribes of Arabs, who over- 
fpread their extenfive territories ; 
and who, however they may Hand 
affeded to the ftate of Algiers, arc 
always ready, from the mortal aver- 
fion they bear the Spaniards, to en- 
gage in any oppofition or enterprife 
againrt them. 

The former have at all times 
been peculiarly unfortunate in their 
attempts upon Africa. It would 
fcera as if Providende intended, 
upon thofe occafions, to punifh 
them, for the cruelty and injuftice 
which they pradifcd upon the 
Moors in Spain. The fatal expe- 
dition of Charles the Vth ta Al- 
giers, in which he loft the fineH 
army, and ruined the moft power- 
ful navy then in Europe, is well 
known. Neither have the attempts 
of other European powers upon that 
city been attended with much ho- 
nour or advantage. Thefe circum- 
ilances, however, were not fufficient 
to deter the prefent king of Spain, 
from going to an immenfe expencc, 
and fitting out a prodigious arma- 
ment by Tea and land for the de- 
ftrudion of that piratical city and 
ftate. 

The fiege of Melille, was unfuc- 
cefsfully continued by the Emperor 
of Morocco, till the middle of 
March, and then difgracefully aban- 
doned ; his troops being fo much 
difpirited by their continual lofles, 
and the bravery and perfcverance 

of 



144*] HlSlrORY OF EUROPE. 



of the garrifon, tha^ he did not 
venture .to make ufe of the fcaling 
ladders, and other materials which 
he had prepared for a general af- 
fault. His attempts upon Penon de 
Velez were equally fruitlefs. In^ 
word, no prince ever entered into 
a war more wantonly, or condufled 
it more ihamefully. Yet in thefe cir- 
cumi^ances, and under the terrors 
of a Spaniih invaiion, he refufed 
all propofals of accommodation with 
the Dutch ; with whom he perfifted 
in carrying on a war, which was as 
ill-founded, and as ineffectually 
fupported as the former. So wild 
and unaccountable are the politics 
of ignorant and defpotic princes. 

In the mean time, all Spain 
feemed to be in motion. The ports 
were all crowded and in adion ; 
tranfports of all nations coUefted ; 
great bodies of troops arriving 
everyday in the borders of the Me- 
diterranean ; and every kind of 
military machine for defence or de- 
ftrudlion, were plentifully (lore d on 
board the different fleets at Cartha- 
gena, -Cadiz, and Barcelona. The 
tranfports were ballkiled wiih 
bricks, which evidenced an intention 
of conftruding fortifications and 
works ; and a number of carpenters, 
fmiths, bricklayers, and artificers 
neccfTary for fuch a purpofe, were 
accordingly ihipped. 

The whole fore? aiTcmbled at 
length at Carthagena, and is faid 
to have confided of 7 fail of the 
line, of 74 guns each ; 8 of 40 
guns; 32 frigates from 20 to 36 
guns ; and about 20 Ymaller armed 
veflels of different conHru'dion^ ; 
with 400 tranfpo/ts, and Ip.oop 
feamen and marines. On board 
this navy was an infantry of 22,000 
men, and 4000 cavalry, all com- 
jpofed of the moft diftb^aiihed 



rcgimetits and beft troops in Spain, 
with a prodigious artillery, faid to 
amount in the v/hole, for the f.eld 
and for battery, to 400 pieces, and 
2000 men belonging to the train. 
This formidable force was provided' 
with fuch immenfe quantities of? 
ftores, provifions, and necefTaries, 
as feemed calculated for the efla- 
blilhraent and fupport of a great 
and numerous colony. Several men 
of war were alfo equipped and in 
readinefs in different ports, to fup- 
port this armament in any emer- 
gency. The marine was commanded 
by Don Pedro Caftejon, and the 
land forces by Count O'Reily, whd 
had for feme time ftood^very high 
in eftimaticn in the Spanifli fervice. 
Such a force, in its modern il:ate of 
barbarifm and imbecility, feemed 
fufHcient to overwhelm all Africa. 

The fleet being detained near ^ 
month by contrary winds, did not 
arrive in the bay of Algiers till the;^ 
beginaiDg of July, where the com- 
manders found every appearan-ce of 
a rclolute and vigorous defence. 
They ieem to have been undeter- 
mined for fome time, in what man* 
ner to effe6l a debarkation ; at 
length, a part of the fleet was em- 
ployed to divert the attention 'or 
the entmy by a falfe attack upon 
fome forts near the town, while the 
remainder were dravv'n off to cover 
the troops in their landing, Tht: 
fhips that attacked the forts feem 
to have conduced their buflneia 
very badly, and fufl^ered accord- 
ingly ; but more through mifcon- 
du(tt, than any defign of approach* 
ing too clofely to the enemy. lU 
the mean time, the firft debarkation 
of the troops was fuccefsfully ef- 
fe&td ; about 8000 men being 
landed by 4 0*clock.in the morning, 
and the remainder following with 

great 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [•.45 



great expedition. The falfe attacks 
had not deceived the Algerines, and 
the Spaniards found all the neigh- 
bouring hills covered with great 
bodies of Moors, who, though not 
drawn up in much military or- 
der, (hewed the greatell eagernefs 
to engage them. 

The general's intention was to 
take poflTefHon of a hill which com- 
manded the landing place, and im- 
mediately to throw up fuch works 
as would have rendered it a fecure 
place of arms. By this means- a 
fafe communication would have 
been eftablilhed with the fleet, their 
artillery would have kept the ene- 
my at a proper dillance, and the 
preparations for the fiege would 
have been conduded with due iei- 
fure, and the arrangements accord- 
ingly properly laid. To infure 
fuccefs to his defign, the general 
had ordered the troops of the firft 
divifion to form immediately upon 
the beach, and ftridtly forbade their 
advancing upon the enemy until 
the fecond debarkation was-efFeded, 
and the whole army fupported by 
its artillery, drawn up in order of 
battle. This fcheme, howevtr well 
laid, was overthrown by that inhe- 
rent averfion which fublifls between 
the Spaniards and Moors ; an aver- 
fion in its effedls that feems to equal 
that natural antipathy, which is 
fuppofed to render certain animals 
incapable of enduring each others 
fight, without initantaneous eftbrts 
of mutual deftruftion. 

The firll divifion, with a teme- 
rity and contempt of command 
that difgraced all difcipline, and 
in which the commanders were 
equally culpable, and much more 
t« be condemned than the foldiers, 
quitted the fecurity which their fta- 
tion under the guns of the fleet af- 

YOL.XVIII. 1775. 



forded, and difdaining to wait for 
their fellows, rufhed on to the at- 
tack, and found thcmfelves in a 
few minutes moft defperately en- 
gaged with the Moors, who equal- 
ly eager for the encounter, gave 
them a reception which they little 
expcfted. The confcquences of 
this unfortunate a£l could not be re- 
trieved. The fucceeding troops, 
as fail as they landed, ran of necef- 
fity to the fuccour of their friends ; 
who they faw overborne, by the 
fuperior numbers and defperate cou- 
rage of the enemy ; and were them- 
felves foon involved in fimilar clr- 
cumftances, and equally in want of 
fupport. The engagement lafted 
with the greateft fury on both fides 
for 13 hours, when the Spaniards 
were at length obliged to retire 
with great lofs under the cover of 
their fliips ; and notwithftanding 
the exceffive fatigues they had un- 
dergone in the courfe of the day, 
found it neceflary to take the im- 
mediate advantage of the night for 
a re- embarkation. 

It muft feem afloniihing, accord- 
ing to the ideas which we generally 
form of the nature, difcipline, and 
^rms of Mooriflj troops, ^hat al- 
moft any fuperiority in number 
which we can well fuppofe, fhould 
enable them for fo long a rime to 
withfland and repel the aflaults of 
fo regular, powerful, and well-ap- 
pointed a force; for though the 
Spaniards, through their ralbnefs 
and intemperance, gave up fome 
of thofe advantages which they de- 
rived from military ikill, arms, and 
difcipline, they ilill retained fo 
many others, as it would feem, 
might have more than counter- 
balanced that difference. It is re- 
ported, that the national pride wat' 
much wounded, and jcaloufy ot- 

[•ATJ cikdy 



146*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 

cited, by the appointment of a fo- 
reigner to the iupreme command, 
in an expedition of fuch import- 
ance, and from which fo much 
glory was expeded ; and that they 
particularly thought, as the conteft 
was purely Spanifh, and a point of 
rivallhip with their hereditary ene- 
mies, Spaniards alone Ihould bear 
the palm of viftory. The fame 
accounts fay, that the general met 
with a violent oppofition in the final 
council of war, and that his op- 
ponents there were among the fore- 
moll of thofe, who by their ralh- 
nefs and difobedierice counteradled 
his defigns. 

Upon a medium of the Spanifli 
accounts, (which are extremely de- 
fedive) their lofs appears to have 
been from fix to 800 flain, and 
about 2000 wounded. Some fo- 
reign accounts (late the lofs at dou- 
ble that numberj which, coniidering 
the length of the engagement, the 
fury of the combatants, and the 
number of officers of ranl^ who were 
killed or v/ounded, does not appear 
improbable. Thefe accounts re- 
cite many other particulars, on the* 
veracity of which we have no au- 
thority to decide. They reprefent, 
that the Spaniards had landed their 
provifions, and many of their other 
flores, the lofs of which occafioned 
the fudden and unexpected re- 
turn of the fleet and army, without 
attempting any further fervice ; this 
meafure might however have been 
juilified by the great number of iick 
and wounded, without recurring to 
any other caufe. They likewifc 
fay, that the Spanifh marine be- 
haved very badly ; that their dread 
of falling by any accident into the 
hands of the Moors, had fo power- 
ful an operation, as to render them 
too cautious in approaching th» 



fhore, and that all the efTentlal fer- 
vice in that fefped had been per- 
formed by two Maltele men of war, 
who behaved with their ufual bra- 
very. As the charafter of the Spa- 
niards has ever been clear in the 
point of valour, this account mufl 
be received with caution and li- 
mitation. However thefe matters 
may be, this expedition mull be 
ranked amongil the moft difgrace- 
ful in its event, as well-as the moll 
formidable in its preparations, of 
any in the prefent age. 

The clamours of the people, in 
which they were fupported by fome 
of the great families, were outra- 
geous againll the general. They 
were defirous of offering him as a 
facrifice to the national honour, and 
to the manes of their deeeafed 
friends. This is the ufual ebulli- 
tion of national vanity", which will 
ever feek fome foreign objefl of re- 
fentment, on which, if poffible, to 
heap its own difgrace. The king, 
on the contrary, did not feem at all 
diflatisficd with the conduCl of the 
general. He, however, complied 
lo far with the opinions or preju- 
dices of the people, as to remove 
him from the military department, 
and to afford him a very honour- 
able retirement, in the important 
government of the province of An- 
dalufia. 

Other expeditions were threaten- 
ed, and a continued, and expenfive 
courfe of preparation was carried on 
during the year, which, as nothing 
was undertaken, cannot well be 
accounted for. The emperor of 
Morocco was fo much alarmed by 
the late preparations, and difpirited 
by his ill fuccefs, that he folicited 
for peace with great earneftnefs ; 
and at length obtained leave to fend 
a miniller for that purpofe to Ma- 
drid. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [^147 



drid. The Spanifh court was ve- 
ry haughty in its demands, and 
infilled, befides other conditions, 
on the payment of four millions 
of dollars, for the expences of 
the war, the ceffion of a confi- 
derable territory round each of the 
Spanifh fortrclTes in Africa ; and 
that he fhould alfo cede to Spain 
the port of Tetuan, and the ifland 
of Mogador. This affair was in 
agitation at the time of the failure 
of the late expedition ; an event, 
which poifibly had fome influence 
in diredling the emperor's anfwer; 
though it is alfo probable, that 
a compliance with the payment 
of the great fum of money de- 
manded, was much beyond his abi- 
lity ; and the ceffion of Tetuan and 
Mogador could only be cxpeded, 
if a Spaniih army was advancing to 
his capital. However it was, he 
totally rejefted the propofed con- 
ditions. The war has been fmce 
confined to feveral fevere engage- 
ments between the Barbary cruizcrs 
and the Spanifh fhips of war, in 
which the former always fought 
with great oblVmacy, and were ge- 
nerally great fufferers* 

The intrigues of the conclave 
were at length terminated by the 
¥ h th ^^^"^^o*^ of ^ fovereign 
^ ' pcmtifF; who owed his 
elevation more to the coUifion, ar- 
tifices, and refinement in finelTe of 
the different parties, than to any 
weight ^of his own, or intention of 
theirs. The zealots are faid to 
have carried the point by a fortu- 
nate Itroke, and the exadl timing of 
a critical opportunity ; and the event 
is faid, in the public papers, but 
we are not clear upon what autho- 
rity, to have been fo unexpeded, 
that, without any particular excep- 
tion to the objeft of choice, the 



aflonifhment of the people pre- 
vented their fhewingthe ufual marks 
of joy upon the publication of the 
eleftion. 

John Angelo Brafchi, the pre- 
fent pope, and who, upon his elec- 
tion to the pontifical chair, afTumed 
the name of Pius the Vlth, was 
born at Cefena, near Ravenna, in 
the Romagna, on the 27th of De* 
cember, 17 17. He is of one of the 
moft aniient and illuflrious families 
in that province, and is faid to have 
a fine perfon, with a great fhare 
of Tenfe, vivacity, and knowledge. 
He was greatly efteemed by Benedict 
the XlVth, who employed him in 
tranfafting many affairs of import^ 
ance, upon which occafions he was 
alv*ays diflinguifhed by his difin- 
tereflednefs, zeal, and ability. He 
was likewife in favour with the late 
pope, from whom in 1773 he ob- 
tained a cardinal's hat, and was 
foon after appointed treafurer of the 
apoftolic chamber. Though pof- 
feffed of only a moderate fortune, 
he is faid to have managed it in 
fuch a manner, as to have given 
frequent and undoubted proofs, 
both of the generofity of his heart, 
and the magnificence of his difpo- 
fition. In a word, if he really pof- 
feffes the qualities which are af- 
cribed to him, the eledors could 
not, perhaps, have better difpofed 
of their fuffrages. 

He eafily found means, in the 
opening of his government, to ac- 
quire that popularity which feemed- 
wanting at his acceffion. Among 
other meafures for this purpofe, he 
confiderably lowered the price of 
butchers meat, and privately reim- 
burfed the butchers the lofs which 
they fuftained. Such little llrata- 
gems, however trifling they appear, 
are equally laudable and necelTary 



I4S*] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 

to gain the afTcdions of a people. 

By what hitherto appears of it, his 

reign promifes to be profperous, 

and his government fuch as will 

render his people happy. He feems 

liberal in difpofition and manners, 

eafy of accefs, unconnesSled with 

parties, and fo totally free from 

bigotry, as to appear even a friend 

to toleration. We are however 

aware of the common error, of ex- 

•ped^ing too much from the virtues 

of new princes. 

The new pontiff ifiTued an ordi- 
nance for the better regulation of 

the clergy in Rome, by which they 

are forbidden, under the moft ri- 
gorous penalties, from appearing 

in the habits of the laity, from en- 
tering coiFee or gaming-houfc*:, 

from walking in the evenings with 
the other fex, and from entertain- 
ing any female domeftics under 40 
years of age. Ke alfo caufed a 
llrid fcrutiny to be made into the 
report which had been induftrioufly 
raifed of the late pope's being dif- 
patched by poifon ; by which it 
appeared, from incontrovertible 
evidence, that the whole was a 
falfehood, which owed its birth and 
circulation, as it is faid, to the ma- 
lice of F. Martiaclli, confultor of 
the' holy office, and fome other 
minor conventual friars of the or- 
der of St. Francis. 

' Italy has afPorded little other 
Kjatter of attention. A hew law 
has been pafTed in the Grand Dutchy 
of Tufcany, which regulates the 
age, terms, and manner of admif- 
fion, of perfons of either fex into 
the monailic orders. This law 
lays fuch v^ioieiome rellridions 
with refpe(fl to age, public ex- 
amination, and many other parti- 
culars, obliges fuch a length of 
time to be taken in the deliberation. 



and affords fo unbounded a liberty 
to the agent in the determination, 
as will eitedually cure the crying 
evils that arofe from the unnatural 
violence and interefted views of 
parents and relations, in compelling 
or circumventing thofe under their 
care, to embrace a mode of life for 
which they were not ordained by 
nature. It will alfo in its confe- 
quences, by degrees, wear away 
and reduce to nothing thofe reli- 
gious orders ; a meafure which 
now feems to be a primary objeft 
with almoll all the Roman Catholic 
fovereigns in Europe. 

The regency of Milan has given 
a late inftance of that general dif- 
pofition to reduce the powers of the 
church, by abolilhing for ever th« 
tribunal of the inquifition in that 
dutchy, and appropriating its ef- 
tates to the fupport of an hofpital 
for orphans. The republic of Ve- 
nice alfo, ftill continues inflexible in 
its oppofition to the claims of the 
court of Rome ; and the king of 
Naples has ordered the bifhops, 
under heavy penalties, to fill up the 
vacancies of thofe numerous be- 
nefices in his dominions, which had 
hitherto been confidered as the pro- 
perty, and were in the fole gift of 
the holy fee. The marriage be- 
tween the prince of Piedmont and 
the princefs Clotilda of France, can 
fcarcely be confidered as an object 
of political attention, the ties of 
affinity between the two families 
having been r.lready h cloiely 
drawn, as to require no additional 
cement of union. 

The diftreiTes of the people, 
owing to the fcarcity and dearnefs 
of corn in France, threw that king- 
dom into an uncommon ftate of 
diflurbance and commotion during 
a great part of the fpring and fum- 

xner. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [*i49 



mer. It feems probable, that other 
caufes or motives than thofe arifing 
merely from the dearth, combined 
to aggravate thofe diforders. Par- 
ties have grown to a great height 
in that kingdom fince the acceflion 
of the prefent monarch, and are 
faid, not only to pervade the inner- 
moli: recefles of the palace, but to 
extend their influence to the pro- 
vinces. The condudl of the rioters, 
in many inilances, would indicate, 
thac they had been influenced in 
thofe cafes by other motives than 
want. The elevation of Monf. 
Turgot to the chief dire<51ion of the 
finances had, as it is faid, given 
great ofFence to the powerful body 
of the farmers general. Withthefe, 
certain political combinations chofe 
to ad on this occafion. Turgot 
appears to be a perfon of the great- 
eit probity, and of very enlarged 
notions in matters of trade and po- 
litical occonomy. He had done a 
great deal towards freeing the com- 
merce of grain from many injudi- 
cious rertri<^ions, both with regard 
to the internal traffic and to foreign 
exportation. This fcarcity hap- 
pening to coincide with the time 
of his regulations, was fadlioufly 
attributed to them ; and- it is not 
improbable, that every proper pre- 
caution on the introduction of fo 
new and critical a meafurc was not 
taken. 

It is certain, that the didrefl'es of 
the people were not only great, but 
in many caf:;s intolerable. Bread, 
in feveral places, could not be pro- 
cured for money ; and the beggars 
are faid to have refufed the latter^, 
whilft they rent the air with cries for 
^he former; fo that gold was no 
longer a fecurity againft want. This 
diftrcfs was the more irremediable, 
^s Other niitioQs were not abundant^ 



ly fupplied. The fcarcity of corn 
in England not only cut ofF that 
refource, but diverted a flill greater, 
by the immenfe quantities which it 
drew from the American colonics. 
Mankind will bear the extreme of 
want with wonderful patience^ 
while they fuppofe it to arife from 
a naturatand inevitable neceflity ; 
but if they imagine it to proceed 
from any fault in their rulers, or 
think- that relief is attainable if 
proper means were purfued for the 
purpofe, however broken down they 
may be by the harflinefs of govern- 
ment, or the weight of laws, they 
will take fire at an inftant, and no 
bounds can be prefcribed to their 
violence. 

Such was the cafe in France. 
The idea of hoarding and mono- 
poly, of a combination of the rich 
to grind the faces of the poor, and 
even to fuck the lail remains of their 
vital blood, was every where fpread. 
The people aflembled in different 
parts of the kingdom, and were 
guilty of the greatell outrages. In 
the commiflion of thefe violences 
they counteradled, as ufual, their 
avowed intention, and by deftroy- 
ing vaft quantities cf corn and 
flour, cut oif the foLirces of that re- 
lief which was their apparent ob- 
ject. They alfo further increaied 
the diftreffes of the people, by de- 
terring the proprietors ofprovifions 
from venturing to bring them to 
market. In general, veng ance 
and deftrutlion, not pillage, were 
their ohjed. What appears very 
furprifing, and feeme ' as iffome, 
at leaft, of ihcfe riots had bee . ex- 
cited only to diftrcfs governtptmt, 
was, th.tt in ieveral places, they 
left money to pay for thv ' ' ; 
they had uone. 

[•^] 3 



i5o*3 HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



The infurrciflion at Dijon, the 
capital of Burgundy^ was attended 
with more fatal confequences than 
any other we have heard of. The 
inhabitants of that city, finding 
that the market was not fupplied 
with corn fufficient for their fufte- 
nance, aflTembled in a confiderable 
body on Eafter Tuefday, a4kd march- 
ed to a neighbouring farmer's, who 
had a large ftock of corn on hand, 
which he refufed to fell under a 
very advanced price. His houfe 
they burnt, and deftroyed every 
thing about it; after that exploit, 
they facked the houfe of the in- 
tendant, who thought himfelf very 
fortunate in efcaping from their 
fury. The army being at length 
brought to quell the riot, feized 
upon a confiderable number of the 
ringleaders, which fo exafperated 
the people, that a terrible fray en- 
fued, in which, it is faid, that 500 
perfons were killed or wounded. 

In the mean time, no means were 
left untried by the government, 
either to quell thefe difturbances, 
or to alleviate their caufe. Troops 
were ftationed to proted the mar- 
kets, and the roads and rivers by 
which they were fupplied ; great 
companies of the burghers were 
armed in different places for the 
fame purpofe. Some examples were 
made, and in a few inftances, where 
'extraordinary ads of outrage had 
been committed, fummary juftice 
was executed without any form of 
trial, by hanging the oftinders on 
the fpot. Thefe inftances were 
however rare, and the punifhments 
of any fort not numerous. The 
king granted a confiderable bounty 
on the importation of corn, and 
obtained a particular permiffion 
from the Hates of the Auitrian Ne- 



therlands for the exportation of 
that commodity to France, con- 
trary to a general prohibition which 
they had previoufly iffued. The 
public diforders, notwithltanding 
all thefe meafures, increafed to lo 
alarming a degree, as at length to 
excite apprehenfions of a general 
infurredion, and to make it ap- 
pear necefTary to call in the troops 
from the frontiers to the centre of 
the kingdom ; fo that the ifle of 
France, with fome others of the 
interior provinces, were in a man- 
ner furrounded and interfeded with 
lines of armed men. It was re- 
ported, that perfons of high rank, 
and of all conditions, both clergy 
and laity, had a ibare in thefe dif- 
turbances, and fome were fent to 
the Baftile upon fufpicion ; but a 
critical enquiry into thefe matters 
was wifely avoided. The king 
proclaimed a general pardon to all 
thofe who would return peaceably 
to their refpedive homes, except 
the ringleaders ; though this pro- 
clamation appeared ambiguous, and 
the diftindion dangerous, yet as it 
was foon found that no farther en- 
quiry was made or intended, all 
appreheniion ceafed. Whatever 
was the nature, or fecret caufe of 
thefe tiimu'rs, incendiary letters 
were ftill written, and threats ufed 
to burn the Handing corn. It at 
length pleafed Providence, that a 
moll plentiful harvell removed the 
dirtreiles of the people both in 
France and moft other parts of 
Europe. The government aded 
with great prudence and modera- 
tion through the whole of this 
troublefome afFair. 

The pageantry and , , 

fplendor of the corona- J""^ "t^- 1 
tion at Kheims, perhaps, contri- 
buted 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, [*!5i 

miferable, and the oppreffions of 
their lords nearly , inlupportable. 
Yet, except when religious difputes 
were the primary objeft, and civil 
liberty accidentally included, we 
do not know of any attempts they 
had hitherto made to better their 
condition. On the contrary, they 
entirdy overlooked the favourable 
opportunities which were prefented 
by fome late wars, of profiting by 
the fituation of public affairs. 

The infurre^^ion this year, did not 
appear to have been a fudden and 
tumultuary proceeding, arifing from 
any of thofe immediate and glaring 
a6ts of violence or cruelty, which 
will fometimes catch the pafiions of 
a whole people, and excite them 
even to madnefs. It feemed rather 
the refult of a cool and feriou* re- 
flexion, long brooding over its in- 
juries, and feeking revenge, in a 
certain degree, as well as redrefs ; 
it alfo carried marks of concert and 
defign, which feldom appear iix 
that order of mankind, except they 
act under the influence of fome 
great leaders. It is however to be 
obferved, that the remains of the 
antient Huflites, as well as the me^ 
dern Moravian brethren, were ei- 
ther principals or auxiliaries in this 
infurreftion ; and that this appear- 
ance of o/der and union, might 
have'arifen from that difcipline and 
intelligence between the parts, ne- 
ceflarily eftabli/hed in thofe reli- 
gious fedls, which are either trained 
under the immediate terrors of per- 
fecution, or the doubt and appre- 
henfion of an uncertain toleration. 
It is reported, that they fent depu- 
ties to intreat the proiedion of a 
great neighbouring prince, and that 
he totally refufed to interfere in any 
manner ; but recommended to them 



^uted' to allay the ferment in the 
minds of the people. Notwith- 
flanding the fchemes of ceconomy 
that had been adopted, and Mr. 
Turgot's abilities in finance, the 
court ftill continued poor, and was 
under a neceflity of anticipating the 
growing revenues, fo that a free 
gift of 20 millions of livres, which 
was granted by the affjmbly of the 
clergy, was a very acceptable dou- 
ceur. This aflembly continued 
their fittings longer than ufual, and 
it was much hoped that fome fa- 
vourable conceflions in regard to 
the proteltants, particularly in re- 
fpeft to their marriages, would 
have been obtained from them. 
This fubjed indeed occupied much 
of their time, and as it is a matter 
which the court and nation in ge- 
neral feem of late to be much in- 
terefted in, great expectations were 
accordingly formed. It, however, 
requires time, and even a familia- 
rity of thinking on the fubjeft, to 
wear away antient prejudices ; and 
the aflTembly, after much debate 
upon it, broke up without coming 
to any concluiion. 

The infurreClion and devaftations 
of the pcafants in Bohemia and 
Moravia, have this year difturbed 
the repofc of the court of Vienna, 
and been produftive of much mif- 
chief in thofe countries. It would 
feem as if there were certain fea- 
fons, in which great bodies of man- 
kind are particularly difpofed to 
oppofe and refent thofe oppreffions 
and injuries, which for a long fe- 
ries of time they had endured with 
patience, or which ^t moft produced 
no other efFeft than fllent grudge or 
private murmur. The (late of the 
peafants, in that kingdom, has at 
Sill times been extremely fervile and 



iSi*} HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



to apply to their natural fovereigns 
for redrefs. If this report be true, 
which from later circumftances 
appears doubtful, it vyould feem, 
as if thefe troubles were not entirely 
clear from religious motives. 

'I'he firil notice of this infurrec- 
tion was about the feafon of the 
feed- fo wing in fpring, which ren- 
dered it feared that the miferies of 
a famine, which had been fo lately 
experienced in that country, would 
a^ain be renewed. The peafants 
aiTembled in great bodies, and in 
various parts of the kingdom at the 
fame time, to the amount, it was 
faid, of 80,000 men, and commit- 
ted great violences in many places, 
upon the caftles, towns, and pa- 
laces of the great lords. They de- 
manded the abolifhment of the fer- 
vitude to which by the corvees they 
were bound to their lords, and 
which prelTed fo feyerely upon the 
Icw^fi: and moft numerous order of 
the peafants, that they were obliged 
to laibour for them fix days in the 
week, and allowed only the fabbath 
for railing their own provifions. 
The emperor had already taken 
confiderable pains to remedy thofe 
grievances, and it was fome time 
ago faid, that he had ilTued an or- 
dinance for that purpofe ; but how- 
ever that was, the ftrong oppofition 
of the nobility rendered his general 
intentions fruitlefs. The impa- 
tience of the people was probably 
increafed by this knowledge of the 
emperor's difpofition ; and the in- 
furgents, to colour their violences, 
pretended that a patent in their fa- 
vour had been paffed, and was con- 
cealed by the nobility 

The court of Vienna was lefs 
alarmed at this infurredion than 
alight havs been e^^peded, and 



fliewed the greateft moderation, le- 
nity, and lendernefs, in its condud 
towards the infurgents. Great bo- 
dies of troops were however de- 
tached from different quarters to 
Bohemia; and Count Collowrath, 
the great chancellor of that king- 
dom, was immediately difpatched 
to enquire into the grievances of 
the peafants. A high commiifion 
was afterwards appointed for the 
fame purpofe, confiiVing of perfons 1 
of the firli rank and charader, and ! 
wholly uhinterefled in the matter of 
di(pute, who were alio to confider 
of fuch equitable regulations be- 
tween the lords and their vafTals, ^ 
and to afcertain the rights of t,he 
one, and the duties of the other in 
fo clear a manner, as would pre- : 
vent any future dillurbances of the 
famenature. 

In the beginning, tranquillity 
was immediately rellored wherever 
the troops appeared ; the moft no- 
torious leaders fled to the moun- 
tains, and the bulk of the people 
were found peaceably in their ha- 
bitations ; the troops were em- 
ployed rather to prevent mifchief 
than to inflid punifhmenf; and 
though many examples were necef- 
farjly made, they bore no propor- 
tion to the number or enormity of 
the exccifcs. In the mean time, 
the outrages were continued in all 
Qther places, and immediately re- 
newed upon the departure of the 
troops from any particular diflrid. 
At length, the dread of punilhment 
arifmg from a continued repetition 
of offences, induced many thoufands 
of the peafants totally to abandon 
their habitations, and to feek re- 
fuge in the valt mountains and 
woods that furround that kingdom. 
Xhele having now no meafures tp 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [»i53 



keep, grew more daring and cruel 
in their excefles, and at length ar- 
rived at fuch a degree of boldnefs, 
as to venture to encounter detach- 
ments of the troops, and to Hand 
and return their fire with incredible 
obilinacy, and contempt of life, 
declaring, that it was a matter of 
indifference to them, whether they 
periihcd by fire, fword, the hang- 
man, or the miferies which had 
driven them into their prefent ftatc 
of defperatio*. 

By thefe outrages, Bohemia pre- 
fented a melancholy fpeftacle of 
ruin and defolation ; for though 
the nobility, their bailiffs, fervants, 
and officers, were the immediate 
fuffcrers, all orders of mankind, by 
degrees, partook in the common 
calamity. At length, the grand 
commiflion having made their re- 
port to the court of Vienna, a pa- 
tent was founded upon it in the 
month of September, which at once 
reilored peace and tranquillity to 
the kingdom, and fecurity and hap- 
pinefs to the peafants. Though 
the corvees were not entirely abo- 
lifhed, they were regulated in fuch 
a manner, as to render the burthen 
comparatively light to the vaffals, 
and to afford them a reafonable 
time for attending to domeflic af- 
fairs, and the providing of a ne- 
ceflary provifion for their families. 
Inilead of the whole week, the 
lowell prder of peafants are now to 
appropriate only three days to the 
fervice of their lords; whilft thofe 
of the fecond clafs, and who con- 
tribute a certain proportion to the 
exigencies of the flate, are fubjei^ed 
by the corvees to two days in ihe 
week ; and the upper clafs, or real 
farmers, to one only ; thofe two 
frders being alfo fubjcct lo a 



certain fixed fervice of horfes or 
oxen. 

A change was alfo made with re- 
fpedl to the raifing of the public 
revenues, which was much in fa- 
vour of the lower orders ; their bur- 
thens being very confiderably lef- 
fened, to the amount it is faid of a 
million of florin» annually, and 
new duties laid upon commodities 
which are chiefly confumed by the 
rich, to fupply the deficiency. 
Thefe regulations caufed the greateft 
joy among the lower orders of the 
people; but, as may be expelled, 
were far from being pleafing to the 
nobility. It is not impoflible, con- 
sidering the emperor's charader, 
and the endeavours he had before 
ufed in this bufinefs, that however 
he might regret the temporary mif- 
chiefs with which it was attended, 
he was not forry that fo fair an op- 
portunity was prefented, for afford- 
ing relief to the bulk of the people 
in that country. 

No material change has taken 
place in the circumftances of Po- 
land, fince the conclufion of the 
war between its great neighbours. 
The court of Peterlburg direfts all 
the affairs of that country with as 
unbounded a fway, as it does thofe 
of its domeflic provinces. It is 
true, that the nobility are ftill as 
turbulent, and the factions as vio- 
lent as ever in that country ; but 
fortunately for themfelves and the 
people, the power which overawes 
and controuls them, is of fo fupc- 
rior a ftrength and magnitude, at 
effeftually to reftrain them from 
thofe defperate efforts, which have 
of late, fo repeatedly heaped ruin 
upon themfelves and the republic. 
Under the order preferved by that 
Ibong g'afp, the country is begin- 
ning 



i54»] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



ning to recover from the efFefts of 
thofe dreadful calamities which it 
has fo long endured ; and its ex- 
tenfive plains once more to fmile 
under the hand of cultivation. 

The moderation and influence of 
the court of Peterlburg, has alfo 
produced a very happy efFedl upon 
the condudl of the other great parti- 
tioning powers; they both having 
Refilled from feveral of their late 
claims, and relaxed greatly from 
that rigour and violence with which 
they had treated the republic. The 
unfortunate city of Dantzick has, 
liowever, found no alleviation to 
its fufferings ; and feems a viftim 
abandoned to its fate. In the meah 
time, the Ruffian troops are ftill 
detained in Poland ; and it is 
probable, that c»ufes or motives 
will never be wanting, for their 
keeping a ftrong force in that 
country. 

n/r u o.v A treaty of com- 
March i8th. n,erce which has been 
concluded between the Republic 
and the King of Pruffia, as it is 
very advantageous to the latter, 
may probably be a means of pro- 
longing harmony in that quarter. 
The unfortunate Dantzickers are 
fuiFerers in this as in every thing 
elfe. While meafures feem to be 
taking by the permanent council 
and government to encourage fo- 
reigners to repeople the defolated 
provinces of that kingdom, which 
they will find a work of long time 
and much expence, before any con- 
iiderable benefit is received, they 
are continually harrafling the Jews, 
(who form a great body of the peo- 
ple, and are the moil induftrious of 
its inhabitants) in fuch a manner, 
\>y additional poll taxes, and partial 
opprellive reftridlion3,-^as will pro- 



bably oblige them totally to aban- 
don the country. Such is the boaft- 
cd policy of ftatefmen and nations ; 
and fo prevalent will the force of 
prejudice and error ever continue. 

The Diffidents have been at 
length remembered by th^ court of 
Ruifia ; and their privileges are now 
afcertained and fecured. They are 
particularly fecured in the public 
profciSon and exercife of their reli- 
gion, and are allowed churches and 
fchools even at Warfaw ; but am 
rellrained from the ufe of bells ia 
the former. Some other regula- 
tions have taken place in their fa- 
vour, particularly a right of appeal 
in all cafes of grievance to a tri- 
bunal, in which a certain number 
of their own communion are to be 
admitted as afTeffors. They are, 
however, ftill debarred from fitting ■; 
in the fenate, and from occupying 
any offices in the departments of 
adminiftration. 

Ruffia enjoys her power, in- 
fluence, and glory, with a noble 
and fplendid magnificence. All 
her affairs are conduced upon a 
great and extenfive fyflem, and all 
her afts are in a grand ftyle. She 
fits fupreme between Europe and 
Afia, and looks as iffhe intended 
to diftate to both. We fee in her 
a great but Hill growing empire, 
which not having reached the fum- 
mit of her deilined power, feels 
life and vigour glowing in every 
part. The fuccefles and confe- 
quences of the late war, have en- 
larged the fpirit, extended the 
views, and dignified the minds of 
the people. In fuch a ftate, every 
thing is bold and mafculine. Even 
vices and crimes are great. 

The impoftor Puffatf- *«« «./i 
cneff, with four Qi his •' 

accom- 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [*iss 



accomplices, were publicly executed 
at Mofcow in the beginning of the 
year. PugatfchefF, with his prin- 
cipal affociate, named Perfilief, 
were beheaded j the three othef-s 
were hanged, and eighteen more 
underwent the knout, and were 
fent to Siberia. If the fentence 
had been fulfilled, PugatfchefPs 
hands and feet would have been 
firft cut off and expofed to the peo- 
ple, before the final operation took 
p'ace ; but through fome fingular 
miftake, the executioner cut olF his 
head firft ; an error, for which it is 
fuppofed he fufFered a feverer pu- 
nifhment than that which he in- 
flided. Pugatfcheft' met his fate 
with the molt undaunted refolution ; 
but wai induced to acknowledge 
the juftice of his fentence, the de- 
ception he had ufed, with his true 
name and condition; all of which 
agree in the material parts with the 
account which we have already 
given of him. If a hiftory of his 
life, which is faid to have been 
publilhed by authority at Mofcow, 
can be relied on, he went through 
a feries of the moft extraordinary 
adventures of any man living, even 
exclufive of the confequences of the 
late impofture ; but this account is 
of fo romantic a caft, and recites 
matters of fo exceedingly improba- 
ble a nature, that its authority 
feems very doubtful. It is, how- 
ever, certain, that he was, even by 
birth, of the firft rank and condi- 
tion among the Coffacks, and that 
through his uncommon abilities, as 
well as the ftrange viciffitudes of 
his life, he had acquired a degree 
of knowledge and learning, which 
would not have been thought de- 
fpicable in the moft polite nations. 
It is faid^ that an obfervation made 



feveral years ago by the celebrated 
Count Tottleben, of the ftriking 
refemblance which he bore to the 
late Emperor Peter the Illd, took 
fuch poffeflion of his mind, as to 
have been the operating caufe of 
that calamity and ruin, in which 
he involved with himfelf a great 
part of the empire. 

The heavy burthen of the late 
war, has not prevented the emprefs 
from already taking off moft of the 
taxes which were laid for its fup- 
port ; and as if the ftrength and 
riches of government in that coun- 
try, increafed with its expence, flie. 
has alfo aboliftied a number of the 
ancient taxes, which were either 
confidered as difcouraging to ma- 
nufadlures and agriculture, or bur- 
denfome and oppreflive to particular 
provinces, or orders of the people. 
In the fame fpirit of beneficence 
and good policy, ftie has lent great 
fums of money, intereft free, and 
for a fpecihed term of years, to 
thofe provinces which were ruined 
by the late rebellion ; and to crown 
a general paruon, has ftri^ly for- 
bidden any particulars of that un- 
fortunate affair to be called up, or 
any reproaches ufed on its account, 
but condemns all matters relative to 
it, to perpetual filenceand oblivion. 
She has alfo eftabliftied a number 
of other regulations, all tending to 
the fecurity, advantage, and hap- 
pinefs of her fubjedls ; to abolidi 
pernicious diftindlions, deftroy ruin- 
ous monopolies, reftrain the cruelty 
of punifhment, remove oppreflive 
or impolitic reftriftions and prohi- 
bitions, and to reftore mankind to 
a more equitable degree of equality, 
in thofe different ranks which they 
fill in fociety. A pardon was alfo 
paffed to thofe criminals, who had 
adready 



i56»] HISTOKY OF EUROPE. 



already undergone a long degree of 
fufFering for their crimes ; and an 
ordinance iflued to prevent any fu- 
ture criminal profecution from be- 
ing admitted, unlefs it was com- 
menced within ten years after the 
date of the charge. Equal hu- 
manity was ftiewn with refpeft to 
imprifoned debtors, who under 
certain limitations, and in certain 
circum dances, were releafed from 
confinement. All the heirs of the 
debtors to the crown were difcharg- 
cd from their obligations. 

Nothing could be more flatter- 
ing, than the fplendid preparations 
which were made at Mofcow by 
the emprefs and great duke for the 
reception of Marihal Romanzow, 
upon his return from that war 
which he had fo glorioufly con- 
duced, and happily concluded. An 
arch was ereded upon the occafion, 
and every thing prepared for his 
making a triumphal entry in all 
the magnificence of the antients. 
This honour, however, the general, 
either through wifdom or magna- 
nimity, declined. But that circum- 
ftance did not Icfien the intended 
fplendor and magnificence in other 
lefpeds, nor the public honours 
, . rt paid to the general. Re- 
J y * wards and honours were 
moft liberally diftributed to the 
great adors in the war, while 
their value was doubled by the 
manner in which they were con- 
ferred, and the public teftimo- 
nial of their merit and fervices, 
thus given in the . face of their 
country. Befides a large eftate, a 
great ium of money, and magnifi- 
cent prefents in piate and jewels, 
which were beftowed upon Marflial 
Romanzow, he was alfo prefented 
fvith a diploma, by which the addi- 



tion of Sadounaifkoy was made to 
his fur'name, a word which is faid 
to fignify T^e ultra Danuhian. The 
furname of Chefme (befides great 
pecuniary rewards) was alfo granted 
to Count Alexis Orlow, alluding 
to the name of the port in the Lefier 
Afia, in which he had deftroyed the 
Turkifhfleet. 

The greateft apparent harmony 
fubfills between the late contending 
powers of Ruffia and the Porte. 
Nor has this good neighbourhood 
been at all interrupted by fomc 
difturbances in the Crimea, where 
the Tartars depofed their Chan, 
Sabib Gueray, who had always 
aflifted the Ruffians, and was ac- 
cordingly eftabiiftied by them, and 
reflored their warlike chief Dowlet 
Guerai, who had as conftantly op- 
pofed their enterprizes. It iztms 
as if both powers, to avoid all 
foundation for difputes, had re- 
folved for the prefent not to inter- 
fere in the cabals of thefe people, 
with refpedt to the choice or fuc- 
ceffion of their princes. In the 
mean time, Ruffia is by no means 
indifferent to the vaft fources of 
wealth and power which are opened 
to her by the occupancy of the 
Black-Sea. She has long ftruggled 
with the infurmoaniable oblTacles 
which nature threw in her way in 
the Bakick ; and which would for 
ever prevent her eftablifhing an ex- 
tenfive and advantageous com- 
merce, or becoming a great mari- 
time power on that fide. A fea 
ihut up and unnavigable for near 
two thir(ds of the year, and incum- 
bered with numberJels impediments 
at all times, could never anfwer 
thofe purpofes in any degree fuit- 
able to the ambition and views of 
fuch an empire as Ruffia. She ac- 
cordingly 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [*i57 



tordingly omits nothing that may 
cor.tribute to the opening and efta- 
blifhment of a great trade on the 
Black-Sea, and' for that purpofe, 
the emprefs has furniflied fome par- 
ticular merchants with the ufe of 
Ihips free from any charge for 
freight, and has promifed to in- 
demnify them for any lofles they 
may fuftain in the outfet. 

There has been a confiderable 
appearance of vigour with refpedl 
to interna] government, in the 
councils of the Porte fince the con- 
clufion of peace. The ftate of 
vveaknefs and diforder which fo 
long prevailed in that empire, had 
enabled the governors of provinces 
to acquire fuch wealth and power, 
and to fortify thcmfelvcs fo ftrongly 
in their governments, that they 
nearly forgot all dependence on the 
Hate, and being under no appre- 
hcnfion of enquiry or controul, the 
people were ruined by their cruelty 
and opprefiion. Thus, as their 
power increafed in proportion to 
the extent of their enormities, fo 
did the difficulty and danger of re- 
moving them from their commands. 
Upon the relloration of peace, the 
people took that opportunity, in 
almofl: all quarters, to fend their 
complaints to. the Porte, and to re-- 
prefent the intolerable tyranny un- 
der which they languilhed. Thefe 
complaints were favourably attend- 
ed to, and the remedy of that evil, 
became the principal objeft of po- 
licy with that government during 
the prefent year. Some addrefs 
and ftratagem were neceflary for 
the accompUQiment of this purpofe. 
The moil powerful baftias were 
allured from their governments, 
under the appearance of thorough 
faci«fai^ioa in their condudl^ and a 



pretence of promotion to greater ; 
but as foon as they were thus cir» 
cum vented out of their ftrength and 
faftneffes, they were immediately 
llrangled, and the immenfe riches 
they had acquired by their oppref- 
fion forfeited to the ftate. Thof« 
of lefs power were treated with Icfs 
ceremony ; and different means 
leading to the fame end were ufed 
with fome others. 

This year has proved fatal to th» 
brave, and very old Chiek Daher. 
Mehemet Aboudaab, being tempted 
by the fame of his riches, fet out 
at the head of a great army front 
Egypt* to gratify his avarice by 
his deftruftion. The force was fo 
difproportioncd, that the chiek 
could make no effedlual reiiftance 
in the field, and his garrifons were 
foon fubdued. Gaza furrendered 
immediately ; but Joppa ftood a 
long liege, which fo enraged Abou- 
daab, that he was guilty of the 
moft horrible cruelties when ha 
took the place. Thefe ftruck fo 
general a terror in the. people, that 
Dacre and other places fubmitted 
without refiftance. There was, 
however, ftill an appearance, that 
the chiek*s ancient fortune would 
not have entirely abandoned him, 
by the fudden death of Aboudaab, 
in the midft of his fuccefTes and 
cruelties. This appearance was fal- 
lacious. The captain ba,{ha arrived 
at that critical time, upon the 
coaft of Syria, with a very confi- 
derable force, to which the Egyp- 
tians being added, under the com- 
mand of fo aftive an officer, ren- 
dered the Chiek Daher's fate in- 
evitable. His head was fent to 
Conftantinople, and his treafures 
fcized. 

The Perdans have befiegcd 

w 



i58»] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 

the city of Baflbra, during the but the place may by this time bo 

greater part, if not the whole of in their hands. We fhall obferve 

the year. Though they have met to the honour of the prefent Grand 

with frequent repulfesand and loffes, Signior, that he Ihews the fame fa- 

they notwithftanding continued the vourable difpofition to the Chrif- 

fiege with fuch obHinacy, and the tians in his dominions, by which 

means of relief were fo remote, his brother was fo much diiUn- 

that it does not feem improbable guIAied. 



CHRO- 



I 



CHRONIC LE. 



[ 8" ] 



CHRONICLE. 



JANUARY. 

-X T? ^^^^ "^^ year's day, 
* X3 was obferved at court as 
ufual. Particularly the forty boys, 
educated for the Tea, in mathema- 
tics. Sec. in Chrift hofpital, were, 
according to annual cuftom, pre- 
fented to his Majefty by their pre- 
fident. 

In the year 1680 a regular efli- 
mate was made of the annual a- 
mountof the poor rates in England, 
which was 665,3621, and the.laft 
year, 1774, it was 3,000,000!. 

It appears by an exadl calcula- 
tion, that 94,000 head of black 
cattle, and about 800,000 (heep 
and lambs, were fold in Smithfield- 
market during the courfe of laft 
year. 

In. the fame period, 3720 veffels 
were cleared from the port of New- 
caftle, coallwife ; and 386, over- 
fea; making in all 4106. 

The neat duties received at the 
Cuftom-houfe of Dublin, for goods 
imported and exported there, frojn 
the 3d of January 1774, to the 
3d of January of this year, 1775, 
both days included, amounted to 
360,2601. of which 352,3091. was 
on goods imported, and 2,95 i 1. on 
goods exported. 
Vol. XVIII. 1775. 



2d- 



One Robert Wilds was 
committed to Dover-caftle, for 
infufing into the liquor given to 
fome women at a country hop, drops 
of a poilonous quality, by which 
fome were thrown into convulfions, 
others feized with a giddinefs and 
llupor, and all were more or lefs 
afFefted. We in fert this by way of 
caution to our readers, to difcounte- 
nance tricks of fo dangerous a na- 
ture. 

About feven o'clock a (hock , 
of an earthquake was felt at ^ ' 
Leghorn, and another about eleven 
o'clock ; but happily neither of 
them did any damage. 

ThedifFerence between the height 
of the liquor in the thermometer 
this morning and the 2d, was a- 
bove fix degrees and a half; which 
is a more remarkable change in th« 
temperature of the atmofphere, than 
has happened in fo fhort a time for 
many years pad. 

The Earl of Dartmouth, by the 
king's orders, wrote a circular letter 
to the governors of his majefty's 
coloniesin America, requiring them 
to ufe their utmoft endeavours to 
prevent the holding of any more 
congrefTes. But, confidering the 
nature of the unhappy quarrel be- 
tween the mother country and thefe 
[F] colon iei. 



8 a 



CHRONICL E. 



colonies, the confequences of thefe 
orders, if any, and indeed every 
other circumftance relating to this 
quarrel, muft be too interelling not 
to deferve an able pen, and a more 
confpicuous place in this work, than 
the prefent. Accordingly, the rea- 
der may expedl to find all theie 
particulars in the hiilorical part of 
it. 

A boat was overfet coming up 
the river, below Cuckold's point, 
lay which accident five pallcngers, 
and the waterman, were drowned. 
None of thefe unhappy perfons 
would; in all probability, have pe- 
riftjed, had they been in cork 
jackets. But, as the lugging about 
of cork jackets, and even the bare 
putting of them on, would prove 
too troublefome to people not con- 
ftantly uling the water, what (hould 
hinder the watermen from provid. 
ing themfelves with cork belts, and 
cork collars, for their occafional 
paiTengers, who might hold thefe 
things in their hands, till there was 
cccauon to ufe them, and then flip 
them on in. the twinkling of an 
tye? Perhaps, a fmall premium 
10 the firft waterman who fhould 
adopt this praftice would in a fhort 
time introduce it ; and then their 
own intereftvvould foon render it 
univerfal. Befides, they might be 
allowed a reafonable recom pence 
for the ufe of thefe prefervatives, 

Mr. B rower, print cutter, near 
Alderfgate-Ilreet, was auacked on 
the road to Enfield by a Tingle 
highwayman, whom he recolleded 
to be a tradefman in the city j he 
accordingly calledhim by his name, 
when the robber ihothimfelf through 
the head. 

The Chriftiansin the Crimea are 
fled to the Ruffians, and theemprefs 
|ias given orders to build a large 
9 



town for their reception betweeit 
Kerch and Janicale. 

The houfe of Mrs. Staples, , 
a widow Lady at Reading, in 5 • 
Berkfhirc, was,, during her abfence 
to drink tea in the neighbourhood, 
broke open, and robbed of effefts 
to the amount of 700 1. the maid- 
fervant being gone to fee a puppet- 
flipw. 

Though twelfth-day, there ^, 
was no court or drawing- 
room. But the Right Hon. the 
Earl of Hertford, Lord Chamber- 
lain to his Majefly's houfehold, 
made the ufual offering at the cha- 
pel royal, in the abfence of their 
Majel^ies. 

A plan is agreed on for building 
on the orround belonging to the 
Temple, which has been takea 
from the river, a range of build- 
ings like the front of the Adelphi, 
with a commodious terrace-walk 
next the river. 

A woman applied to a refol- , 
ver of lawful queftions, in a ' • 
court in Fleet-Ilreet, to be fatisfied 
in relation to fome future events; 
but, while poor Albumazer was con- 
sulting the ftars in his chamber in 
order to refolve her doubts, he feern* 
to have been entirely ignorant of 
his own prefent fortune; for fome 
thieves (fuppdfed to be theenquirer's 
confederates) ftripped his other a- 
partments of every thing that was 
conveniently portable. 

Tv^o ferjeants of the Surry , 
militia, and two other men, ° 
in coming from KIngfton towards 
London, meeting a fifh-man of 
about 70, with part of a field-gate 
on his back, a/ked him if he camt' 
honeftly by it; and, on his feeming 
confufed, one of them attempted to 
fecurehimj but, before he could ef- 
fedl it, the fellow pulled out a large 

knife J, 



CHRONICLE, 



[8J 



knife, and ftabbed him in the 
breaft, who immediately cried out 
he had received his death's wound; 
then, the others endeavouring to fe- 
cure him, he ftabbed a fecond in 
the belly, a third in the arm, and 
the fourth in the groin. At length, 
feveral people coming up, he was 
overpowered, and conduced to the 
New Gaol. One of them died the 
next morning, and twoof the others 
foon after. Of fuch fatal efficacy 
is any weapon in defperate hands 
ngainil naked, though far fuperior 
ftrength and numbers! 

Laft week her Majelly received a 
prefent of fable flcins from the Em- 
prefs of Ruffia, which are faid to 
be the grandell ever feen in Eng- 
land. 

An order has lately been ifTued 
at Hamburgh, to prevent the mer- 
chants of that republic, from fup- 
plying the piratical ftates of Barba- 
ry with cannon and other warlike 
ftores. 

Six Criminals were exe- 
cuted at Tyburn ; four for 
houfe breaking; one for ftealing a 
bank note out of a letter in the ge- 
neral poll-office ; and one for fteal- 
ing money and bank-notes in a 
houfe in the Tower. The criminal 
executed for ftealing the bank-note, 
confefled to the ftealing of three 
more. He, who fufFered for the theft 
in the Tower, had been formerly 
capitally condemned for another 
crime; but being pardoned on con- 
dition of tranfportation, unhappily 
for himfelf, broke jail before he 
could be ftiipped off; and took to 
hit old courfes again. 

A well-drefled man knocked at 
a millener's in Pallmall, under 
pretence of wanting fome ruffles ; 
and being let in by the miftrefs. 



loth. 



immediately locked the door on the 
infide, pulled out a piftol, and 
with horrid imprecations threatened 
to deftroy her if (he fpoke a word; 
he then tied a bandage over her 
eyes, bound her, and ftripped the 
ftiopof near Sol. worth of Jace and 
linen. 

The keeper of an ale- , 
houfe in Biihopfgate ward, ^' * 
was complained of before the Right 
Hon. the Lord Mayor, at Guild- 
hall, for harbouring the watch- 
men of that ward during their 
hoursof duty; and, being convifted 
upon the ftatute of the 2 1 ft of King 
James, for fufFering tipling in his 
houfe, paid the penalty of ten fliil- 
lings, befides being difabled by 
the fame ftatute from keeping an 
ale-houfe for the fpace of three 
years. 

Laft week a ferge-maker, on the 
information of one of his poor wea- 
vers, before two of his Majefty*s 
Juftices of the Peace, being con- 
vifted of paying a woman her 
wages, not in money, but by note, 
was fined for the fame, purfuant to 
feveral ftatutes made for the relief 
of the woollen manufadurers. 

The feffions ended at the ^ , 
Old Bailey; when the court ^°^^' 
pafled fentence of death on eight 
conviAs; fentence of tranfportation ^ 
for feven years, on forty-three ; 
and for 14 years, on three more. 
Three were ordered to be branded 
in the hand, and four to be pri- 
vately whipt. And on the 15th of 
February, four of the capital con- 
vidts were executed at Tyburn. 
The fifth was pardoned on condi- 
tion of tranfportation for his natural 
life. One of thofe who fuffered, 
was for robbing a farmer's boy of 
fix-pence* 

[F] a Being 



84] 



CHRONICLE. 



Q , Being obferved as her 

*. '"• Majedy's birth-day, the 
court at St. James's was exceed- 
ingly numerous and fplendid. 

The Lord Ma.yot has at length 
eftablifhed the joll forms of pro- 
ceeding in all cauics before the 
co-urt of Alderlhen. 

A few days fmcc a moll darjng 
robbery was committed by nine 
men, in difguife, in the dwelling- 
koufe of Mr. Liney, at Fy field, 
near Marlborough. After getting 
in at the window, one of them went 
to the bed where Mr. and Mrs. Li- 
ney were, and held a piliol to the 
former's head, ihreatning his life, 
if he ftirred, while the others com- 
manded Mrs. Liney to ihew them 
where their money was ; which be- 
ing done, they took upwards of 
fifty pounds in caih, fome tea- 
fpoons and other valuable effei^s, 
the buckles from Mrs. Liney's 
fhoes, and eight pounds from the 
maid-fervant ; after this they made 
a fire, and regaled themfelves with 
bread, cheefe, ftrong beer, &c. 
They then defired Mrs. Liney to 
fay, if any perfon elfe came to rob 
the houfe, that ' George had been 
there ;' and commanded her to go 
to bed, fwearing if the family did 
not lie in bed titl^nine o'clock, they 
would kill them before they were 
nine days older. 

The King of France, in on« of 
the councils lately held in his pre- 
fence, determined, that for the fu- 
ture the puniihment of deferters 
(hould not be death; but to work, 
as flaves, on the public roads. 

The following is a complete lift 
of the Emperor of Morocco's navy; 
atLaracha, two frigates of 30 guns, 
and 200 men, each; three, of 24 
guns, and 150 men, each; two, of 
20 guns, and 130 men, each ; and 



one galliot of 22 oars, 12 guns, and 
90 men, all ready to put to fea. At 
Tetuan, two xebecs of 30 oars, 20 
guns, an5 200 men, each. One 
galliot of 32 oars, 16 guns, and 
100 men; three, of 24 oars," lo 
guns, and 90 men, each ; and one 
of 16 oars, 8 guns, and 70 men; 
all ready for failing. There are 
alfo ready for launching, one xebec 
of 26 oars, pierced for 1 6 guns; and 
two galliots of 22 oars, pierced for 
12 guns, each. At Sallee, one 
veilel of 24 guns, and 180 men. 
One xebec of 20 oars, 1 8 guns, and 
120 men ; aad three galliots of 30 
oars, 10 guns, 130 men each, ready 
to be launched. At Tangier, one 
galliot of 36 oars, 20 guns,' and 
160 men, beiides feveral others, 
very forward, on the Hocks. 

The court of Peterlhurgh has 
confented to the Grand Signior's 
fending the inveftiture of the fword 
and aigrette, as caliph, to the Khan 
of the Tartars, who is, notwith- 
ftanding, to be entirely indepen- 
dent in his temporal concerns. The 
Grand Signior has conferred the 
titles of Prince of Moldavia, and 
cabinet counfellor, on the drugo- 
man of the Porte, who attended the 
Reis Effendi in this negociation. 

Turnbull's and Latimer's inftru- 
ment for taking the diltance of the 
moon from the fun, was tried and 
proved upon Gatefhead Fell, near 
Newcaftle, by Mr. William Hope, 
an experienced mariner, who de- 
clared, that by means of that in- 
ftrument, the longitude may be de- 
termined at fea, as often as fuch 
an obfervation can be made, with 
the greatell exadtnefs. 

A hackney coachman was fura- 
moned before the Lord Mayor for 
grofsly abufing a lady, and vio- 
lently ihoving the coach-door a- 

gainft 



CHRONICLE. 



[85 



5;ainft her, as (he was getting in, 
becaufe there were already four in 
the coach; and for then r^fuflng 
to carry them. The Lord Mayor 
told the coachman, that, according 
to law, he had a right, before the 
lady got in, to infiltupon fivpence 
more than the fare for the fifth per- 
fon ; but, as he made no fuch agree- 
nvent, he was obliged to drive ihem 
where he was ordered; that the 
fine for his oiFence, was 20s. but 
he fhould this lime pay only ten ; 
at the fame time his lordfhip cau- 
tioned him, not to be guilty again 
of the like oiFence, as if he did, 
he Ihould pay the whole fine. 

n The rebel Pugatfchef, 

who had a long time main- 
tained a rebellion in the extreme 
parts of Ruflia, was executed at 
Mofcow, when, by a miftake, his 
head was firft fevered from his 
body, and then his hands and feet ; 
thefe were then fhewn to the fpec- 
tators, and afterwards his head. 
He fufFered with undaunted refolu- 
don, as did likewife three others, 
companions in his treafon. it is 
generally believed the executioner 
will lofe his tongue for miilaking 
his orders, and cutting off the re- 
bel's head, before he cut off his 
limbs. Pugatfchef was thus pu- 
nifhed, merely for the murders, 
robberies, and devaltations com- 
mitted by him and his followers; 
the Emprefs of Ruffia having pre- 
vioufly remitted the crime of trea- 
fon again ft herfelf. 

The canal between Chefter and 
the Aquedu(ft-bridge, near Hux- 
Icy-mill, is now open, and a veffcl 
of 70 tons, with coals, &c. went 
up it the 16th inft. 

Sir William Browne having di- 
refted his executors to procure a 
4ie for annually Ilriking off two 



medals of gold, of five guineas 
value each, to be fent to the Vice- 
chancellor of Cambridge about the 
beginning of January, 10 be given 
by him, at the following com- 
mencement, to two under-gradu- 
ates, one for the beft Greek ode 
in imitation of Sappho, the other 
for thi; beft Latin ode in imitation 
of Horace, on a fubjeft to be ap- 
pointed by the Vice-chancellor; 
alfo one other gold medal, of like 
value, to be given by him to the 
under-graduate who (hall produce 
the beft Greek epigram after the 
model of the Anthologia, and the 
beft Latin epigram after the model 
of Martial : the Deputy Vice- 
chancellor has appointed for the 
fubjeft of the ©des for the prefent 
year. 

In memo nam GuUelmi Bronjun, equi' 

tisy M. D. And of the Epigrams, 

De pramiorum ad doSirinam promo^r 

fvendum utilitate. 

By his majefty's order in , 
council of this date, a former ^^ 
order of the 28th of Odober laft 
(direcfling that no horned cattle, nor 
any hides, fkins, horns, hoofs, or 
other part of any horned cattle or 
beaft, nor any hay, ftraw, litter, 
fodder, or other things which have 
been employed about infefted cat- 
tle, or the hides, or any other part 
of fuch cattle, or have been in or 
near the places where any fuch in- 
fedion hath been, and are liable to 
retain the fame, Ihould be imported 
from any ports or other places oa 
the coaft of France, within the di- 
ftrids of Picardie, Normandie, Bre- 
tagne, Poidou, Guienne, and Gaf- 
coine, into Great-Britain, or Ire- 
land, or any of the dominions 
thereto belonging) is extended to 
Languedoc and Provence, in con- 

^/'J 3 fe^nencc 



86] 



CHRONICLE. 



fequcnce of information having 
been received, that the diftemper 
among the horned cattle in Gaf- 
coine hath fpread itfelf into the 
firlt of thefe provinces. And this, 
by another account, it is faid to 
have done in a perfon's clothes, 

A petition from the American 
merchants, relative to the prefent 
difturbances in North - America, 
•^ was prefented to the Houfe of 
Commons by Mr. Hayley, one of 
the city members, and referred to 
a committee of the whole Houfe. 
Mr. Hayley defired it might be 
Teferred to the fame committee 
to which the confideration of the 
American papers was referred j but 
his motion was over-ruled. 

The States General publiihed a 
declaration fetting forth, that, as 
the Emperor of Morocco had 
broken the peace concluded with 
them in 1752, ordering, that all 
veffels belonging to the republic 
ihould be feized as lawful prize 
from the firft dayof the fame month, 
their high mightineifes have given 
the necefTary orders for the equip- 
ment of divers fhips of war; and 
for the better encouragement of 
their failors and marines, have de- 
clared, that all prizes taken from 
the enemy, Ihould become the en- 
tire property of the captors, be- 
iides other advantages. 

Moft of the fchools in the king- 
dom of Poland are in a deplorable 
fituation for wanfof mafters, or of 
funds for their fupport. The king 
knows this, and laments that the 
exhaufted ftate of his coffers de- 
prives him of the power of making 
provifion for them as he is defirous 
of doing ; however, the prince 
bifhbp of Plocko, his brother, hath 
fupplied thofe in his diocefe to the 
utmoft of his ability j and follow- 



ing the example of the good ■ 
ihepherd, who feeds, not devours* 
his flock, he retrenches his own 
neceflary expences, and dirtributes - 
fgr that fole objeft, worthy of his 
zeal, 12,000 florins a quarter. 
The general, prince Adam Czarto- ^, 
rilki, gives an equal example of ge- ' 
nerofity in the palatinate of Vol- ', 
hynia, Podolia, and Kiow, where : 
he hath the general infpeftion of 
learning, in quality of commiflTary 
of the national education. 

Itfeems, that, when the JefuitS, 
who were formerly the chief teach- 
ers in Poland, as in all other Roman 
Catholic countries, were fuppref- 
fed; not only they were left with- 
out bread, but little or nothing of 
what was taken from them, was 
referved for the noble and neceflary 
purpofes, for which it had been 
originally bellowed. 

A court of aldermen was , 
held at Guildhall, when the ^+^"' 
two meal-weighers went through an 
examination, which lafted three 
hours; but no difcovery was made 
of any bad pradlices being carried 
on in the corn market, in Mark- 
lane, to advance the price of corn. 

Bamber Gafcoigne, Efq; r , 
moved that the fpeaker's 
chaplain ftiould preach the 30th of 
January fermon before the Houfe ; 
when it was obferved, that the 
preaching before the Houfe on that 
day, was not only a mockery of 
religion, but a direft attack upon 
the revolution, and an infult to the 
royal family upon the throne; and 
that therefore that folemnity ought 
to be abolifhed. But the aft of 
Parliament was infilled on, and the 
morion agreed to, by 112 againft 
83 ; and accordingly the anniver- 
fary fermon on the martyrdom of 
K. Char. I. was preached before the 

Houfe 



CHRONICLE, 



[87 



iHoufe of Commons by the Rev, 
Mr. Onflow, at St. Margaret's; as 
was that before the Houfe of Lords 
by the Bifhop of Worceller, at 
Wellminfte> Abbey. 

The archbiftiop, bifliops, and 
clergy of the province cf Canter- 
bury in convocation afl"embled, 
waited on his majefty with a moft 
humble addrefs, in which they own 
with concern, that a ftrange licen- 
tioufnefs both of fentiment and 
conduft, with a fpirit of frivolous 
^ diifipation and ruinous profufion, 
of difrefpeft to fuperiors, and of 
contempt of lawful authority, have 
made an alarming progrefs in this 
nation, and prefent a gloomy pro- 
fped to every ferious and con fide- 
rate mind. 

The fociety for the encourage- 
ment of arts, manufactures, and 
commerce, have given two gold 
;tnd two filver medals, engraved by 
Mr. Pingo, viz. to Sir Alexander 
Dick, Bart, for fpecimens of Britifti 
rhubarb, 1774, a gold medal; to 
Mr. William Tadman, for turneps 
cultivated among beans, 1774, a 
gold medal; to Mr. Michael Ca- 
lender, for fpecimens of Briiifli 
rhubarb, fecond premium, 1774, 
a filver medal ; to Mr. John Dela- 
motte, for children taught to weave 
black lace, 1774, a filver medal. 

On this occafion, we cannot help 
recommending to the focieiy*s at- 
tention* the furprifing tree called 
Garoferoy See. defcribed in the fe- 
cond part of this volume, p. 92. 
Perhaps it might thrive in fome 
parts of Great-Britain or Ireland ; 
particularly in the fouthern decli- 
vities of our fouthern mountains. 

The prefent winter has" been un- 
commonly ftvcre in feveral of the 
fouthern as well cs northern parts 
of Europe. In the npighbourhoodof 



Bologna, in particular, the roads 
were fo covered with fnow the latter 
end of 06lober, as to Hop the cou- 
rier bell ufed to them. Yet no fuch 
weather was felt in the Briiiih 
iflands, owing, no doubt, "to their 
being furrounded by the fea.' Seve- 
ral oT the great and rich, however, 
behaved with their ufual goodnefs 
to the poor. Her majefty ordered 
500I. to be diftribuied among poof 
objeds in the cities of London and 
Weftminfter. The archbiftiop of 
Canterbury's lady ordered 100 gui- 
neas to be diftributed in coals, bread 
and meat, to the poor inhabitants of 
Lambeth; and his grace, losl. to 
the fame, in money. The Duk? 
of Dorfet ordered 1000 weight of 
beef, the fame quantity of bread, 
and 50 cords of wood, to be di- 
llributed among the poor inhabi- 
tants contiguous to his eftate at 
Sevencaks, in Kent. The Duke 
of Marlborough gave 150I. to the 
poor of the city of Oxford. The 
Earl of Sandwich and Lord Hin- 
chinbrook ordered 300 1. to be di- 
llributed to the poor in the neigh- 
bourhood of Huntingdon. 

Died, the 12th inftant, >, , 
near'Chapel of Seggat, in ^ 
the parilh of Auchterlefs, North- 
Britain, Peter Garden, at the ex- 
traordinary age of 131. He re- 
tained his memory and fenfes till- 
near the laft. He had lived under 
ten fovercigns, viz. Charles J. 
Oliver Cromwell, Richard Crom- 
well, Charles IL James IL William 
and Mary, Anne, and George f, 
II, and III. He remembered to 
have been fent, when a boy, to the 
wood to cut boughs for fpears, in 
the lime of the civil wars. 

And much about the fame time, 
a man of 103 years of age died in 
the parilh of Marykirk. 

[f ] 4 JFEBRUARY. 



88] 



CHRONICLE. 



FEBRUARY. 

- A ©oft violent ftorm of 
* * wind and rain did incredible 
damage in and about London, and 
on the river Thames. The people 
about Dcptford and Greenwich 
had been alarmed with the reveries 
of a crazy prophet, who had pre- 
difted that on this day thefe towns 
were to be fwallowed up by an 
earthquake; and on the breaking 
out of the ftorm, it is faid, fome 
of the inhabitants were weak 
enough to leave their houfes, and 
to fly to London. — At Portfmouth, 
the tide being attended with a hard 
gale from the fouth, rofe higher 
than ever was remembered by the 
oldeft man living. All the houfes 
in the point had from one to two 
feet water in their lower rooms, 
and boats were rowed from the 
Beach up to the Point-bridge. The 
ifland on which the town ftands, 
was in a manner laid under water; 
feveral hundreds of cattle, (heep, 
&c. were drowned, and much 
damage done to the fields fowed 
with corn. A whole row of houfes 
were entirely fwept away by the 
fea, from the back of the Point; 
but happily no lives, that we hear 
of, were loft. Great damage was 
likewife done by the fame ftorm at 
Cowes in the Ifle of Wight, where 
two men were drowned in the 
ilore-houfefe, in endeavouring to 
fave fome goods. 

J At night, upwards of five 
^ * hundred of the foldiers gar- 
rifoned in Dublin, pr.raded in re- 
gular form to the gaol of Newgate 
jn that city, and with fledges 
threatened to break open the prifon 
door, unlefs fome of their brethren, 
who were there confined for out- 



rages again ft the peace of the city, 
were that moment fet at liberty. 
Prudence in the gaoler, and the 
dreadful remembrance of what 
pafTed on a fimilar occafion in the 
mayoralty of Alderman Geale, 
made him comply with their re- 
queft. He opened the prifon- 
doors, and delivered up the culprits 
to thofe who demanded them. 

Came on to be argued, be- , 
fore the judges of appeal, irf ^ 
Serjeant's Inn, Chancery-Lane, the. 
long depending caufe relative to 
the disfranchifement of Alderman 
Plumbe, brought by writ of error 
before their lordftiips, when Mr. 
Mansfield, as counfel for the plain- 
tiff" in error, endeavoured to prove 
that his client, as a citizen of 
London, was not fubjeft to dif- 
franchifement for not obeying the 
lor'd mayor's precept, to fummon, 
as chief warden of the Goldfmiths 
company, the livery of the faid 
company to attend in Guildhall, to 
hear his majefty's anfwer to the 
humble addrefs and remonftrance 
of the corporation of London ; as 
the only legal bufinefs of convening 
the livery, he faid,' was for them 
to ele£l their members of parlia- 
ment, magiftrates, and other offi- 
cers; all other corporate bufinefs 
of the city coming under the cogni- 
zance of the common-council ; and 
he recited many law reports to 
confirm his argument. Mr. Daven- 
port, as counfel for the defendant 
in error, obfervcd, that it was the 
duty of the plaintiff to obey the 
lord-mayor's precept, and that he 
was obliged to do fo by his oath as 
a freeman ; that it was impoffible 
to know the fenfe of the citizens 
but by fuch meetings ; that no 
perfon was fo proper to call them 
together as the mayor or chit-f 
magiftrate. 



CHRONICLE. 



r.89 



roagiftrate, and he enforced his 
arguments by many law cafes. The 
judges then adjourned the further 
arguing of this caufe till fome day 
next term. 

A mod daring and defperate af- 
fault was made about ten at night, 
upon the watch-houfe in Moor- 
fields, where a prifoner was kept 
in charge, by above 40 ruffians 
armed with cutlafles, pillols, and 
other ofFenfive weapons, who 
wounded the watchmen, refcued 
the prifoner, almoil: demoliflied the 
watch-houfe, robbed the conftables, 
committed other aimoft unparallel- 
ed outrages, and then went off in 
triumph. Some of them were foon 
after apprehended, but the gang was 
too numerous to be foon fubdued. 

Three months before the death 
of the late King Lewis the XVth 
of France, his majefty propofed 
to the marquis of Brunois, to buy 
his chateau de Brunois, for the 
Count de Provence his grandfon, 
and brother to the prefent king. 
The marquis refufed to fell it ; the 
death of the king flopped any fur- 
ther proceeding in the affair at that 
time. Since the prefent king came 
to the throne, His majefty has de- 
clared that he has adopted the in- 
tentions of his grandfather; and 
the marquis Hill perfilb in his re- 
fufal, claiming to have his right 
and pretenfions decided by juftice, 
againft the fovereign authority. 
This queftion will form one of the 
moft intereftingcaufes that has ever 
happened fince the foundation of 
the French monarchy. 

The Danifh government has de- 
clared the trade to Bengal free, on 
paying a duty of 8 per cent, a re- 
gulation which greatly affects their 
Eall-Indiacompany, who have now 
no lopger an exclulive privilege j 



and a large fhip was already pre* 
paring at Copenhagen to take ad- 
vantage of the above licence. 

In the courfe of the evi- , 
dcnce given before the feleft ^ * 
committee, appointed to try and 
determine the Hindon elc<^ion, the 
following circumllance came out. 
On a day previous to the ele6lion, 
a man, difguifed in a fantaftic fe- 
male habit, went about the town 
for two fucceilive days, to caavafs 
for two of the candidates. Thii 
figure, which was called the dan- 
cing Punch, called at the door of 
aimoft every elcftor, and gave each 
five or ten guineas; and fent for 
fuch as had not been canvafTed at 
their own houfes, to an inn in the 
town, and there dilliibuted its fa^ 
vours in the fame manner. Some 
others, in the oppofite intereft, atr^ 
tended in an outer apartment of 
the houfe, where their friends fat 
in an inner room, and there obliged 
theeledors to fign an acknowledg- 
ment for a certain fum of money; 
which being done, a paper, con- 
taining ten or fifteen guineas, was 
handed out to every eledor by fomc 
unknown perfon, through a hole in 
the door jufl large enough for that 
purpofe. It appeared likewife, by 
the hearfay evidence of the perfons 
who proved thefe fads, that there 
had been a meeting in the intereft 
of the two other gentlemen at a 
malt-houfe in the faid town, where 
furas of money were diftributed 
among the eledors, not by a dan- 
cing Punch, nor through a hole ia 
the door, but by a perfon in pro-^ 
pria perfonat and in the face of 
upwards of fourfcore perfons. 

Upon this the committee came 
to the following refolutions: 

That Richard Smith, and Tho- 
mas Brand Holiis, Efqrs. by their 
agenij. 



9°] 



CHRONICLE. 



agents, have been guilty of noto- 
rious bribery, in procuring them- 
felves to be eledled and returned 
burgcfies to fcrve in this prefent 
parliament, for the borough of 
Hindon; in the county of Wilts. 

That James Calthorpe, Efq; by 
his agents, has been guilty ot no- 
torious bribery, in endeavouring to 
procure himfelf to be ele6led and 
returned a burgefs, to ferve in this 
prefent parliament for the f4d 
borough of Hindon. 

That Richard Beckford, Efq; 
has, by his agent, endeavoured, 
by promife of money, to procure 
himfelf to be eledled and returned 
a burgefs, to ferve in this prefent 
parliament, for the faid borough of 
Hindon. 

That the Rev. John Nairn, of 
Hindon ; Fafham Nairn, Efq; late 
ofBury-ftreet, St. James's; Francis 
Ward, of Sherborne-lane, London ; 
■ Stevens, a butcher at Salif- 
bury, commonly called Jobber 
Stevens ; Francis Mead, John 
Hart, William Lucas, Thomas 
Howell, John Becket, baker, Wil- 
liam Penny, William Bye, fen. 
William Becket, and Wm. Burnett, 
g)f Hindon, have afted as agents, 
and been acceffary to, and concern- 
ed in, the notorious a£ls of bribery 
^nd corruption that have been 
pradifed at the laft eleflion for the 
faid borough of Hindon. 

That the Houfe be moved for 
leave to bring in a bill to cUsfran- 
chife the faid borough of Hindon, 
in the faid county of Wilts. 

And the above refolutions were 
confirmed by the Houfe of Com- 
mons on the 24th inftant; when it 
was likewife refolved, that no writ 
:(hould be ifiued for a future elec- 
|i.on, for one month. 



The weather fuddenly changed 
in Saxony and other parts of Ger- 
many, from f;;vere froil to incef- 
fant rain for two days and two 
nights: and there being a deep 
fnow on the ground, the rivers in 
confequence fwelled to an immo- 
derate height, and every-where 
overflowed their banks, infomuch 
that it was feared the grain ilored 
on both fides of them, would be 
entirely carried away. But in 
Hungary the damage fuftaincd is 
almoft incredible. Among other 
dreaxdful relations, it is faid, that, 
of the inhabitants of feventeen vil- 
lages in the ifland of Raczkovcr, 
furrounded by the Danube, only 
one perfon efcaped ; and the citi- 
zens cf Peft had nearly fhared the 
fame fate, the whole of their fub- 
urb having been deftroyed, feveral 
ftreets reduced to ruins, and not a 
houfe efcaping without injury. 

This morning, by a high _ , 
tide, immenfe damage was ^ 
done at the wharfs below bridge ; 
the water on many of them being 
near three feet deep — — — A 
large fhip laden with fugars, &c. 
broke away from a wharf near 
London-bridge, and was loft on the 
ftarlings. The following day, the 
water was more than a fooL deep 
in Weftminfter-hall. 

The grand caufe between ^ , 
the county of Dublin, which 
had prefented a late grant of 35 
acres of the Phcenix park from his 
majefty to Sir John Blaquiere, Knt. 
of the Bath, came on in the court 
of King's Bench, before Lord An- 
naly and the Juftices Robinfon and 
Henn ; when, after a trial which 
lafted near eleven hours, the jury 
withdrew for about ten minutes, 
and brought in a verdift in favour 
of the crown for Sir John Blaquiere. 

An 



CHRONICLE, 



[9« 



V An order having been if- 

"^ fued by the Houfe of Lords, 
dircftingan officer of that houfe to 
take into cuitody the printer of a 
morning paper, the officer called at 
the offending printer's office the 
fame evening and the following 
morning, when he was told that the 
printer was not then at home, but 
would give him (the officer) a meet- 
ing on Saturday morning at eleven 
o'clock. In expectation tlierefore 
of his coming, the printer attended 
at his office from eleven o'clock till 
half an hour paft one, when he was 
advifed by his friends to difpatch a 
letter to the officer, informing him 
of his long attendance, with direc- 
tions to the bearer of his letter to 
wait for an anfwer. In the mean 
time, it is faid, that feveral peace- 
officers, &c. were in waiting near 
the printer's houfe, to take into 
cuftody any perfons that might offer 
violence to him ; but no perfon 
came to take him into cuftody, nor 
was any anfwer returned to his let- 
ter. 

L Both Houfes of Parlia- 

°' * ment waited on his majefty, 
with a joint addrefs relative to the 
prefent dilturbances in North Ame- 
rica; which, with his Majefty's 
anfwer, the next day, to the Houfe 
of Commons, and feme refolutions 
of theirs in confequence thereof, 
will be given in our article of State 
Papers. 

, At a court of common 

council, that court came to 
the following refolulion : 

**That the thanks of this court 
be given to the Right Hon. the Earl 
of Chatham, for having offered to 
the Houfe of Lords a plan for coa- 
ciliating the differences which un- 
fortunately fubfift between the ad- 
miniflration in this country and its 



American colonies; and toallthofc 
who fupported that noble Lord in 
fo hrimane and conftitutional a 
meafure." And at a court of com- 
mon-council held the 13th, the 
town-clerk acquainted the court, 
that he had waited on the Right 
Hon. the Earl of Chatham with 
thefe their thanks^ and that hit 
Lordfhip returned the following 
anfwer : 

*• Lord Chatham defires the fa- 
vour of Mr. Town-clerk 10 offer to 
my Lord Mayor, the Aldermen and 
Commons, in Coftimon-council af- 
fembled, his moll refpedtful and 
grateful acknowledgments for the 
lignal honour they have been pleaf- 
ed to confer on the mere difcharge 
of his duty, in a momentof impend- 
ing calamity. Under deep impref- 
fions of former marks of favour- 
able conftrudion of his condu^ 
during the evil hour of a dangerous 
foreign war, he now deems himfeif 
too fortunate to find his efforts for 
preventing the ruin and horrors of 
a civil war, approved, honoured, 
and flrengthened by the greateft 
corporate body of the kingdom." 

Between four and five ,. 
o'clock, all the inhabitants ^ 
of St. Columb, in Cornwall, were 
alarmed by an uncommon clap of 
thunder, attended by lightning, 
adling with fuch extraordinary vio- 
lence, that the eaftern pinnacle of 
the tower (a ftrong and well-built 
ftrufture) was torn and (battered to 
piece?, and the timber. Sec. of the 
church much damaged. Some of 
the ftones of the pinnacle, of above 
300 weight, were thrown upwards 
of 300 yards on every fide of the 
tower; and others of an inferior 
fize to a much greater diftance. 

Laft week an oak in Langley 
wood, the property of the bilhop 

of 



92] 



CHRONICLE. 



ofSalifbury, near Downton, Wilts, 
fuppofed to be a ihoufand years 
growth, was fold for 40 1. It mea- 
fured 6 feet 2 inches diameter, and 
contained about ten ton of timber. 

, . Cardinal John Angelo 
^ ' B^afchi was unanimoufly 
elefted pope, andaflamed the name 
of Pius VI. and on the zzd he was 
anointed and crowned in .he Van- 
can church with the ufual ceremo- 
nies, John Angelo Brafchi was 
born at Ceff na the 27th of Decem- 
ber 1717 ; ^is family is one of the 
noblelt of the province of Ilomania, 
and have in their arm? the eagle 
and the fleur de lis. He is a very 
fine perfon, has a great ihare of 
fenfe, vivacity, and knowledge. 
Benedift XIV. who eileemed him 
much, confided feveral important 
employments to him, in which he 
always dilHnguiihed himfelf by his 
difintereftednefs and exaftitude. 
Though he never poflelTed but a 
fmall fortune, he knew how to find 
opportunities to (hew the generofity 
of his heart, and his tafte for mag- 
nificence; befides thefe great qua- 
lifications, he is extremely pious 
and public-fpirited, of which he has 
not ceafed to give proofs fince his 
advancement, particularly by keep- 
ing his neareft relations at a due 
dilbince, and by lowering the price 
of meat four farthings per pound, 
with,out prejudice to the butchers, 
to whom he makes good the differ- 
ence out of his own private purfe. 
His Majefty went to the 
Houfe of Peers, and gave 
the royal affent to the following 
bills, viz. 

A bill for granting an aid to his 
Majefty by a land-tax for the fer- 
vicc of the year 1775. 

The bill for better regulating his 
Majeily's marine forces while on 
fiwre. 



17th. 



The bill to explain, amend, and 
render more effedual an ad for pro- 
hibiting the exportation of utenfils 
made ufe of in the woollen, linen, 
and other manufadures. 

The feilions ended at the ^ 

OldBailey, when three cri- ^*'^' 
minals for houfe-breaking, one for 
highway robbery, and two for re- 
turning from tranfportation, re- 
ceived fentence of death ; and, on 
the 2 1 ft of April, one of thofe con- 
demned for houfe-breaking, and 
one of thofe condemned for return- 
ing from tranfportation, were exe- 
cuted at Tyburn. At thefame fef- 
fiona 31 were fentencedto be tranf- 
ported for 7 years, 6 to be branded 
in thehand, zof whom are tobcim- 
prifoned 6 months, 13 to be vvhipr, 
and 30 delivered on proclamation. 

A large body of the White Boys 
in Ireland made a moft defperate 
attack on the houfe of Robert But- 
ler, Efq; in the town of Ballyrag- 
get, in confequence of an aftbcia- 
tion entered into by that gentle- 
man, and the other inhabitants of 
Ballyragget, to fupprefs them. But 
Mr, Butler, having had timely no- 
tice of their wicked defigns, af- 
fembled his neighbours, &c. and 
gave them fo warm a reception, 
that they were glad to make off 
with the lofs of two killed on the 
fpot, and feveral wounded. 

The recorder and common fer- 
jeant have lately delivered in their 
opinion to the committee of the 
city lands with regard to the city 
marftials and their men, on a point 
which has been depending upwards 
of two years, that the places of head 
marfhal and under marfhal fhould, 
according to ancient records, be 
given away; for then the court of 
aldermen, or the lord mayor, upon 
any complaint of their ill beha- 
viour, would have a i^^ht to dif- 

mii^ 



CHRONICLE. 



{.93 



I JTiifs ihefn immediately; whereas, 
' when places are bought, ihey arc 
fuppofed to be a fecurity for life, 
whatever mifdemeanor the pur- 
chafers may be guilty of. 

The late Dr. Smith*s prizes of 
25I. each, for the beft proficient in 
iiiathematical learning, at Cam- 
bridge, have been this year adjudg- 
ed to Mr. Vince, A. B. of Caius 
college, an<I Mr. Coulthurlh A, B. 
of Sc. John*s college. 
^ J The lord mayor moved in 

the houfe of commons, that 
the proceedings of that houfe of the 
17th of February, 1769, might be 
read ; which being done, fome 
other excradls which his lord/hip 
called for, were like wife read. He 
then madeafpeech upon what hecal- 
led proceedings unjultifiable, illegal, 
and unwarrantable; and moved, that 
the refoiution of the 17th of Feb. 
1769, which declares, "That John 
Wilkes, Efq; having been this pre- 
fent feflion of parliament expelled 
this houfe, <tuasy and is incapable of 
being elfedted a member to lerve in 
this prefent parliament," be ex- 
punged from the journals of this 
houfe, as fubverfive of the rights of 
the whole body of eledors of this 
kingdom. Mr. Serjeant Glyn fe- 
conded the motion, dnd then a ge- 
neral debate enfued, in which Lord 
North, the Hon. Charles Fox, Col. 
Fitzroy, Sir George Saville, the 
Attorney and Solicitor Generals, 
CoI.Barre, Mr. Burke, Mr. Wallace, 
the two Mr. Grenvilles, Mr. On- 
flow, Mr. Adair, Capt. Luttrell, 
and fevcral others were fpeakers. 
The arguments were warm, and to 
the point. The quellion was re- 
peatedly attempted to be put, but 
was as often prevented by new 
fpeakers rifing. At length, a lit- 
tle after 12, after about eighx hours 



debate, " the quefiion, the quef- 
tion," was fo far the prevailing 
call, that it was put, and the houfe 
divided, when the numbers were, for 
the motion 171, and 239 againilit. 

A petition was prelented , 

to the Houfe of Commons ^+^"* 
from the Corporation of London, 
againfl the bill to reflrain the trade 
and commerce of MafTachufet's Bay 
and New Hampftiire, and the co- 
lonies of Connecticut and Rhode- 
Jfland, and Providence Plantation, 
in North- America, to Great-Bri- 
tain, Ireland, and the Britifli iilands 
in the Weft-Indies, and to prohibit 
fuch provinces and colonies from 
carrying on any fifheryon the banks 
of Newfoundland, on the ground of 
its being an unjuft, cruel, partial, 
and oppreffive bill, injurious to tho 
trade of Great Britain, and tend- 
ing to increafe the wealth and 
ftrength of her rivals and enemies. 

By advice over land from , 

Bencooien, the Soolooans, ^^ ' 
an Afiatic nation, this day took 
the Eaft-India company's new-ella- 
blifhed Settlement at Ballamban- 
gan, and in it efFefls to the amount 
of 926,000 Spanilh dollars and 
upwards, the garrifon and other 
fervants of the company retiring to 
Laboan, another feitlement, with 
elFeds to the amount of 240,000 
dollars. However, thirteen of the 
garrifon were miffing. By the fame 
advice it appears, that in a great 
ftorm, on the coaft of Surat, thirty 
fhips of ditferent nations were to- 
tally loft. 

The above ifland of Ballamban- 
gan, concerning the fettlement of 
which a difpute has been for fome 
time paft fublifting between Eng- 
land, Spain, and Holland, is fitua- 
ted in the Eaft-Indies, at the north 
point of Borneo, and lately belong- 
ed 



94] 

cd to the king of Sooloo, who, in 
1762, made a celfion of it to the 
Englifh. In 1763 Mr, Dalrymple 
took pofleflion of it for the Englifii 
Eaft-India company, and hoiikd 
ihe Britifh Hag there; fince which 
a proper force was fent over, and 
a regular fettlement made on the 
ifland, under the direftion of Mr. 
Harbord, ♦ne of the council of 
Bcncoolcn, who was appointed go- 
vernor. This gave umbrage to the 
Spaniards and Dutch, who are ex- 
tremely jealous of our fixing a 
trading ftation fo near to the Phi- 
lippines and Moluccas ; and ac- 
cordingly the lall advices previous 
to that of its being taken, as above, 
by the Soolooans, mentioned, that 
the Spaniih governor of Manilla 
had peremptorily required the Eng- 
lifti to evacuate the ifland; but 
with this demand Mr. Harbord did 
not think proper immediately to 
comply; and, when the intelli- 
gence came away, he was preparing 
to defend himfelf, though with lit- 
tle profpedl of fuccefs, againft fo 
fuperior a force. According to the 
treaty of Munfter, in 1648 (the 
only treaty fubfifting between the 
Englifh and Spaniards, which ex- 
plains and regulates the rights and 
limits of the latter, in the Eaft- 
Indies) the Spaniards have no right 
to extend their Eall-Indian navi- 
gation farther than they had at that 
time carried it. Confequently 
they can have no claim to Balam- 
bangan. 

Lord Effingham complained in 
theHoufeofLordsof thelicentiouf- 
nefs of the prefs, and produced a 
pamphlet entituled, '* The Pre- 
•' fent Crifis with refpeft toAme- 
** rica confidered," publifhed by 
T. Becket, which his Lordfhip de- 
clared to be a moft daring infult on 



CHRONICLE. 



the king : and moved, that the 
houfe would come to refolutions to 
the following efFed : 

That the faid pamphlet is a falfe, 
malicious, and dangerous libel, fub- 
verfive of the principles of the glo- 
rious revolution, to which we owa 
our prefent invaluable conftitution; 
and of the rights of the people. 

That one of the faid pamphlets 
be burnt by the hands of the com- 
mon hangman in Old Palace-yard ; 
and another, at the Royal Ex- 
change, 

That thefe refolutions be commu- 
nicated to the Houfe of Commons 
at a conference, and that the con- 
currence of that houfe be defired. 
Which refolutions being read, were 
unanimoufly agreed to. 

Purfuant to the above refolutions, 
a conference was held on the 27th, 
between the two Houfes of Parlia- 
ment, when the Commons concur- 
red with therefolutions of the Lords 
on the 24th, and the pamphlet was 
unanimoufly ordered to be burnt 
accordingly. 

A fecond conference now en- 
fued, arifing from a complaint of 
the Earl of Radnor in the Upper 
Houfe, and of Lord Chewton in 
the Lower Houfe, againft a perio- 
dical paper, called The Criiis, N04 
3. publiihed for T. Shaw, &c. la ^ 
the Lower Houfe, this paper in 
queftion had been voted a falfe, 
malicious, and feditious libel ; ia 
the Upper Houfe, the word treafon- 
able was added ; but, upon re-con- 
fidering the matter, that was omit- 
ted : but it was, like the other, 
unanimoufly ordered to be burnt by 
the hands of the common hang- 
man. The principles of thefe of- 
tenfive publications were diametri- ^4- 
callyoppofite to each other. The 
pamphlet aiferted a right in the 
fovereign 



CHRONICLE. 



[95 



fovereign to levy taxes without con- 
fent of parliament, provided that 
confent was with-held. In obedi- 
ence to the above orders, thefe 
pieces were burnt, on the 6th of 
March following, by the common 
hangman, at Weftminfter-hall gate. 

In the mean time, the Lord 
Mayor had iffued his precepts, for 
fummoning the conftables of nine 
of the wards of the city, to attend 
a fimilar execution of them, at 
twelve o*clock the next day, at 
the Royal Exchange. The con- 
courfe of people on this occafion 
waa^ ^odigious. Some of them 
were at lirft very riotous : they 
feized and threw about the firft 
bru(h faggots which were brought, 
and treated the city marfhal and 
the hangman very ill : but more 
faggots being brought, and dipt 
in turpentine, they immediately 
took fire, and foon confumed the 
publications in queftion. But foon 
after the fherifFs arid other officers 
had quitted the place of execution, 
a man of decent appearance burnt, 
at the fame place, a copy of the 
late addrefs upon the American 
afl'airs, and the Birmingham pe- 
tition. 

The Houfe of Peers heard coun- 
fel in a caufe brought before their 
Lordftiips by appeal from the high 
court of chancery. The cafe was 
remarkably curious, the queftion 
to be decided being, WhetherTho- 
mas Sanfam, to whom an eftate 
was bequeathed as foon as he (hould 
arrive at the full age of twenty- 
one, did accomplifh that age, or 
not, being born between the hours 
ef five and fix in the morning of the 
l6th of Auguft, 1725, and dying 
about the nth in the forenoon of 
the 15th of Auguft, 1746, when he 
Was killed by a fail from a wag- 



gon ? The heir at law to Thoma» 
Sanfam cLiimed upon the prefump- 
tion that he had attained to the full 
age, according to the will of the 
teltaror ; and Lord Cambden had 
fo decreed. But the family that 
was to inherit, in cafe the faid Tho- 
mas did not arrive at the full age of 
twenty-one, appealed from this de- 
cree, infilling that more than fix- 
teen hours were wanting to com- 
plete the full term: but that plea 
was over-ruled by their lordftiips, 
and the decree affirmed, becaufehe 
was living on the day that com- 
pleted the period. 

A caufe of Macklin againft 
Clarke, Aldys, Lee, James", and 
Miles, came on to be tried byway 
of indidlmentin thecourt of King'^ 
Bench, before Mr. Juftice Afton 
and a fpecial jury. The indift- 
ment confifted of two counts; the 
firft fpecifying, that, on the 18th 
of November, 1773, the defendants 
had been guilty of a riot ; the other, 
that they had been guilty of a con- 
fpiracy; both in order to caufe Mr. 
Macklin to be difmifled from their 
ftage by the patentees of Covent- 
G^den theatre. The judge, after 
hearing theevidence, and fumming 
it up with accuracy and impar- 
tiality, defired the jury to exercife 
theirjudgment; and if they thought 
the defendants guilty of both counts, 
they were to find a verdicl general- 
ly; if only of one count, they ihoold 
find accordingly. The jury then 
withdrew, and in about twenty 
minutes brought Clarke in guilty 
of the riot, and the others of the 
confpiracy. Butjudgment was de- 
ferred till next term. 

Another remarkable trial cam^ 
on before Lord Mansfield at Guild- 
hall, wherein a notorious Jew fwind- 
Ur was plainiiF^ and a filverfmithi 
defendants 



96] 



CHRONICLE. 



defendant. The aftion was brought 
to recover a penalty of 180I. of the 
defendant, for felling to the plain- 
tiff's brother a parcel o'f filver 
buckles, the fame not being of the 
ilandard, and not having the marks 
prefcribed by adl of parliament. 
In the courfe of the eviaence it ap- 
peared, that fome time ago ihe de- 
fendant had caufed the plaintiff's 
brother to be apprehended upon a 
warrant, for defrauding the defend- 
ant of the very buckles, for the fel- 
ling of which this adion was com- 
mcBced. The perfons examined 
on the part of the plaintiff were, 
his brother, and the affay-maller of 
Goldfmiths-hall; the former, fti- 
mulated by a motive of revenge, 
had forgot the commiiTion of the 
fraud he had exercifed upon the 
defendant, and alfo fome very ma- 
terial circumrtances, which, if he 
had chofen to recoiled, would have 
rendered it unneceffary for the de- 
fendant to have called a fingle wit- 
nefs; the buckles being produced 
in court, both the aifay-mafter, 
who was called on behalf of the 
plaintiff, and the defendant's fore- 
man proved, to the fatisfadlion of 
the court and jury, that they were 
i»ot buckles manufadlured by the 
defendant, but had been made with 
the above defeft for the purpofe of 
loading the defendant with this 
adioJi. Upon this, the plaintiff 
was nonfuited , and his brother 
immediately, by direction of the 
court, taken into cullody for per- 
jury. 
^ , As fome perfons were go- 

* ing through Moorfields, a 
dog belonging to one of them was 
cbferved to fcratch at a particular 
place ; and bis marker not being 
able to gel him from it, they had 
the ground opened > when the body 



of an infant juft buried was found 
with its legs cut off, and lying by 
the body. 

In the courfeof this month, ^^, 
the laft, and next, feveral ^^'"' 
petitions, &c. befides thofe already 
mentioned, were prefented to the 
feveral branches of the legillaturc 
againft the meafures in agitation 
againll the revolted provinces in 
North -America ; particularly by 
the Weil-India and North-America 
merchants of London; the people 
called Quakers; and the mer- 
chants of Waterford, in Ireland. 
On the other hand, the people 
of Pool thought proper to ad- 
drefs and petition in favour of 
the fame meafures. We Ihall give 
in the fubfequent fheets of this 
volume as many of thefe pieces, 
and fuch others as fhall be here- 
after prefented, in the courfe of the 
year, as our bounds will admit of. 

Births. On the 20th inflant, 
the wife of Mr. Lewin, cheefe- 
monger in Fenchurch-flreet, was 
delivered of twins. —This is th« 
fifth time fhe has had two at a 
birth; and they are all living. 

Died, the 3d of this month, at 
Paris, Monfieur Belloy, author of 
the Siege of Calais, and feveralother 
pieces which did him great honour. 

The i6th, at his apartments at 
Mr. Carr's, fadler in the Fleet- 
market, London, the Chevalier 
Defcafeaux, well known in London 
by the name of the French poet. 
He has left a great perfonagea cu- 
rious fword, a valuable gold medal, 
and a curious pifture. 

10. At Burrowflounnefs, Janet 
Nimmo, aged loz. 

12. At New Reay, in Caithnefs, 
Mr. Francis Tait, fchool-maller at 
that place, aged laz* 

18. Rev. 



CHRONICLE. 



[97 



18. Rev. Jofeph Goodwin, fifty 
yearsvicarof Shipton underWhich- 
vvood, OxFordftiire, 

20. Mr.Tuilius Baker, aged 81, 
worth 40,000!. moft of which he 
hos left to charitable ufes; among 
the reft, 5000I. in marriage por- 
tions to any ten yoBng women 
whom his executors may think 
moft deferving. 

MARCH. 



ift. 



Being St. David's Day, 
the fociety ojf^ncient Bri- 
tons held their anniverfary fellival ; 
when the colledlioa amounted to 
562I. 19s. 9d. 

, The Houfe of Peers heard 

an appeal, brought by James 
Nicol and Thomas Davis, ^ftj^^s. 
againft Governor Vereitt, for cruel 
treatment in India. The appel- 
lants had fued the Governor in his 
Majefty's court of Common Pleas, 
but the proceedings were ftopt by 
an injundion from Chancery, on 
the ground of appointing acommif- 
fion from that couft to examine 
witneftes in India, in juftification 
of the Governor's proceedings; to. 
remove which injunftion the pre- 
fent appeal was lodged. But their 
Lordfhips, after hearing council on 
both fides, were pleafed to affirm 
the injunction. 

Mr. Nuthall, Solicitor to the 
Treafury, on hisreturn from Bath, 
was attacked by a Tingle highway- 
man on Hounflow heath; who, on 
y his demands not being readily com- 
plied with> fired into the carriage, 
in which were Mr.^uthall, Avoung 
lady, and a little boy, who happily 
received no other injury tha;) being 
much frightened. Mr, Nuthall re- 
turned the highwayman's fire, and, 
it is thought, wounded him forely. 

Vol. XVIII. 1775. 



as he rode oft" precipitately. When 
they arrived at the ion at Houn- 
flow, Mr. Nuthall wrote a defcrip- 
tion of thi fellow to Sir John Field- 
ing; but he had fcarce clofed his 
letter, when he fuddenly expired. 

Came on, before Jud^e , 

Afton, in the court of King's ^ 
Bench,- a caufe, in which the Maf- 
ter of a floop was plaintiff, and the 
Mafter of a collier defendant. The 
aflion was brought againft the col- 
lier for running down the floop, by 
which two men were drowned, and 
448 quarters of wheat were loft. 
After exaniining feveral witnefl'es 
on both fides, the jury brought ia 
a verdift for the plaintiff. 

An appeal to the Houfe gt 
of Peers, in one of .the moft ' 

important tythe caufes that ever 
came before any court, was heard 
by their Lordfliips. Mr. Chaplin, 
ofRyfom, in Lincolnlhire, being 
in pofTeffion of an old monaftical 
eftate, which, for 174 years before 
the indudion of the prefent reftor, 
had paid a modus of 15 1. a year ia 
lieu of tythes, had tendered the 
faid fum to the prefent incumbent 
Mr. Bree. But Mr. Bree refufed 
to accept of the fame, and in- 
fifted on tythes in kind, as by 
law intitled. On this a law-fuit 
commenced, and the caufe was 
heard before Judge Blackftone, and 
a verdift given in favour of the de- 
fendant, Mr. Chaplia. But the 
Judge being dilTatisfied with that 
verdid, and making his report ac- 
cordingly, the court of Exchequer 
ordered a new trial ; to prevent 
which the prefent appeal was made 
to the Houfe of Peers j when, not- 
vvithftanding there was no church 
at Ryfom, that th-^ redlor neither 
preached nor prayed there, and fel- 
dom or never was fcen in the pa- 

[G] rifti; 



CHRONICLE. 



98] 

rifli ; that the dead might bury the 
dead, and the inhabitants baptize 
and marry one another; yet the 
Law -lords being of opinion, that, 
by law, the tythes were the redtor's 
maintenance, and muft be paid; 
the Lords, as it was a law-cafe, af- 
firmed the order of the court of 
Exchequer for a new trial. 

At the faleofcoinsatLangford's, 
anAquitain halfpenny of RichardL 
fold for 4I. 8s. and an Aqaitain 
penny of Edward the Black Prince, 
for lol. 15 s. 

A few dayj ago, as a farmer at 
Morton-Banks, near Bingley, te- 
nant to Henry Wickham, of Cot- 
tingley-hall, Efq; was making a 
<frain in a field, he fortunately dif- 
covercd a copper chell, about 20 
inches below the furface, contain- 
ing near 100 weight of Roman fil- 
ver pieces, coined at 15 different 
periods, fome of them of fo early a 
date as Julius Csefar. They are 
kbout the fize, but nearly three 
times the thicknefs, of a fixpence, 
and the impreffions are very perfect. 
There was alfo in the chell a filver 
image, about fix inches long. 

, Robert Rous, one of the 

^"^ turnkeys of the New Gaol, 

Southwark, feeing a prifoner, who 
was committed there for different 
highway robberies, with rags tied 
round his fetters, ordered him to 
take them off; and, on his refu- 
fing to do it, he immediately cut 
them off; when, finding both his 
irons fawed through, he fecured 
him, and then fent up two of his 
affiltants to overlook a great num- 
ber of prifoners who were in the 
ftrong room. Upon this the pri- 
foners immediately fecured one of 
the affiflants in the room, and all 
fell on him with their irons, which 
ihcy had knocked off, Rous hear- 



ing of it, went up with a horfe- 
piftol, and extricated his fellow 
turnkey from their fury, and then 
locked the door. All the turnkeys, 
as well as conftables, now furround- 
ed the door and the yard ; and the 
prifoners fired fevera I pillols loaded 
with powder and ball at two of the 
conllables; when, the balls going 
through their hats, and the outrage* 
continuing, one of the conftables, 
who had a blunderbufs loaded with 
fhot, fired through the iron grates at 
thewindow,anddangeroufly wound- 
ed one fellow committed for a bur- 
glary in the Mint. At length a 
party of foldiers, which had been 
fent for to the Tower, being ar- 
rived, and having loaded their 
mufkets, the room was opened, and 
the prifoners were all fecured and 
yoaked, and 21 of them chained 
down to the floor in the condemned 
room. Some of the people belong- 
ing to the prifon were wounded. 

The fheriffs of the city of Lon- 
don, attended by the city remem- 
brancer and other officers, prefented 
to the Houfe of Lords a petition 
from the court of common council, 
concerning a bill pafTed the Houfe 
of Commons, to reftrain the trade , 
and commerce of the province of 
MafTachufet's Bay, &c. in America. 

A petition of the Ameri- , 
can merchants againfl the 5 
bill for reflraining the trade of 
New- England, &c. was prefented , 
to the Houfe of Lords. 

Died the Princefs Carolina A u- 
gufta Maria, youngeft daughter of 
their Royal Highneffes the Duke 
and Duchefs of Gloucefter, aged 8 
months; and on the 22d her re* 
mains were carried out of town, 
and interred in the royal chapel at 
Windfor, in a vault provided there 

by 



CHRONICLE, 



i99 



by his Royal Highnefs the Duke of 
Glouceller for hiinfelf and family. 

, , The people called Qua- 

* kers prefer) ted a petition to 
his Majefty in favour of the Ame- 
ricans ; and foon after fome of that 
perfuafion were invited to a confer- 
ence with Lord Dartmouth. 

The Supporters of the Bill of 
Rights have vot-ed 500 1. for the 
prefent relief of the inhabitants of 
the town of Bofton, and of the poor 
diftrefled fiftiermen of New- Eng- 
land. 

, The Rev. Mr. Newnham, 

' ' one of the minor canons of 
Briftol cathedral, in company with 
another gentleman and his own 
lifter, having the curiofity to fee 
Pen-park-hole, a remarkable ca- 
vern, about four miles from that 
city, went all together to the place; 
and Mr. Newnham having a defire, 
if poffible, to meafure the depth of 
it, as there was no account of its 
ever having been fathomed before, 
advanced to a declivity at the mouth 
of the hole; but, as he was pre- 
paring to let down his line, all on a 
fudden the ground gave way, and 
though he had the agility to catch 
a bough which hung over the hole, 
yet that too giving way, he flipt 
down, and was ingulphed in the 
fight of his friends, who could only 
bewail his untimely fate, without 
being able to afford him relief. His 
body, however, was, after five 
weeks fruitlefs attempts^ found 
floating on the water at the bottom 
of the hole, by a man who fufFered 
himfelf to be let down into it for 
that purpofe. 
g 1 About one in the morn- 

ing, a terrible fire broke out, 
at Mr. Hopkins's, hofier, the cor- 
ner of Warwick-lane, Newgate- 
llrcct. The fire had made conli- 



derable progrefs before It was dif- 
covered, but not enough to prevent 
Mrs. Hopkins nearly reaching the 
ftreet-door; when, recolleding that 
flie had left her children behind^ 
ihe went again up (lairs, when the 
fire had got to fo great a height as 
to prevent her return ; and leave 
her, after fome fruitlefs attempts to 
cfcape from the top of the houfe, 
no alternative but to fling herfelf 
from thence into a blanket, which 
was held by the people below in the 
flreet, to break her fall: Ihe fell 
upon her back, none of her limbs 
were broke, neither did ihe appear 
to be bruifed, yet about 4 o'clock 
the fame morning fhe expired. The 
eldeft daughter, about nineteen, 
threw herfelf alfo into the ftreet, 
and was dreadfully bruifed. The 
youngeft daughter in town, about 
feven, together with her nurfery- 
maid, periflied in the flames. A 
fervant maid clung to the leads 
upon the houfe till fhe was nearly 
fufFocated, when (he let go her hold 
and fell into the ftreet, very much 
bruifed by the fall, upon which fhe 
was fent to the hofpital. The 
houfe of Mr. Newman, oilman, 
next door to Mr. Hopkins's ; and 
that of Mr. Philips, tobacconift, the 
oppofite corner were confiderably 
damaged. This difafter is faid to 
have been occafioned by the firing 
of the chimney of the copper, in 
which a fire had been left burning 
when the fervants went to bed. 
Mr. Hopkins was gone, with two 
of his daughters, about thirty miles 
into Kent, in order to place them 
at fchool there. The account-books 
were faved; but the flock in trade, 
and the furniture, were all dc- 
ilroyed. 

A treatyof commerce was figned, 
at Warfaw, between the miniilers 

[G] 2 , of 



ioo3 



CHRONICLE. 



of his Pruffian Majefty and the Re- 
public of Poland. We fnall give 
it our readers in its proper place. 
, The Tailors belonging to 

" * the fhips, lying at Shields 
and Sunderland, began in a very 
riotous manner to flop all thefliips 
that were bound to London with 
coals, by going on board and un- 
bending their fails, abufing the 
captains and failors that were wil- 
ling to proceed upon their voyage. 
Some fhips in the confufion made 
the bell of their way over the bar, 
with little wind ; but they were 
foon followed by a great number of 
boats, well-manned, which over- 
took and boarded them, forcibly 
brought them back with much dif- 
ficulty and great hazard to Shields 
againft wind and an ebb tide, 
and unrigged and moored them, 
the rioters now collected a great 
quantity of lighters, or keels, and 
made a boom of them quite acrofs 
the river, fo that no craft could 
pafs up or down without their per- 
iniflion. The magiilrates, forefee- 
ing this florm, had fent for five 
companies of the 3111 regiment to 
Tynemouth and Morpeth ; which, 
with the fe a fon able arrival from 
York the next day of three troops of 
the Scots Grey dragoons, foon put a 
Hop to this mifchievous riot, which 
had infedled the mob atNewcaftle, 
who flopped the working of all the 
colliers below bridge, and deter- 
mined to do the fame by all the 
colliers in the two river* Tyne and 
Wear. 

The followiug is a particular ac- 
count of a late dreadful fire at 
Newmarket : It broke out about 
five o'clock in the afternoon, in a 
ftraw-loft belonging to Mrs. Bafcu- 
bee, at the Bull inn; and, the wind 
being very high, communicated 



with uncommon rapidity to above 
thirty out-houfes, which were all 
confumed, together with a wheel- 
wright's (hop, a barn full of wheat, 
three fmall tenements, a malting, 
which contained above 400 coombs 
of malt, befides ico coombs of 
barley, moft of it brought in that 
day ; a peafe-ftack, containing 
about 40 coombs of peafe ; a barn, 
with fome rye in it, and fix pigs, 
a cow and calf; together with a 
llore-houfe and 100 hogfiieads of 
beer. The ground on which the 
above buildings ftood is fuppofed 
to be about five acres, and was all 
on fire in lefs than half an hour: 
providentially for the inhabitants, 
the wind was full fouth : had it been 
north, the whole town would have 
been in the mofl imminent danger 
of being deilroyed. The damage 
fuftained however, is fuppofed to 
amount to more than 3000 1. But 
no lives were loft ; nor was any 
body materially hurt. Jtisftrongly 
fufpedted, that thefe buildings were 
malicioufly fet on fire, as fifteen 
buckets belonging to the engine 
were ftolen the week before. 

A very extraordinary aifair n 
happened at a certain hofpi- 
tal; two women, one of whom ha- 
ving the appearance of a nurfe, 
the other of a maid-fervant, ap- 
plied to the committee to let them 
have a male child, the youngeft in 
the hofpital, for their lady, who 
wanted to adopt one for her own. 
Thefe women, on the committee^s 
clofe examining them, confeffed 
that the lady's hufband was gone 
abroad ; and, as fhe told him be- 
fore he went (he believed (he was 
pregnant, it was necefiTaryon his re- 
turn to Ihew him a child ; they 
likewife acknowledged the lady 
came from the Iflc of Wight to 
Londoa 



CHRONICLE. 



[lOI 



London to lyc-in. As it appeared 
the adoption of this child was cal- 
culated to deprive forae heir at law 
of an eftate, or for fome other un- 
lawful purpofe ; the intention of 
this paragraph is to caution thofe 
perfons whom it may concern to 
be on their guard againft fuch in- 
fernal pradices. 

1 At a quarterly general meet- 
"^ ' ing of the proprietors of Eaft 
India ftock, the company was given 
to underftand, by an official letter 
from the treafury,that they had no- 
thing farther to expedl from go- 
vernment for expellees they in- 
curred in taking the Manillas; and 
by another letter, that, as the adl 
which obliges the company to ex- 
port annually a certain quantity 
of woollen-cloth, was juft expir- 
ing, their Lordfhips intended to 
apply to parliament for a renewal 
of it. Thefe advices, as we may 
well imagine, occafioned very warm 
debates. 

A large caravan of 1500 laden 
camels, going from Bagdat to Da- 
mafcus, was lately plundered near 
Palmyra by Sheek Tyawr, chief of 
the Amizy Arabs: 600 Perfians, 
fome of them perfons of diftindion, 
^ who accompanied it in their way 
to Mecca, were likewife llripped ; 
and it is faid two hundred of thefe 
wretched travellers foon after pe- 
rifhed with cold. The lofs of this 
caravan is faid to be very great, 
and falls heavy on the merchants of 
Bagdat,Baflbra,Damafcus, Aleppo, 
and Conftantinople, 

1 A petition from the Ame- 
^ * rican merchants was prefented 
to the King, praying his Majefty 
to withhold the royal aflent from 
the bills now depending againit the 
trade and fifheries of the Mafla- 
^hufei's Bay, &c. 



His Majefty went to the .^ 
Houfe of Peers, and gave "*" 
the royal affent to the following 
bills, viz. 

The bill for puniftiing mutiny 
and defertion, and for the better 
payment of the array and their 
quarters. 

The bill for defraying th* charge 
of the pay and cloathing of the 
militia. 

The bill to continue an aft for 
allowing the free importation of 
Irifh falted provifions. Sec. 

And alfo to feveral road, inclo- 
fure, and private bills. 

His Grace the Duke of , 
Athol was inftalled Grand ^ 
Mafter of the moft ancient and 
honourable fraternity of Free and 
Accepted Mafons, according to the 
old inftitution. 

One of the oldeft clerks of the 
Seal-office was found hanging in 
the faid office in the Temple. The 
caufe affigned for his committing 
this violence on himfelf, was, a 
reprimand he lately received from 
one of his fuperiors, which he could 
not brook, having been in that 
office more than forty years, with 
an irreproachable charafter. 

As one Benjamin Scolfield, of 
Pudfey, was clearing away fome 
rubbilh from a place on Pudfey- 
Common, called King Alfred's 
Camp, adjoining to an old cave, 
he accidentally found the thigh 
bone of an horfe^ in the cavity of 
which were upwards of one hun- 
dred Roman filver coins, many of 
them of prior date to Julius Caefar, 

Some thieves, from an >- , 
adjoining empty houfe, got ' 

in at the garret window of Mr, 
Fernandez's houfe, in Devonfliire- 
fquare, and went into his bed* 
chamber, from whence they carried 

[G] 3 off 



lOi] 



CHRONICLE. 



off an iron chefl:, containing cafli. 
Bank notes, bills of exchange, and 
jewels, to the amount of io,oool, 
and that without giving the leaft 
alarm, though there was company 
at the time below ftairs. How- 
ever, moft of the notes, &c. were 
foon after found in the houfe of a 
woman, in St. Mary Axe, who 
fome time ago was capitally con- 
vided at the Old Bailey; but was 
pardoned, at the interceffion of her 
Majefty, 

, About eight in the even- 

' * ing, a fire broke out at a 
rope warehoufe in Narrow-ftreet, 
Limehoufe, which in five hours de- 
ftroyed twenty-feven houfes and 
two deal yards, together with the 
furniture, and every thing elfe on 
the premifes. The flames were fo 
rapid from the quantity of pitch, 
tar, rofin, old junk, &c. ftored up 
in them, that the firemen could not 
venture near enough to give any 
cfFeftual help; befides which, there 
was a great want of water for above 
an hour after the fire broke out, no 
body prefent knowing where the 
plugs lay, and the tide at that time 
being our. At length the chafm 
formed by the flip going down to 
the horfe-ferry happily prevented 
the flames from fpreading, fo that 
"with the afliftance of feventeen en- 
gines, the fire was got under by 
three in the morning. On this 
occafion, feveral poor houfekeepers 
loft every thing they were poflTefl^ed 
of. It is very remarkable, that 
the fame prgmifes were burnt down 
about eleven years ago, when more 
than forty houfes were deftroyed. 

Sir George Savile moved for 
leave to bring in a bill to prevent 
the circulation of notes for fmall 
fums in Yorkfliire, where there are 
feme in circulation among the ma« 



nufadurers, from 5s. down as low . 
as 6d. to the fliamcful abufe of the 
induftrious poor. 

His Majefty went to the , 

Houfe of Peers, and gave ^ 
the royal aflTent to the following 
bills, viz. 

The bill for reftraining the trade 
of New England, and the filheries 
of that colony on the banks of 
Newfoundland. 

The Oxford canal bill. 
The Thames navigation bill. 
The bill for repairing the New- 
market roads. 

And alfo toilx other private bills. 
A motion was made in the Houfe 
of Commons for leave to bring in 
a bill to repeal the afl 31 Eliz. re- 
lative to the ereftingand maintain- 
ing of cottages. This aft was made 
^ in confequence of a complaint made 
in thofe days againft the engroffing 
of farms, and enafts, as a means 
of fupplying the markets with poul- ; 
try, eggs, butter, &c. that no new 
cottage fliall be erefted, except for 
the free refidence of the parifh- 
poor, without adding thereto four 
acres, or more, of land. 

The Moors, who, in confequence 
of their declaration of war again fl: 
Spain, had laid fiege to Melille, a 
Spani/h fortrefs on the coaft of 
Africa, have entirely raifed that 
fiege, and defired a perpetual 
peace with Spain. Notwithftand- 
ing which, the Emperor of Mo- 
rocco foon after declared war a- 
gainft the Dey of Algiers, for not 
aflifting him, as the declaration fet 
forth, Dy attacking Oran, another 
place belonging to the Spaniards, 
according to promife. 

A fmart fhock of an earth- 
quake has been lately felt at Mar- 
tinico; and another, along the 
Barbary coaft. The firft deftroyed 

the ' •- 



CHRONICLE. 



[>03 



the fortifications of the ifland where 
it happened ; the latter, thofe of 
Oran ; and both befides did other 
confiderable damage. 

A Two gold medals given an- 
^' * nually by the Duke of Graf, 
ton. Chancellor of CambridgeUni- 
verfity, for the encouragement of 
learning, are this year adjudged 
to Mr. Hall, of St. John's Col- 
lege, and Mr. Hewet, of Caius. 

Letters from Bohemia bring the 
moft afflifting accounts of a re- 
volt among the peafants there, and 
the Huffites, who have joined 
them. Thefe rcvolters, who are di- 
vided into feveral corps, commit 
many excefTes, and do much da- 
mage in the different places they 
pafs through. They have, among 
the reft, pillaged the beautiful town 
of Klumitz, which belongs to count 
Ferdinand de Kinfky, and would 
have fcrved the caftle in the fame 
manner, if it had not been guarded 
by four companies of infantry, who 
drove them away. The manor of 
the count Browne, and feveral o- 
thers, have been very ill ufed by 
them. This revolt is faid to be 
occafioned by fome of the peafants 
being perfuaded, that the fuperior 
nobility with-hold a patent, writ- 
ten in letters of gold by the Em- 
peror, by which Servitude and the 
corvees, to which they are fubjeft 
towards their lords, are abolilhed. 
For this reafon they go from lord- 
ihip to lordlhip to demand this pa- 
tent; and, on being refufed, plun- 
der and pillage, and carry with them 
the officers and domeftics belong- 
ing to the lords. But thefe com- 
motions were foon appeafed, the 
court of Vienna having fent five 
regiments of infantry, with a corps 
of dragoons and huflars, againft the 
infurgents, great numbers of whom 



were furrounded by thefe troops 
Among thofe that were taken oa 
this occafion, were feveral of the 
chiefs, who were hanged at Prague. 
His imperial Majelly, to manifeft 
his clemency, had previoufly or- 
dered a general pardon to all that 
ihould return to their duty, the 
chiefs only excepted. 

We are aifured that the Emperor 
had already refolved to aboliih the 
unlimited fervice of the peafants, 
and that Count de Collowrath had 
received orders to make the necef- 
fary regulations for that purpofc; 
but that, the prefentcircumftances 
intervening, a courier was dif- 
patched to that nobleman, with, 
orders to leave every thing in Bo- 
hemia on the fame footing. 

It has fince appeared, that a plan 
had been formed in Bohemia to 
break out in an open revolt againil 
the Lords, and was to have been 
put in execution the i6th of next 
month. 

Died lately, viz. the nth inft. 
at Newport-Pagnel, Buckinghara- 
fhire, Mr. Mitchell and his wife, 
with a fon and daughter of theirs^ 
and all within three days of each 
other. — When fuch odd combina- 
tions of circumftances happen, whe- 
ther of premature death, fudden 
death, or long life; extraordinary 
barrennefs or fertility, &c. it is but 
leafonable to fuppofethat fuch com- 
binations are not owing to chance, 
but to fome powerful hidden caufe. 
Would not the exploring of this 
caufe be matter of the moll rational 
entertainment; and the difcovering 
of it, a foarce of the greateft uti- 
lity? 

And on the 21ft, was found dead 
in his bed, at his lodgings in Bull- 
head-court, Jewin-ftreet, a very old 
man, who for upwards of twenty 

[G] 4. years 



104] 



CHRONICLE, 



years had not fuflered any perfon to 
go into his room, and tili within 
two days of his death went about 
in a mod ragged miferahle condi- 
tion. After his death upwards of 
50 guineas were found under his 
pillow, and a good deal of money 
in other parts of his room : he alfo 
had money in the public funds. He 
died without a will. When he 
walked out, his appearance being 
very deplorable, many people of- 
fered him money, but he would not 
accept of any, and generally ex- 
prefled great refentment at their 
kind offers. 



ift. 



APRIL. 

The States General have 
iiTued a Proclamation prohi- 
biting the exportation of arms, 
ammunition, gun-powder, &c. in 
Dutch or foreign fhips, from any 
of their dominions, without li- 
cence ; and a tranflation of it ap- 
peared in this evening's Gazette. 

Mr. JefFerfon and Mrs. Jeffer- 
fon, an elderly couple, were both 
found dead in their beds, at their 
houfe in Portugal-court, Deptford, 
with their throats cut in a (hocking 
manner; fome villians having firft 
murdered them, and then robbed 
the houfe. 

By a letter from Philadelphia, a 
number of vefTels belonging to Mon- 
tego Bay, in Jamaica, which had 
for fome time paft made it a prac- 
tice to cut wood on the Ifland of 
Cuba, were furprized by a Spanifh 
veflel fitted out for that purpofe; 
and nine floops and fchooners fell 
into their hands. 

A raven's neft, with five young 
ones in it, was to be feen, built 
under one of the windows of the 



parifli-church of Yeat, in Somer- 
fetlhire. It was fupported by the 
bongh of a tree faftened to the wall 
with dirt by thefe birds* 

The Earl of Briftol attended , 
the levee at St. James's, and '* ' 
refigned all his places under the 
government. 

A llurgeon, 7 feet 10 inches 
long, and weighing i cwt. 3 qrs. 
71b. caught in the river Thames, 
near Brentfprd, was fent by the 
Lord Mayor, as a prefent, to his 
Majefty. ' 

At a common hall, held at , 
the requeft of feveral of the ^ * 
citizens of London, to confider of 
a remonilrance and petition to the 
Throne, refpefting the meafures in 
agitation with regard to America, 
the thanks of the Lord Mayor, &c. 
were voted to be given to thcfe 
Lords who protefUd againll the bill 
to prohibit the people of New 
England from (haring in the New- 
foundland fiihery, &c. and alfo to 
thofe Commoners who voted a- 
gainll the fame ; and to feveral 
other lords and gentlemen, who 
diltinguiftred themfelves in oppofi- 
tion to thefe bills, 

A leafe, for twenty-one years, 
of the place of one of the fifteea 
Sea Coal Meters of London, was 
fold at Guildhall to Mr. Tomkins 
for 6050 1. So that the fale of this 
place may be reckoned to be worth 
to the city upwards of 4000 1. per 
annum, one year with aitother; 
a fine fund, alone, for acls of mag- 
nificence and charity! 

At a grand rout given at , 
theManfion Houfe, it iscom- ' 
puted the company amounted to 
near one thoufand perfons ; ma- 
ny of them perfons of the firft 
rank of both fexes; who all ex- 
prefled the greatell faiisfadion at 

the 



CHRONICLE, 



[lOJ 



the uncommon regularity and ele- 
gance of the entertainment.—— 
In the Egyptian hall, where the 
company dined, was a beautiful 
piece of painting, reprefenting the 
triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne, 
or love united with wine. In the 
ball room, an emblematical paint- 
ing at the top exhibited to the 
eye a landfcape of rural felicity, 
the charming nymphs and fwains 
tripping over the green, and feem- 
ing to invite thofe below to the 
fprightly dance. The lamps were 
illuminated in a new talle, and by 
the variety of their colours, dif- 
pofed in wreaths npon the pilallers, 
in imitation of the orders of archi- 
tefture, had a moft pleafing efFed. 
To crown the whole, many of Mr, 
Gox*s pieces of mechanifm, from 
the Mufeum, all in full tune, con- 
tinued their mufical movements, 
during the greateil part of the 
dinner. 

The city marftials have received 
orders from the Lord Mayor to at- 
tend every market-day at Smith- 
field, to prevent, as much as pof- 
lible, all iniquitous pradices there; 
and particularly all barbarous treat- 
ment of the cattle brought there 
for fale ; and, if they find any 
offending, to take them into cuf- 
tody. 

o , The following meffage from 
' his Majelly was delivered to 
both Houfes of Parliament : 

'* His Majefly, defirous that a 
better, and more fuitable accommo- 
dation ihould be made for the refi- 
dence of the Queen, in cafe Ihe 
fhould furvive him, and being will- 
ing that the palace in which his 
Majeity now refides, called the 
Queen's houfe, may be fettled for 
that purpofe, recommends [to both 
Houfes] CO lake the fame into con- 



fideration, and to make provifion 
for fettling the faid palace upon 
her Majeity, and for appropriating 
Somerfet-houfe to fuch ufes as (hall 
be found moft beneficial to the 
public." 

Addreffes, upon this, were im- 
mediately moved for, to thanlc hit 
Majeity for his moft gracious mef- 
fage, and to afTure hinr that the 
contents ihould be taken into con- 
fideration. 

They write from Montalto di 
Caftro, in the Diocefe of Rome, 
that a fire broke out a few nights 
ago in a wooden cabbin, whereia 
about two hundred labourers llept, 
in the Pontifical Morafs. Twenty- 
five of the poor wretches were burnt 
to afties ; and, of feven more taken 
out half dead and fenklefs, two 
foon expired. Several otherswere 
terribly burnt and maimed. The 
flames were fuppofed to be occa- 
fioned by fome fparks from the 
fire, which it is ufual to keep ia 
the middle of fuch fort of cabbins, 
to preferve the poor tenants of them 
from the bad air. 

Agi Ofman Pacha, grand- , 
fon of Topal Ofman Pacha, ^ ' 
was ftrangled as he was making 
his entry at Negropont, of which 
he was appointed governor. To 
prevent any difturbance, the Janif- 
fary Aga of the place, who was 
charged with this commiffion by 
the Grand Signer, had the precau- 
tion to ftiut the gates of the for- 
trefs, whilft he was on the bridge, 
and to tell the troops who pre- 
ceded him, and thofe that followed 
him, that the bridge was broke. 
At the fame time notice was given 
to the Pacha, who had then only 
ten or twelve people with him, 
that he muft go into the little caftle 
next the bridge, to fettle his ac- 
counts 



CHRONICLE. 



106] 

counts with the Sultan. But, as 
ibon as he got off his horfe, they 
delivered him the Grand Signer's 
order, which conden.ned him to 
death, for having refufed to go 
and fetch the flaves from Bender, 
and for having extorted 700 purfes 
from the Turks and Greeks of Ro- 
melia. Upon this, he defired to 
fee his fon and his Selidar, one 
of his principal officers; which was 
refufed him : he next offered 50,000 
fequins for fifteen days refpite, 
which was likewife refufed; then 
he made his prayer, and put the 
rope about his neck. His head was 
immediately fent to Conltantinople. 
This governor had forty m ules laden 
with filver in his train. 

, The Lord Mayor, attend- 

'^^*^- ed by the Aldermen Bull, 
Sawbridge, Lewes, Hayley, and 
Newnham, William Lee, Efq; Mr. 
Stavely, Mr. Deputy Howfe, Mr. 
Saxby, Mr. Mafcall, Mr. Hern, 
Mr. Crompton, Mr. Gorft, and 
Mr. Jacob; with the Sheriffs and 
city officers, as ufual, waited upon 
|iis Majefty with a petition and re- 
monftrance relative to the meafures 
now in agitation againft the inhabi- 
tants of the Maffachufet's Bay, &c. 
The reafon for his Lordihip's not 
being attended by a greater num- 
ber, was, the Lord Chamberlain 
having previoufly informed the She- 
riffs, that his Majefty would not re- 
ceive more than the ufual number 
of liverymen. When the Lord 
Mayor arrived at St. James's, he 
was moreover informed by the Lord 
in waiting, that his Majefty expeft- 
ed his Lordihip Ihould not fpeak to 
him: To which the Lord Mayor 
anfwered, that the caution was 
ncedlefs, as he never expedled or 
defired that honour. 

A few days ago, a collier difco- 
vered in a coal-mine, near Bridg- 



north, in Shropfhire, feventy-fivc 
yards below the furface, the ruins 
of a water mill, and the fkeleton 
of a man, without any head; like- 
wife the remains of fome animals, 
but in fuch an imperfeft ftate, that 
they could not even fo much as 
conjecture their original figures. 
The learned there account for 
thefe things by imputing them to 
an earthquake which happened 
about two centuries ago. 

Mr. Crayle, of Bond-ftreet, haa 
lately ftolen from him jewels to the 
worth of fourteen or fifteen thou- 
fand pounds. This theft was com- 
mitted by a man who had formerly 
been a favourite fervant in the fa- 
mily, and who, under pretence of 
vifiting his late fellow fervants, con- 
trived to open Mr. Crayle's fecret 
repofitories for his valuable effefts, 
by means of falfe keys. Befides 
the jewels, the thief took away 
2000 new guineas, and feveral 
Banknotes; but what is very extra- 
ordinary, after difcovery of the 
robbery, fufpicion immediately fell 
on the proper perfon ; and, a fearch 
warrant being obtained, the whole 
of the jewels were found in his 
lodgings ; but the thief himfelf 
was gone off for France with all 
the money, in company with a fa- 
vourite Dulcinea. 

A few days ago, a farrier in 
Dean-ftreet, Soho, undertook to 
run his horfe 22 miles in one hour, 
for a confiderable wager ) and per- 
formed it with eafe in 59 minutes 
and a half on the Rumford-road, 
What makes this cafe exceedingly 
remarkable, is the horfe's being 
upwards of twenty years old. 

Gen. Elliot, commander t 
in chief of the forces in Ire- 
land, went to the caftle of Dublin, 
and refigned all his employments, 
amounting to 5000I. a year. 

Orders 



CHRONICLE, 



liof 



Orders have been iflued in all 
the fea-ports of France, prohibit- 
ing the taking in of any cargoes 
for the Englifh colonies ; and to 
inform thofe who do fo, that it will 
be at their own rifk. 
, , The Lord Chamberlain of 

f '^ hisMajelly*shoufhold,wrote 
to the Lord Mayor, to inform him, 
that his Majelty will not receive, on 
the throne, any addrefs, remon- 
flrance, or petition, of the Lord 
Mayor and Aldermen, but in their 
corporate capacity* And, as the 
confequences of this letter have 
been very interefting, and would 
take up too much room in this part 
of our work, we fhall, in fome of 
our fubfequent fheets, give the bell 
account of the whole tranfa^ion 
our bounds will permit us. 

The fame day, the Earl of Ef- 
fingham, by a leuer to Lord Bar- 
rington, begged leave of his Ma- 
jefty to retire from the fervice, and 
that without felling, as ufual, what 
he had bought ; that he might not 
be obliged to inforce thofe meafures 
with refpeft to America, in his mi- 
litary, which he had thought him- 
felf bound tooppofe, in his legifla- 
tive capacity. 

, His Majefty went to the 

'^^ ' Houfe of Peers, and gave 
the royal affent to the following 
bills, viz. 

The bill to reftrain the trade and 
commerce of the colonies of New 
Jerfey, Pennfylvania, Maryland, 
y Virginia, and South Carolina, to 
any part of Great Britain, Ireland, 
and the Well India Iflands. 

The bill to punilh mutiny and 
defertion in the American colo- 
nies. 

The bill for appointing Com- 
miflioners to execute the land-tax 
ait of this fe£ion. 



The bill to indemnify perfons 
who have omitted to qualify them- 
felves for offices, &c. 

The bill for veiling part of the 
garden of Lincoln's Inn in the Ac- 
countant General of the Court of 
Chancery, and for erefling offices 
thereon, &c. 

The bill for making better pro- 
vifion for the poor in the parifli of 
St. Mary-le-Bone. 

The bill to explain and amend 
an a6l to prevent frauds in the ma- 
nufadlure of hats, the woollen, and 
divers other branches of trade. 

The bill to enable Sir Nigel 
Grifley and fon, to make a navi- 
gable canal from certain coal mines 
at Apedale, in Staffordlhire, to 
Newcallle under Lyne. 

And alfo to feveral road, inclo- 
fure, and private bills. 

Letters fromConllantinople men- 
tion a facl, of which the Ottoman 
hiilory cannot perhaps produce any 
example, and which proves, that, 
though the late war may have coft 
the Turks a grekt deal of money, 
it has taught them how necelfary it 
is to deviate from their ancient 
culloms, and follow the tadlick 
ru les of the other E uropean powers. 
They have begun, it feems, by 
ellablilhing a military fchool, un- 
der the direftion of a profelTor 
named Kerwomand, a native of 
Britanny, who was fome years ago 
in the fervice of one of the princi- 
pal Chrillian powers. He opened 
his courfe of lludies the 15th of 
lall month. This is a plan of the 
Chevalier Tott's, who, with the 
above-mentioned profeflbr, is to 
have the inllrudlion of the fcho- 
lars. The lat'ter has a penfion 
granted him of 30CO piallres per 
annum. 

By 



fo8| 



CHRONICLE. 



By a letter from the Ifle of Man, 
the tides for feveral days together, 
about the middle of this month, 
were lower in the different pores 
of that ifland, than could be re- 
membered by the oldeft man liv-^ 
ing ; and the fame was obferved 
on the weflern coaft of this king- 
dom. 

The Emprefs of RuiTia, com- 
miferating the diftrefs of the pro- 
vinces which were lately the feat 
of the rebellion, has been pleafed 
to advance to them a million and a 
half of roubles for t?en years, a r the 
tate of one per cent, for the firft 
three years, and three per cent, for 
the remaining feven. It is to be 
diflributed amongft the proprietors 
of peafants, in the proportion of 
forty roubles for every man lofl 
by them in the late troubles., 

|.^ Holtiliiies commenced be- 
° ' tween his majefty's troops 
and the inhabitants of Maffachu- 
fet's Bay, by ikirmi(hes at Lex- 
ington and Concord, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Bofton. See the hif- 
torical part of rhis work. 

o The Generals Burgoyne, 
Clinton, and Howe, fet fail 
for Bofton, on board the Cerberus 
roan of war. Captain Shads. 

The fame day the Society for the 
recovery of perfons apparently 
drowned, heard a fermon in favour 
of the inftitution, preached at St. 
Bride's, by the Reverend Mr. Har- 
rifon, and afterwards dined toge- 
ther ; when eleven out of eighteen 
perfons faved by their means with- 
in the laft twelve months, were in- 
troduced to the Society, as living 
proofs of the importance of the in- 
fiitution. See, in ourarticle of Pro- 
jeds for this year, a full account of 
the cilablifhment of this moil laud- 



able Society, with the methods re- 
commended by them for the reco- 
very of perfons apparently dead by 
drowning, &c. the premiums of- 
fered by them for employing thefe 
means ; with a lift of the lives 
faved in confequence of thefe mea- 
fures ; and the particulars of fome 
of the raoft remarkable cafes. 

There happened about this time, 
fome terrible difturbances at Dijon, 
in France, and in the village of 
Valteline> in the Breffan, a pro- 
vince of Italy, on account of the 
great fcarcity and dearnefs of pro- 
vifions, particularly of corn. At 
Dijon, they fet fire to a farmer's 
houfe, who had kept his corn up, 
and would not fell it but at a very 
high price ; and the populace then 
facked the houfe of the intendant, 
who was obliged to make his ef- 
cape. In Ihort, the diforder was 
fo gre^t that the troops were cal- 
led in, who took up loo of the 
rioters ; notwithftanding which, it 
at laft grew to fuch a heighth, and 
lafted fo long, that more than 500 
perfons were either killed or 
wounded. 

In the village of Valteline, above 
a thoufand aftembled in a tumul- 
tuous manner, and went armed to 
Brefcia, where they forcibly broke 
open and pillaged the public maga- 
zines of corn, and likewife thofe of 
fome private perfons, and carried 
off with them as much as they were 
able, without Ihewing the leaft 
fign of fear, fo defperate had ne- 
ceffity made them. 

Sir Geo. Yonge, chairman , 
of the fele£l committee on ^" * 
the Shaftelbury eledlion, reported 
to the lower houfe the iix following 
refolutions : 

Refolved, That W. Sykes, Efq; 

is 



CHRONICLE. 



[109 



is not duly elected a burgefs to 
fervc in this preferit parliament for 
Shaftefbury. 

Refolved, That Thomas Rum- 
bold, Efq; is not duly eleded a 
burgefs to ferve in this prefent 
parliament for Shaftcfbury. 

Refolved, That Hans Wintrop 
Mortimer, Efq; is duly eleded a 
burgefs to ferve in this prefent par- 
liament for the borough of Shaftcf- 
bury. . 

Refolved, That Hans Wintrop 
Mortimer, Efq; ought to have been 
returned a burgefs' to ferve in this 
prefeut parliament for the borough 
of Shaftefbury. 

Refolved, That the moft fcandal- 
ous and notorious bribery has been 
praftifedat the late eledion.for the 
faid borough. -^ 

Refolved, That it may be re-r 
commended to the Houfe to make 
enquiry into the fame, in order that 
the faid offenders may be brought 
to condign punifhment. 

Sir George Yonge having de- 
livered the report in at the table, 
the fame was read by the clerk, 
and the feveral refolutions agreed 
to by the Houfe, nem- con. 

Having then repaired to his 
place, he acquainted the Houfe, 
that in the courfe of their proceed- 
ings, feveral matters had come out 
in the courfe of the evidence, as 
iniquitous as indecent, and equally 
offenfive to the laws of God and 
man; that, whatever their opinion 
might be, which he affured the 
Houfe was decifive, they determin- 
ed to fubmit to the Houfe the whole 
of the evidence, by way of report ; 
that, under that idea, they meant 
not to prefcribe any particular mode 
of proceeding to it, but leave the 
^hole matter before it, for its con- 
iideration and judgment ; and that 



he was inflrufted, in the name of 
the committee, to move the Houfe, 
** That the report of the proceed- 
ings and evidence had and taken in 
the faid bufinefs be laid before the 
Houfe to-morrow fe*nnight, the 
4th of May; and that the fame be 
previoufly printed, and a fufficienC 
number of copies be delivered to 
the members." 

Ordered, That no new writ be, 
iffued out for the eleftion of a 
member ioT the faid borough be- 
fore the expiration of the above 
time. 

It was moved, that the deputy 
clerk of the crown do attend im- 
mediately to alter the return. — He 
attended and altered the return. 

After the above matter had been 
fettled, Mr. Mortimer was fwora 
in, and took his feat. 

The Houfe of Commons ,. , 
refolved iifelf into a com- * 

inittee, to confider of his majefty's 
meffage relative to the fettling o£ 
Buekingham-houfeon her majefty, 
in lieu of Somerfet-houfe,whe.n t^iey 
came to feveral refolutions, which 
were afterwards reported, and are 
in fubftance as follows : . , 

, That it is the opinion of xhc, 
committee, that the palace lately 
known by the name of Bucking- 
ham-houfe, and now called the 
Queen*s - Houfe, be fettled oa 
the Queen, in lieu of Somerfet-i 
houfe, in cafe (he ihall furvive hi$ 
majefty. 

That, from and after the deter-, 
niination of fuch fettlement, the 
faid palace be annexed to and veil- 
ed in the crown vf Great-Britain. 

That the palace of Somerfet* 
houfe, which, by a,n a<fl made in 
the fecond year of hh^refent ma- 
jefty's reign, was fettled upon the 
Queen, be veiled irj his majefty, 

his 



no] 



CHRONICLE. 



his heirs, and fucceflbrs, for the 
purpofe of ereding and ellablifliing 
certain public offices. 

Was held the anniverfary feaft 
f)f the governors, &c. of the Ly- 
ing-in-infirmary, when 457 1. was 
collected towards the fupport of 
ihac charity. 

The iron cheft belonging to the 
Court of Requells, St. Margaret*s 
hill, was broke open, and robbed 
of 1 70L 

th Between one and three in 
*' * the afternoon, a remarkable 
phacnomenon, reprefenting in a 
molt beautiful manner three funs, 
was diftinftly feen from Flamftead- 
hill, Chatham-barracks, Bexley, 
and other parts adjacent. 

By a letter from Chatham-bar- 
racks, there appeared there about a 
quarter after one in the afternoon, 
a true regular circle (coloured) 
found the fun ; the diameter of the 
circle, with a Hadley*s quadrant, 
meafuring 45 degrees, 34 min. 
Another white luminous circle, a 
part of whofe periphery at that 
time went through the fun*s centre, 
by obfervation made the diameter 
98. There was another concentric 
circle (coloured alfo) at about 5; 
degrees from that round the fun, 
and fegmentsof two more coloured 
at places very bright, which were 
alfo concentric to each of the other 
circles. The light of the fun was 
fomewhat opake, by the (hadows, 
as if two or three digits were eclipf- 
cd. The whole of this, without 
any variation, appeared upwards of 
an hour and twenty minutes. 

At Bexley, by another letter, 
from Mr. Bailfy, two mock funs 
were feen, nearly as bright as the 
real fun, of which no notice is 
taken in the letter from Chatham ; 
there were other mock funs of a 



bright white, glaring to the eye, 
but feen in water coloured like the 
rainbow ; there were likewife mock 
funs of a fainter white, and the 
circle, which appeared very lumin- 
ous at Chatham, appeared very 
faint at Bexley. There were fome 
other differences between the ap- 
pearance of this pha^nomenon, at 
thefe two places, though fo near 
each other. 

In 1749, * phacnomenon of the 
fame kind was feen at Appleby, in 
Yorkfliire ; but we do not find 
that any thing remarkable fol- 
lowed that appearance ; but for 
fome days after this feen in Kent, 
the weather proved remarkably dry 
and cold, the wind (hifting from 
N. E. to N. W. with blighting fogs 
and frofty nights ; and fcarce any 
rain in 30 days. 

A few days ago, Jerry Lucas, a 
bricklayer, went into a public- 
houfe, called Stone Bridge, in 
Salifbury, and began to lafh the 
landlord, Mr. Hodges, with his 
apron, in a kind of joke; however, 
continuing it too long, and not 
leaving off when he was defired, 
Mr, Hodges gave him a blow with 
a battledore; on which Lucas flruck 
him with his fift, and knocked him 
down. Unhappily by the fall, 
Mr. Hodges*s flcull was fraftured, 
and notwithftanding immediate af- 
fiftance was procured from the fa- 
culty, he furvived only till Friday 
night, when he expired in great 
agonies. The jury, however, 
brought in their verdidl man- 
flaughter. 

Lord North made the fol- , 
lowing motions in a com- ^ 
mittee of the whole Houfe,. ap- 
pointed to confider what encour- 
agement ought to be given to the 
fisheries of Great-Britain and Ire- 
land. 



CHRONICLE. 



[Ill 



land.—'* That a bounty of 40 !. 
be given to the firll 100 fhips that 
arrive with a cargo of 10,000 cod- 
fifti caught on the banks of New- 
foundland ; 20I. for the next 100 
fhips; and lol. for the next 100 
ihips.— That a bounty of 500 1. be 
given to the fliip that arrives with 
the greateft quantity of whale-oil; 
400 1, for the next greateft quan- 
tity ; JOG I. for the next; 200 1. 
for the next ; and 100 1, for the 
next. — That Ireland have liberty 
to import blubber and whale-fins, 
the fame as England. — That the 
duty on feal-fkins imported into 
Ireland do ceafe, and be no longer 
paid. — That Ireland have leave to 
export cloathing to America, for 
fo much of the army as they fup- 
ply and pay for. — That a bounty 
of 5s. per ton be given to all flax 
feed imported into Ireland."— The 
encouragement to be given to the 
linen manufadory of that kingdom 
was poftponed. 

The veftry of the pariih of 
St. Dunftan in the Weft, have 
ordered that the following bounties 
fhall be paid by the Churchwardens, 
for the moft ready affiftance by Ud- 
ders, in cafes of fire: — For the 
firft three-rtory ladder raifed up, 
ll. 10 s.; for the firft two-ftory 
ladder, 15s.; for the firft one- 
ftory ladder, 5s.— They have like- 
wife ordered, that a further bounty, 
to be fixed at the difcretion of the 
vicar and churchwardens, not ex- 
ceeding 5I. fhall be given for any 
other efFeftual afiiftance in the pre- 
fervation of life.— It is hoped, that 
every parifh, both in town and 
country, will imitate fo humane 
. and laudable an exan^pie. 

Several perfons concerned in the 
late riot and refcue in Moorfields, 
on the 3d Feb, were tried at Uicks't 



hall, found guilty, and condemn- 
ed, as follows ; John Taylor, 
James Nimmy, and Wm. Hatch- 
man, to be imprifoned feven yean 
in Newgate ; John Morris, Jofeph 
Hawes, Abraham Ifaacs, Arthur 
Levi, John Leroffe, Jof. Ephraims, 
Thomas Hatchman, and Mofes 
Rebus, to be imprifoned five years 
in Newgate; Patrick Madan, whofe 
being apprehended on fufpicioa of 
felony, was the firft occafion of the 
riot, to five years imprifonment; 
Edward Oliver, to be imprifoned 
in Newgate three years. As there 
was fome reafon to apprehend, that 
an attempt might be made to refcue 
them, a party of the guards was 
fent for, who attended till the trials 
were over, and then conducted them 
to Newgate. Edward Cooke, two 
of whofe fingers were cut off at the 
time of the riot, appeared as evi- 
dence on the occafion. All the 
'prifoners begged hard to be tranf- 
ported ; but this was thought too 
great an indulgence for fuch daring 
wretches. The trials lafted four 
hours; during which the mob of 
low Jews and Chriftians round 
Hicks's hall was greater than evtt 
remembered. 

Trial was made of Mr. , 

Hartley's method of fecuring ^^ ' 
houfes from fire, on a building 
which he had erefted for that pur- 
pofe at Bucklebury, in the countjr 
of Berks, to which feveral gentle- 
men were invited. The building 
confifted of two rooms, one over 
the other, with a ftair-cafe of com- 
munication between, and a fpace 
under the floor of the loweft room 
juft high enough to admit of a 
perfon's going under it. The fire 
was firft laid on the floor in the 
room, then clofe to the wainfcotin 
two corners and under the bed; 

but. 



1 1 a] 



CHRONICLE. 



but, notwithflanding the fire's be- 
ing thus lighted in feveral places, 
its progrefs was fo flow, on account 
of the floor being armed with the 
plates, that it was above an hour 
and a half before the whole room 
tvas on fire; at length, however, 
all the furniture and wainfcot were 
complcatly in a blaze; the flames 
burnt with the grea^teft violence 
out of the door, window, and chim- 
ney, to a confiderable diftance ; 
and the infide of the room appear- 
ed one perfed rnafs of fire. Yet 
the door that led to the flair- cafe 
being armed with fire-plates, the 
ftair-cafe, though contiguous to the 
room, felt no efi^ed from the flames; 
and feveral perfons continued in it 
all the time. The room over, and 
the fpace under the room, felt as 
little, perfons going in and out of 
them, all the time of the experi- 
ment; neither were the joifts of the 
floor and cieling any way injured 
by the force of the fire. After this, 
the flairs, which were likewife 
armed with the fire-plates, had a 
charcoal fire laid upon the landing 
place, and one of the fleps, which 
burnt out of itfelf, like a fire on 
a hearth, without doing any other 
damage than burning the part 
whereon it lay. 

Advice has been received, that 
the fhips which carried the judges 
to the Eaft Indies were arrived fafe 
at Madras. 

The Spaniards are faid to have 
formed a fettlement in the ifland 
of Tinian, to prevent the EngHfli 
from having any fupply from that 
ifland in their, voyages to the South 
Seas. 

From the great improvements in 
agriculture, by^he gentlemen and 
farmers in the three Lothians, and 
neighbouring counties of Scotland, 



particularlyin the article of winter- 
feeding and fattening of cattle, 
the market of Edinburgh has been 
lately better and cheaper fupplied, 
during the winter and fpring fea- 
fons, than moll, other towns in the 
kingdom. A lefl'on to the inhabi- 
tants of thofe places, who think 
they have any reafon to complain 
of the fcarcity and dearnefs of pro- 
viflons at their refpedive markets, 
to form and encourage focieiies 
for the improvement of agricul- 
ture. 

A terrible th under- florm. 



accompanied vyiih gufls of 



30th. 



wind, an4 hail-ftones of uncom- 
mon magnitude, did confiderable 
damage in feveral of the middle 
counties, particularly in thofe of 
Northampton and Buckingham, 
where it unroofed houfes, tore up 
trees by the roots, deflroyed the 
blofToms, and broke many win- 
dows. Some perfons- were killed 
by the lightning in other parts. 
It was likewife felt in London ; 
and during the thunder and light- 
ning, which was very terrifying, 
fome villains got into the houfe of 
Mr. Berry, in Rolls-buildings, and 
carried off plate and other valuable 
articles to the amount of 2000 1. 
and upwards. 

LENT ASSIZES. 

At Maiftone, .thirteen were 
capitally coqjided, all of whom 
were reprieved, except one for a 
highway robbery, ^ 

At Winchefter, ten were capi- 
tally convidled, two of whom for 
a burglary were left for execution ; 
the others were reprieved. 

At thefe aflizes, a trial came on 
before Mr. Juflice Blackftone, and 
a fpecial jury, wherein the owners 

of 



CHRONICLE. 



[113 



of a Ihip,- belonging to Dordrecht 
were plaintiffs, and two other per- 
fons defendants; the caufe of ac- 
tion was for detaining the /aid 
Ihip and cargo contrary to the ex- 
prefs orders of the owners; and 
for refufing to deliver up the (hip 
and cargo to the perfon to whom 
the owners had given full power to 
receive the fame; when, after a 
full hearing of feven hours, the 
jury, without going out of court, 
brought in a verdid for the plain- 
tiffs, with 424I. damages, and full 
coHs of fuit. 

At Worcefter, eight were capi- 
tally convifted ; viz. five for high- 
way robberies, one for (heep-lleal- 
ing, and two for burglary; but 
they were all reprieved, except one 
found guilty on two indidments, 
one for a highway robbery, the 
other for dealing a horfe, who was 
left for execution. 

At Chelmsford, twelve were 
capitally convided, of whom five 
were left for execution. 

At Huntingdon, three were capi- 
tally convifted; but all reprieved. 

At Oxford, two were capitally 
convided ; one of them was re- 
prieved; the other, for the murder 
of Edward Bowden, his mailer, at 
Bicefter, was executed. 

At Reading, two were capitally 
convidled ; but were afterwards re- 
prieved. 

At Hertford, four were capitally 
convifted, twoofwLom, for rob- 
bing on the highway, were left 
for execution. 

At Bedford, two were capitally 
convifted ; but one of them was 
reprieved. 

At Norfolk, four were capitally 
convided ; one, for returning from 
tranfportation ; one, for a burglary; 

Vol. XVIII. 1775. 



and two for fheep-ftealing; the two 
lad were reprieved. 

At Lincoln, one was capitally 
convided for a highway robbery; 
and another, for horfe-ftealing. 
The firft was reprieved, and the 
fecond left. for execution. 

At Nottingham, one was capi- 
tally convided for the murder of 
Mary Dufta in that toWn, received 
fenience of death, and" was exe- 
cuted. 

At Derby, a woman was con- 
demned for the murder of her ba- 
flard child, but was reprieved. 

At Shrewlbury> eight perfons 
received fentence of death ; of 
whom, one for plundering a wreck; ^ 
one for the murder of Ann Chand- 
ler; and one for horfe-ftealing; 
were left for execution. 

The criminal left for execu- 
tion for plundering a wreck, was 
a perfon of fortane ; the wreck, 
that of the Charming Nancy, loft 
on the coalt of Anglefea, in 1773. 
Another, who had been found guilty 
at the fame time, of the fame of- 
fence, was refpited by the judge 
who paffed fentence upon them. 
At the time they were found guilty, 
they moved an arrell of judgment; 
but, their cafe being referred to 
the judges, the judges decided 
againft them ; in confequence of 
which they received fentence at the 
above aflizes. ' 

At Aylefbury. five perfons were 
capitally convided, but were all > 
reprieved. 

At Hereford, fix perfons were 
capitally convided, but all after- "^ 
wards reprieved, except one. 

At Leicefter, three were capi- y 
tally convided. 

At Lancafter, one wai capitally 
convided.' 

[ff] At 



lU] 



CHRONICLE. 



At Surry aflizes, nineteen were 
^ capitally convicted, two of whom 
were for murder. 

At Exeter, fix perfons were 
capit^illy convicted. 

At Warwick, five received fen- 
^' tence of death. 

In Suflex, a woman was capi- 
tally convicted, but was reprieved. 
At Dorcheller, five were capi- 
tally convided. 

AtNorthampton, two were capi- 
ally convidled. 

At Tau^aton, four were capitally 
convided. 

At Brecon, one was capitally 
^ convitled. 

At Haverfordweft, four were 
tried for the murder of Mary 
Roberts, and after a trial of eight 
hours acquitted. 

At Monmouth, two for highway 
robberies, and one for burglary, 
were capitally convifted; but one 
of the highway-men only, was left 
for execution. 

At Bury St. Edmund's, three 
were capitally convifled. 

At Coventry, one received fen- 
tence of death. 

At Gloi^cefter, fix were capi- 
tally convicled. 

At York, twelve were capitally 
convidled, befides Captain Bolton, 
for the murder of his apprentice 
girl. 

Some days ago, five hearty old 
men accidentally met together 
at the Flying Horfe, Ncwington- 
Butts, of the following ages, viz. 
82, 80, 78, 74, and 69, comprifing 
together 3S3 years; the old blades 
made themfelves very merry on the 
occa.'ion. 

Births. Was brought to bed 
lately, viz. the 4th infiant, the 
wife of a Peruke-ifiaker, in Port- 
linad-flreet, Cavendilh-fauare, in 



thefiftv -'"ourthyearof her age, and 
thirtieth of her marriage, and who 
never had a child before, of two 
fons and a daughter, all, along with 
the mother, likely to live. 

Married lately, viz. the 2d of 
February, Captain Waller, of 
Deptford, aged 8i years, to Mrs. 
Ford, ofPeckham, aged 79. 

Died lately, viz. the 18th of 
January, at Birmingham, Mr.John 
Bafkerville, printer, a gentleman 
well known, and much admired by 
the lovers of good paper and print- 
ing, as being the manufacturer of 
his own paper and types. 

19th Feb. Mrs. Ellifon in Welt- 
gate, Newcaftle, ptfTeiTed i)f a for- 
tune of 1 80, cool. 

20th, Mr. Jofeph Collyer, the 
fpirited tranflator of the Meffiah, 
and Noah, and the Death of Abel, 
from the German ; and author of 
a Didionary of the World, a Hi- 
Itory of England, aSyilemof Geo- 
graphy, and feveral other ufeful 
works. 

And the ift inftant, at his lodg- 
ings at Deptford, in an advanced 
age, Mr. Julius Warftone, formerly 
a purfer in the royal navy, reckon- 
ed to have died worth 16,000 I. but 
fo penurious, that he would not 
keep any fervani, nor allow himfelf 
common neceffaries. His fortune 
he left to a neighbour, whofe wife 
ufed to go every day to make his 
bed. 

5th, iV^ary Watkins, Wargrave, 
Berks, aged 105. 

Mrs. Humberford, Efher, Surry, 
aged 105. 

i6th, John Monday, Efq; of 
Durfley, Gloceiierfhirc, aged 99, 
who by one wife had 2r children, 
19 of whom are now living. 

17th, At her houfe in ISewNor-. 
folk-ili eet, LadvGertrude Hotham, 

filler 



CHRONICLE; 



[•'5 



iil^er to the late Earl of Chefter- 
ficld ; her death was occafioned by 
cne of her ruffles catching fire, 
which communicated to her cloaths, 
and burnt her in a (hocking man- 
ner. 

30th, Daniel Mulleery, at Lineyi 
Ireland, aged 127. 

And, on the 25th inftant, was 
interred in the church of Si. Bar- 
tholomew the Great, London, Mrs, 
Elizabeth Stukely, aged ninety- 
nine years and ten months. — She 
' was grand-daughter to Mrs. Ann 
Mafter, who had twelve fons and 
eight daughters, and died in the 
year 1705, aged ninety-nine years 
and fix months> as appears by her 
monument in that church* 



M .A Y. 

- Lord Petre, accompanied 
by the officers of the grand 
lodge of Free-Mafons of England, 
laid the foundation-fione of Free- 
Mafons-hall in Great Queen-ftreetj 
Lincoln*s- Inn-fields, with the fol- 
lowing ceremonies: the grand ma- 
fter, preceded by the grand ftew- 
ards, paft and prefent grand offi- 
cers, in theilr J-egalia, and an ex- 
cellent band of martial mulicj 
came in proceffion to the ground 
about twelve o'clock ; w hen his 
lordlhip, attended by his deputy, 
watdens, fecretary, treafurer, and 
architeft, went down in 1-1 the 
trench, and laid the flone Vvith the 
ufual forms. An anthem was then 
fung by brother Du-Bellamy, and 
an oration pronounced by brother 
James Bottomly. The company 
then returned in proceffion in 
coaches toLeatherfellers-hall, where 
an elegant entertainment was pro- 
vided. 



*The Mufeum Lottery begao 
drawing at Guildhall. 

Ended the feffions at the Old , 
Bailey, when the court faffed ^ * 
fentence of death on two criminal?, 
for highway robbery; nine, for 
houfe^breaking ; one, for Healing 
cattle J one, for horfe-flealing j ^ 
and one, for Healing from a per- 
fon, to whom he was clerk, two 
warrants, one for 213 1, the other 
for 156I. 4s. for which he had re- 
ceived the money; and* on the 
7th of JunCj five of the houfe- 
breakers^ and the clerk for flealing 
the warrants, were executed at Ty- 
burn. 

At this feffions, Thomas Bates, 
late a ferjeant in the third regiment 
of Guards, was tried for the murder 
of his wife, and found guilty pf 
manflaughter only. He bore a 
very good charafler, fhe a very 
bad one; which, no doubt, had 
great Weight with judge and jury ; 
as one witnefs fwore poiltively that 
he had threatened to butcher hir. 

About four in the afternoon^ a 
terrible fire broke out at Mr. Cover- 
dale's, bifcuit-baker, on Wapping- 
wall, which raged with great ra- 
pidity for feveral hours, and burnt 
down near twenty houf'es. 

The fame afternoon, fome wofk- 
men pulling down a houfe in 
Handcock-yard> near Salifbury-" 
court, and not taking care to fhore 
it up properly, the whole building 
fell in> killed one of the workmen 
oh the fpotj and greatly bruifed 
two others. 

According to annual cuf- , 
torn, Mr. Alderman Harley, ^ * 
prefident, with the truftees and fub- 
fcribers to the charity-icnools, pre- 
ceded by upwards of 5000 clarity- 
children, forming two proceiiion*, 
one from the Royal bxc^iange, the 
IH] z oihcr 



n6] 



C H R O N 1 C L E. 



Other from Covent-garden Piazza, 
went to Chrift-chuich, Ncwgate- 
flreet, where, after a iermon preach- 
ed by Dr. Ogle, Dean of WeiU 
Oiinfter, an anthem was fung by 
fome feledl children, in whi^ch the 
whole joined four times in Chorus. 
The preftdent, lleward.s truftees, 
&c. dined at the London Tuvern, 
where an ode was fung in honour 
of th(jfe laudable inftiturion?. 

A law, of this date, has been 
pubiilhed at Florence, Vvhich for- 
bids any girl being received into 
any convent under ten years of 
age, or taking the veil till twenty; 
and, as fcon as ihe makes her pro- 
pofals for the latter, fhe is to be let 
out of the convent, and live in the 
world for fix months; at the ex- 
piration of which llie is to be exa- 
mined by a fecular ecclefiaftic of 
known piety and learning, who 
(hall have no employment nor any 
relation in any convent whatever. 
The government is to chufe the 
examiners, and a fecular judge is 
always to be prefent at the exami- 
nation. The examinations made 
by the ordinaries of each place are 
not forbid, but that appointed by 
government is always to precede 
them. No money is to be taken 
with the lay-fillers, their fervices 
being deemed a fufiicientconfidera- 
tion for their fubhllencc. As for 
the monks, they can only make 
thfcir irrevocable profeilion at the 
age of twenty- four ; and theymuft 
firli give in their baptifmal extracts 
\p form to the government, who 
wIH then give them permilfion to 
take rhe vows; nor can any be ad- 
luitieci without fuch permillion. 
Tne lubjccl* of the Grand Dutchy, 
who, to fcvaie this Jaw, lliail go 
'iaio any convent out of ihdc Itaie, 



(hall be accounted as foreigners, 
and can never fill any employ- 
ment. 

At 8 f P. M. a remarkable ^^^ 
phaiuopienon was obferved by 
a gentleman at Waltham abbey.— 
A meteor, refembling a nebulous 
liar, appeared juft above the moon, 
paiTed eaftward, with a flow mo- 
tion, parallel to the ecliptic^ 
through an arch of about 5 or 6 
degrees, and ihsn difappeared. Ic 
fu blended an angel of 6 or 7 mi- 
nutes, and was of the fame bright* 
nefs and colour with the moon. 

Was completed the fub- , 
terraneous tunnel atNorwood- 9 * 
hill, upon the line of the canal 
navigation from Chellerfield to the 
river Trent, when three veflels 
failed through the fame with no 
lefs than 300 people on board, 
attended with a band of mufic. 
They performed their fubterra- 
neous voyage in one hour and 
one minute. This tunnel is 285a 
yards long, 12 feet high, and 
9 feet 3 inches wide, and in the 
deepeft part 36 yards below the 
furface of the earth. It was firft 
begun in November 1771, and is 
now completed. The range of 
the tunnel is fo truly directed, that 
a perfon, (landing at one end 
thei'eof, may fee out at the other. 
The open cutting from thence to 
Retford, being 16 miles in length, 
has been navigable ever (ince the 
beginning of November lalt; which 
reduced the price of that necelTary 
article, coals, at Retford, from 
15s. 6d.. to los. 6d. per ton, and 
lime from 165, to 9 s. per chaldron, 
notuiihltanding the coals have beea 
fubjecl to the expence of land-car- 
rijge for fo6r miles from the nearell 
coiiieries to the navigation. 0pon 

this 



CHRONICLE. 



["7 



tfiis part of the line are 39 locks, 
24 bridges, 7aquedufts, 13 culvets, 
8 fide-trunks, and 4 weirs. The 
works from Norwood-hill towards 
Chederheld aie carrying on wi'h 
the greatell difpatch ; and Jikevvife 
from Retford to the Tn-nt, upon 
an enlarged fcale, to admit vefiVls 
of 50 or 60 tons burthen to come 
UD from the riverTrent to the town 
ofReiford. 

, Died at Zell, about mid- 
night, her Majelty Caroline 
Matilda, (^een of Denmark and 
Norway, of a malignant fever, af- 
ter an illnefs of five days, to the 
great grief of their m^jefties and 
ail the royal family; and on the 
13 th her maje{ly*8 remain?, accom- 
panied by fixteen captains, were 
carried in a hearfe, drawn by fix 
horfes, and attended by a double 
guard of foldiers, to the church in 
that city, where it was interred in 
the royal Vault. The. burial cx- 
pences, amounting, private as it 
was, to 3000 1. were defr;iyed, by 
order, out oi-his majelty 's own privy 
purfe. 

The mourning en this melan- 
choly occafion, was fuch as is gene- 
rally ordered and obferved on the 
death of fuch exalted perfonages, 
and fo nearly related to the king 
on the throne, with the ufual ex- 
ceptions in favour of the officers of 
the army, fle^, and marines. And 
on the 24th, a committee of the 
lords with white ftaves, and alfo a 
committee of the houfe of commons 
who were of the privy council, 
waited on his majefty at St. James's 
with their addrefsorcondolencc on 
the death of her majeily. 

To the latter his majefty made 
the following moft gracious an- 
swer : '* That he returns his 
(lianks to that houfe, for the con- 



cern they have expreHed for tKe 
great lofs which has happrned in 
his family by the death of his filler, 
the queen of Denmark.*' 

Mr. JufticeAiton reported to the 
court of King*s Bench, his mi- 
nutes of the evidence on the tridl 
of Mefirs. Leigh, Mile?, Jame?, 
Alduf!, and Ciirke, on the 24th 
of February lail, the four firll of 
whom were convi<5ted of a con- 
fpiracy and riot, and the latter of 
a riot only, in Ccvenc-garden 
theatre on the i8th of TsJovember 
1773, with -intent to drive Mr. 
Macklin from the ftage. Lord 
Manrfield obferved on the nature 
of the ofJence, called it a national 
difgrace, and in very feveie terms 
re;jrobated the condud of the par-' 
ties concerned in it. IJe fsid, in 
ihe firft (iage of the bufinefs he had 
urgentlv r.dvi fed the defendants 10 
make Mr. Macklin an adequate 
compenfation for the great damage 
he had fultained : that he then par- 
ticularly pointed out as an advife- 
able meafure the faving of the cofts, 
by putting an end to the matter- 
at once ; that the law expcnces 
were now fwelled to an enormous 
fum, which fum the defendants 
themfelves had given rife to, by 
their obllinacy and want of pru- 
dence.— -Some time was fpent in 
the court's endeavouring to make 
an amicable adjullment of the 
matter, and a final conclufion of 
it. Mr. Col man was propofed a* 
arbiter general, which the defen- 
dants unanimoafly agreed to, but 
Mr. Colman declined the office; 
at length Mr. Macklin, after xeca- 
pitulaiing his grievances, informed 
the court, that to (hew he was no 
way revengeful, with which he had 
been charged, he would be fatisifi- 
cd with the defendants payirtg hia 
[H] 3 : law 



1)8] 



CHRONICLE. 



Uw expences, taking one hundred 
pounds worth of tickets on the 
night ot' his daughter's benefit, a 
fecond hundred pounds worth on 
the night of his own benefit, and a 
third on one of the manager's 
nights, when he (hould play; this 
plan, hcobferved, was not formed 
on mercenary views ; its balis was 
to give the defendants popularity, 
and reftore mutual amity. Lord 
Mansfield paid Mr, Macklin very 
high compliments on the honour- 
able complexion and Angular mo- 
deration of this propofal ; his 
Lordfiiip declared it did him the 
liigheft credit ; that generofity was 
univerfally admired in this coun- 
try, and there was no manner of 
doubt but the public at large would 
honour and applaud him for his le- 
nity. His Lordihip added further, 
that notwithflanding his acknow- 
ledged abilities as an ador, he ne- 
ver a£led better in his life than he 
had that day. The propofal was 
accepted by the parties, and the 
matter was thus ended. During the 
courfe of the bufinefs Lord Manf- 
field took occafion to obferve, that 
the right cfhiffing and applauding 
in a theatre was an unalterable 
right, but that there was a wide 
diftindion between exprefling the 
natural fenfations of the mind as 
they arofe on what was feen and 
heard, and executing a pre-concert- 
ed dcfign, not only to hifs an after 
when he was pb.ying a part in 
which he was univerfally allowed 
to be excellent, but alfo to drive 
him from the theatre, and promote 
his utter ruin. 

Soon after the above decifion, the 
managers of Covent-Garden thea- 
tre met, and generoufiy agreed to 
giv« up their claim to the hundred 
pounds worth of tickets. 



A motion was made in the fame 
court to ma"ke the rule abfoluto 
againft one Whiiaker, in Fleet- 
flreet, for publifhing, and Griffin 
in the Strand for printing, a letter 
in a morning paper of March the 
ift, 1775, highly reflefting, it was 
alledged, on Lord and Lady Mex« 
borqugh; but the procefs not be, 
ing fufficient to fatisfy the court 
that Whitaker was the publifiier, or 
Griffin the printer of the paper, 
and moreover that the blanks and 
inuendoes were far from being 
grounds fufficient to grant an in- 
formation, the motion was over- 
ruled, and the order difcharged. 

The Houfe of Commons , 

went into a committee of '^'"* 
the whole Houfe, on. the bill to veft 
in the univerfities of Oxford and 
Cambridge a perpetual copy-right 
in books of ufeful learning within 
the faid univerfities. Governor 
Johnftone moved, that the follow- 
ing claufe be added to the bill : 
'* Provided neverthelefs, that no- 
thing in this a£t ftiaJl extend to 
grant any exclufive right, otherwife 
than fo long as the books or copies 
belonging to the faid univerfities 
are printed only at their own print- 
ing prefles, and for their fole bene- 
fit and advantage ; and that, if any 
univerfity fhall delegate, grant, 
leafe, or fell their copy-right, or 
exclufive right, of printing books 
hereby granted, or any part there- 
of, or iliall allow, permit, or au- 
thorife any perfon or perfons to 
print or re-print the fame, or fliall 
hold them in truft for the ufe of any 
perfon or perfons whatfoever, that 
then the privileges hereby granted 
are to become void and of no effeft, 
in the fame manner as if this adl 
had never been made.'* Governor 
Johnftone was fupported by the 
Attorney. 



CHRONICLE. 



[U9 



Attorney-general, Mr. John John- 
ftone&c. The claufe was oppofed 
by the friends of the London book- 
fellers. After a hard ftruggle, it 
was carried, to add the claufe to 
the bill. By the bill, as it is now 
amended, the univerfities get for 
themfelves alone a perpetuity in the 
copy-right of all books which (hall 
"be gifted to them in future, pro- 
vided fuch books were never before 
publiflied; but they are not al- 
lowed to buy or fell copy-rights. 
By the above claufe, and other 
amendments, the intention of fuch 
London bookfellers, as meant toob- 
tain copy-rights in perpetuity dele- 
gated to themfelves by the univer- 
fities, is frullrated ; and the bill, 
as it now Hands, met with no fur- 
ther oppofition. 

Mr. William Faden, who was 
convidled on Monday the 27th of 
February laft, of printing a libel on 
Alderman Kcnnet, in the Public 
Ledger of Tuefday, September 27, . 
1774, was brought up to the cour; 
of Kipg*s Bench to receive fen tence, 
when Mr. Juftice Afton delivered 
the judgment of the court, fenten- 
cing him to pay a fine of 200 marks, 
and remain in cuflody till the fame 
was paid. 

Came on to be heard, in the 
court of the Dutchyof Lancafter at 
Weftminfter, before the Chancellor 
and Council of the Dutchy, affifted 
lay Lord Mansfield and Judge 
Gould, and attended by ail the 
leading council at the bar, the long 
conteftedquellion between the crown 
and the occupiers of the houfes in 
the precinft of the Savoy in the 
Strand; when, after a full hearing, 
the court decreed the right in fa- 
vour of the crown. Thisquellion 
commenced in 1702, when ihe Sa- 
voy holj^ital wa$ diUblv^d by. a de- 



cree of Lord- Keeper Wright ; and 
though it had fevcral times, at dif- 
ferent periods, been brought for 
trials in the court of Exchequer, 
no final decifion of the quellion 
was ever had till now; but by this 
decree, the right of the crown to 
the poffcllions of the hcfpital, as 
parcel of the Dutchy of Lancailer, 
is firmly eftabliihed. 

Was held the anniverfary of 
the meeting of the fons of the 
clergy, at which were prefent the 
Right Hon. the Lord Mayor, his 
Grace the Archbifhop'of Canter- 
bury, Prefident; the Bifhops of 
London, Exeter, Cheller, Worcef- 
ter, St. David's, Rochefter, and 
Litchfield and Coventry; Alder- 
men Bull, Plumbe, Thomas, Hop- 
kins, and Newnham; Sheriffs Plo- 
mer and Hart, The colledions on 
the rehearfisl and feaft-days wereas 
fojlow, viz. on the 4th, at St. 
Paul's, 210I. i6s. 3d. the 6th, 
at ditto, 21 1 1. 10s. 3d. at Mer- 
chant-Taylor'sHall, 444I. 6s. gd. 
Total of the contributions, 866 L 

Some week ago, two fellows 
went to the houfe of Mr. Boyer, 
button-maker, in Horfcflioe-alley, 
pretending to have an order; but 
the maid refufing to open the 
door farther than a chain would ad- 
mit, they pulled her partly through 
the opening, cut oiF her pockets^ 
and made off. 

There fell, in and about , 

Murcia, in Spain, a ftorra ^ * 
of hail, which lallcd about twenty 
minutes. Many of the ftones were 
of the fize of oranges, weighing a 
pound, and fome twenty ounces, 
and the greatert partof thf?m eight 
ounces. The country people were 
all thrown into the utmoft conilcr^ 
nation by ir. The damage, it was 

[H] 4 fear*d. 



I2o3 



CHRONICLE, 



feared^ would be very great, from 
the quantity of corn, filk, barilla, 
&c. which was deilroyed. 

The Rt. Hon. the Lord Mayor, 
fomeof the Aldermen, the SheriiFs, 
and Commons of the city of Lon- 
don, waited upon his Majelly with 
an addrefs and petition. 

MonfieurPia, of Paris, has lately 
prefented the 'Medical Society, of 
Crane-court, Fleet-ftreet, with a 
compleat apparatus for the recovery 
of perfons apparently drowned. 

By letters from Hamburgh, the 
King of Pruflia has caufed it to be 
notified to the merchants of Ko- 
niglburgh, that they are no more 
to frequent the fairs atLeipfic, his 
majefty having taken meafures to 
have two annual fairs held in New 
Prulfia, where all forts of merchan- 
dizes Ihall be brought for fale. 
His Pruflian majefty has alfo caufed 
lix frigates to be built at Stettin, 
three of which are to be fent to 
Spain to purchafe cargoes of fait, 
which are to be vended in New 
Pruflia and Poland, 
fith ^^^ Emprefs of Ruffia 

* ' ifTued an ukafe, whereby 
various taxes are aboliihed, fome of 
which were laid on during the late 
war, and others were of old ftand- 
ing. 

The taxes laid on during the late 
war, and which are now aboliihed, 
were, the tax of 80 copecks over 
and above that of i rouble 20 co- 
pecks paid by merchants and handi- 
craftfmen. The tax of 100 rou- 
bles en each furnace or iron work. 
The tax of five roubles on each fur- 
nace in copper foundries. The 
tax of four copecks on each pood of 
calt iron. The tenths of founded 
braf?. The tenths of the capitals 
employed in mines of every kind. 

The additional tax of one rouble 



per annum on each weaver's loom 
employed in fabrics, or by private 
perlbns in their own houfes ; as 
likevvHe the tax of one per cent, on 
the value of every other kind of 
manufaflured goods. And a ge- 
neral liberty is given to eilabJifti 
manufado.-ies without the permif- 
fion of the colleges. 

The taxes upon the eftates of the 
Livonian noblemen. 

Amongft the taxes of old (land- 
ing, which are now aboliihed, were 
the tax on tanners and Ikinners 
work ; that en wax, on tallow- 
melting, on foap-works, on oil- 
manufadtories, on private falt- 
works, and that o,n malt and 
hops, which, mentioned generally, 
is underfrood to relate to the maU 
and hops grown and made here. 

The prohibition is taken off from 
all the towns and villages jn the 
empire, of eredling fmith's {hops 
and fmall iron works ; and they 
are henceforth permitted to manu- 
fadtuxe and trade in all kinds of 
iron whatfoever. 

There are feveral others of lefs 
importance, but they have not the 
fmalleil influence, either diredlly 
or indiredlly, on foreign trade. 

The fair.e edid contains a num- 
ber of internal regulations, toge- 
ther with ads of grace and pardon. 
It takes off all prohibitions againft 
marrying without the confent of 
the governors of towns or pro- 
vinces, and all duties hitherto paid 
to obtain their permiffion. 

It admits all burghers, who de- 
clare upon oath that they are pof- 
feffed of a capital of 5C0. roubles, 
into the clafs of merchants; by 
which they are exempted from thofe 
taxes, which their former rank fub» 
jedted them to; but, in lieu of 
thefe, they are. to pay one per cent. 

upor^ 



CHRONICLE. 



[I2I 



upon their capital, whatever it may 
be, and which they are likewife to 
declare upon oath ; and, <vicever/ay 
thofe who have hitherto come un- 
der the denomination of merchants, 
but who do not actually poffefs a 
capital of 500 roubles, return into 
the clafs of burghers. 

'All peafants, enfranchifed by 
their lords, are, at their reveriion, 
to chufe whether they will enter in- 
to the fervice of government, or 
become burghers or merchants, that 
they may be taxed, or exempted 
from taxes, accordingly, 

A general pardon is granted to 
all perfons concerned in the late 
rebellion, with an injun<5lion to 
bury every thing i-elative thereto in 
oblivion; as alfo a releafe to all 
prifoners who have been confined 
for any crimes whatever for the 
fpace of ten years, without judg- 
ment having been pafT^d upon 
them ; nor is any crime, committed 
fo long ago as ten years without 
being brought to light, to be ex- 
amined into; and this is to be 
henceforward a permanent law 
throughout the empire. 

All insolvent debtors, who have 
been confined for the fpace of five 
years, are to be releafed. 

All heirs of perfons, who were 
indebted to the crown, are dif- 
charged from the payment of fuch 
debts. 

All nobles, ferving as fubaltern 
officers, are to be fubjeft to no other 
penalties and puniihments than 
fuch as have been inflided on their 
fuperior officers ; nor are the cor- 
poral puniihments of the private 
men to be, for the future, fo fevere 
nor fo ignominious, as they have 
hitherto been. 

The fenate has received a fpecial 
pwier to'lower the duty on the fale 



of lands, houfes. Sec. from fix^ to 
four per cent. 

On the fame day the treaty of 
peace with the Porte was publiflied 
in the Ruffian language. 

The fort of Ticonderoga, , 

which had been taken from ' * 
the French by his Majefty's troops 
during the laft war, was furprized 
by a party of the Americans, un- 
der the Colonels Allen and Eafton. 

About half pall eight o'clock in 
the evening, a fire broke out, in « 
barrack, on Treat's wharf, in Bof- 
tcn, New England, while the fol- 
diers there were receiving a num*. 
ber of cartridges; one of them ha- 
ving taken fire and communicated 
it to many more, which immediate- 
ly fet fire to the room, and fooa 
catched the adjoining buildings. 
All theftoreson thefouth fideof the 
dock were delhoyed, except that at 
the head of the wharf, occupied hj 
Mr. S. Elliott. All the llores froia 
Mr. Elliott's to Mr. Ellis Gray's, 
wiiich makes the north corner of 
Spear's wharf, except that occupied 
by the Commill'ary's office, were 
alfodeftroyed* The fire raged with 
great fury ail night. It was at length 
itopt by the pulling down of a (bed. 
Twenty-feven ilorts, one cooper'-s 
Ihop, and four fheds, were burnt, 
but not one dwelling-houfe. The 
whole lofs was thought to amount 
to 40,0001. ilerling. 

Was tried at the bar of the court 
of Common Pleas, by a fpecial 
jury from the county of Suffolk, an 
action of ejeftment brought on the 
refpedlive demifes of three feveral 
perfons ailuming the name of Naun- 
ton, againft William Leman, Efqj^ 
for recovery of a confiderable eitate 
in the faid county, wherein the 
plaintiff fuftered a judgment of 
nonfuiu It feems the claim to thii 

eilate 



IS2} 



CHRONICLE. 



elJate has been litigated for ten 
years and upwards, in every court 
inWeftminiter-halljwithoutaringle 
determination in favour of the 
clairaaiUs. 

An experiment was made, a few 
ctays ago, on the Ipfwich road, with 
the plow, contrived to throw up the 
£dcs of roads in order to raife them 
in the middle, and it anfwered be- 
yond expe£lation. More work can 
be done by it in the fame fpace of 
time th4n can be done by fifty men. 

So rapid have been the changes 
of Governors in America, fince the 
death of his la-te M^jcfty, that there 
were now no lefs than three per- 
Ibns in England, who have been 
Governors of Bollon, viz. Gover- 
nors Pownal, Bernard, and Hutchin- 
ion ; three, who have been Gover- 
nors of New-York, viz. Governors 
Hardy, Monckton, and Tryon ; 
four, who have been Governors of 
Ncw-Jerfey, viz. Governors Pow- 
jial, Bernard, Boon, and Hardyj 
four, who have been Governors of 
South- Carolina, viz, Governors 
Lyttleton,Pownal,Boon, and Mon- 
tagu ; and three, who have been 
Governors of Virginia, viz. Go- 
Ternors Lord Loudoun, Pownal, 
and Amherll; not to mention the 
new Governors Lord Dunmore, 
Franklin, Gage, Colderv, and Ball, 
BOW in their governments. 

, Was held the anniverfary 

" ' meeting of the guardians of 

the Afylum for female orphans, 

when the colledion amounted to 

DO more than lool. 14s. 6d. 

The town of Philipllade in Wer- 
meland, in Sweden, was lately en- 
tirely burnt down, together with 
all the magazines of cern ; a lofs 
which mult be fevercly felt in fo 
fiorlhern a climate. 



By virtue of a commiffion , 

from his Majelly, the fol- ^^^' 
lowing bills received the royal af- 
fent, viz. 

The bill to enable the different 
univerlities in Great-Britain, and 
the colleges of Eton, Weftminfter, 
and Winchefter, to hold, in perpe- 
tuity, their copy-right in books 
given or bequeathed to them for the 
advancement of learning. 

The bill to empower juftices of 
the peace to adminifter oaths in 
certain cafes relative to the poor. 

The bill for altering, explain- 
ing, and amending, feveral ads cf 
parliament in Scotland, refpeding 
colliers, coal-bearers, and falters, 
&c. 

The bill for compleating and 
maintaining the pier of Magavif- 
fey in Cornwall, 

The bill to repeal an aft againft 
the ereding of cottages. 

The bill to enable his Majelly to 
licenfeaplay-houfein Mancheller. 

The bill for the better relief and 
employment of the poor, within 
the hundreds of Mitford and Laun- 
ditch, in Norfolk. 

The bill to permit the free im- 
portation of rawgoat-lkinsinto this 
kingdom. 

The bill to permit the importa- 
tion of painted earthen ware, ex- 
cept gaily titles, the manufadure 
of Europe, to bfe fold in Great- 
Britain. 

The bill to diflblve the marriage 
of Robert Greene, Efc^j with his 
now wife. 

And alfo to feveral road, inclQ«» 
fure, and private bills. 

We have already faid fomething 
concerning the firft and fifth of 
thefe bills ; and it will be ftill more 
proper to fa^ fomething coneerniagj 



CHRONICLE. 



[I2J 



the fecond, the condition of the, 
poor wretches it regards being fuch 
as could fcarce be fuppofed to cxill 
in any part of the Briti/h iflands. 
This may be feen by part of the 
preamble to the faid bill, and the 
heads of it, which are as follow: 

•* Whereas many colliers, coal- 
bearers, and fakers in Scotland, 
are in a ftate of flavery or bondage, 
bound to the collieries and falt- 
works, where they work for life, 
and are fold with the mines: Be it 
cnaded, That, 

** I. No perfon fhall be bound 
to work in them in any way differ- 
ent from common labourers. 

** 2. It fhall be lawful for the 
owners and lefTees of collieries and 
fait- works to take apprentices for 
the legal term in Scotland. 

<* 3. All perfons under a given 
age, now employed in them, to be 
free after a given day. 

'« 4, Others of a given age, not 
to be free till they have inftrudled 
an apprentice." 

, TheDuchefsofKingflon, 

^'^ lately returned from abroad, 
appeared in the court of King's 
Bench, to anfwer an indidlment 
preferred againft her for marrying 
the late Duke, her former hufband 
being then alive. Her Grace came 
through the back door of the Duke 
of Newcaflle's houfe, and went up 
the Hairs which lead to Lord ManT 
field's room, behind the court of 
King's Bench. As foon as the 
court fat, Mr. Wallace acquainted 
the court with the bufinefs relative 
to her Grace, and that the parties 
were all ready, and attendingwith- 
out: Lord Mansfield then gave di- 
rections for them to be called in, 
and her Grace, attended by the 
puke pf Ncwcallle, Lord Mount- 



ftuart, Mr. Le Roche, and Sir Tho- 
mas Clarges, came oot from the 
anti-chamber into court. Her 
Grace having paid her obedience to 
the judges and counfel, fat dowa 
between Mr. Jufiice Alton and the 
Duke of Ncwcallle; the Sheriff of 
Middlefex was then called upon, ia 
whofe cuftody fhe was; and, the 
indictment being read, fhe entered 
into a recognizance, herklf ia 
4000 1. and her four other furetie« 
above na*nied in icool. each, per- 
fonally to appear to anfwer the faid 
indii^ment, whenever called upon 
by the king and her peers in par- 
liament aflembled. Her Grace 
then, in a very polite manner, took 
leave of the court and retired, 

A court of common-coun- , 
cil was held at Guildhall, ^5^°^ 
when they entered upon the bufi- 
nefs of the marfhalmen. After 
fome debates, it was finally deter- 
mined in the following manner, 
viz. that the four under marfhal-* 
men who purchafed their places 
fhall, in lieu of the perquifites they 
ufed to enjoy, have an additional fa- 
laryof 30I. per. ann. each, to com- 
mence from the year 1773 for their 
lives; and the other two marfhal- 
men, who did not purchafe their 
places, as they have been fworn ia 
before the court of alddrmen, and 
have executed the bufinefs of the 
office, fhall be continued at the old 
falary; that thofe places fhall not 
be at the difpofal of the city mar- 
fhals; but, as they fall, fhall be 
difpcfcd of by the Lord Mayor, 
Aldermen, and Common Council 
affembled together. 

The linen and carpet manufac- 
tories of Mr. Cheap, at Edinburgh, 
were burnt to the ground, with all 
the warehoufes thereunto belong- 
ing ; 



124] 



C H R O N I C L E. 



ing; and a great part of the goods 
in thefc buildings w^re likewife 
def^royed. 
r , His MajefVy went to the 

ihc royal afl'enrto 

The bill for fettling Bucking- 
haiD-houfe on her Majelly inftead 
of Soperlet-houfe, ^c. 

Thebill for redeem ing 1,000,000]. 
of the capital (lock of the three per 
cent, annuities, and for eftablifhing 
a Jottej-y. . - 

The bill for granting to hisMa^ 
jefty a certain fum out of the fink- 
ing fand, and for applying certain 
moneys therein mentioned for the 
fervice of the prefent year. 

The bill to explain and amend an 
ai^ to eilabliih a fund for defraying 
rhe-adminiitra'tion of juilice, and 
fupporting the civil government of 
Quebec. 

. The bill for the encouragement 
cjf the fiiheries carried on from 
Great- Britain, Ireland, and the 
Britilh dominions in Europe. 

The bill for giving a public re- 
ward to fuch perfon or perfohs as 
Ihall difcover a northern paffage 
from Europe to the weft and fc^u th- 
em ocean of America. 

The bill to amend an a6l to en- 
able the Speaker of the Houfe of 
Commons io iffue his warrants to 
jnake out new writs for the choice 
pf members to ferve in parliament, 
in the room of fuch members as 
ihall die during the reccfs. 

The bill to enlarge the term of 
fetter? patent granted to William 
Clockworthy, for the fole ufe of a 
difcovery of certain materials for 
the making of porcelain. 

The bill to amend an afl for 
inaking better provifion for the 
poor in the parifh cf Shcredilch, 



And to feveral private bills. 
After which his Majefty made a 
moft gracious fpeech to both houfes 
of parliament, and prorogued them 
to the 27th of July. 

Came on to be re-argued, before 
the judges of appeal, in Serjeant's 
inn. Chancery- lane, the caufe rela- 
tive to the disfranchifement of Al- 
derman Plumhe, brought by writ 
of error before their Lordfhips, 
when Mr. Wallace, as counfel for 
the plaintiff in error, endeavoured 
to prove that his client, as a citizen 
of London, was not fubje«Sl to dif- 
franchifement, for not obeying 
the Lopd Mayor's precept to" fum- 
mohs, as chief warden of the gold- 
fmith's company, the livery 'of the 
ftid company to attend, in Guild- 
hall, to hear his Majefty*s anfwer 
to the humble addrefs, &c. of the 
common. hall. He contended, that 
the Alderman could not oifend in 
his duty as a freeman, as he a6led 
only on the fummons being given 
him in the charajfler of warden, and 
quoted many law-cafes to fuppori;, 
his arguments. 

Mr. Leigh, counfel for the de- 
fendant in error, obferved, that it 
was the duty of the plaintiff, as a 
citizen of London, to obey the law- 
ful commands of the Mayor, which 
he was bound to do by the oath of 
a freeman ; that the fummons the 
Lord Mayor fent him was not only 
on a legal, but a neceff^iry bufmefs 5 
and that, by his refufing to obey it, 
he was fubjedl to disfranchifement; 
and he cited many city reports to 
corroborate his argument. Mr. Wal- 
lace made a reply, and expatiated a 
great deal on the hardfhip of dif- 
franchifing, or depriving a man of 
a freehold for life, for theomiffionof 
an a£l that could not be attended 

with 



CHRONICLE. 



1:125 



with any material confequences. 
The Judges then adjourned the 
court till the 7th of July, vyhen it 
i5 expelled their Lordlhips will give 
judgment. 

By Letters from Corfica, it ap- 
pears that France, having laid a- 
iide all though's of parting with 
that Ifland, has not only oiFered 
premiums for the encouragemeiK 
of agriculture there; but has fent 
over a number of hufbandmen tb 
it from France, who are to pro- 
mote among the inhabitants the 
culture of grain, of vines, and o^ 
olives, the raifing of plantations, 
and the rearing of cattle. 

The Emperor of Morocco hav- 
ing lately applied for a peace to 
the King of Spain, his Catholic 
Majefty has declared, in anfwer to 
the requell of the Moorifh Prince, 
that he will not grant it to him, but 
on the following conditions: i. 
That he fhall pay him four millions 
of hard dollars for the expences 
occafioned by the late rupture; 2. 
That he fhall return the twenty- 
four Spaniards taken prifoners; 3. 
That he (hall grant four leagues of 
country round the places in Africa 
in the pofleffiqn of Spain; and, 4. 
That he fhall cede to Spain the 
port of Tetuan, and the ifland of 
Mogador. 

27th ^ caufc was determined 

' * in the court of King's 
Bench, which is of importance to 
the trading part of the nation. A 
tradefman at Carmarthen gave an 
order, by letter, to a watchmaker 
at Coventry, for fomevc'arches, and 
direded him to fend them by land 
carriage; which he accordingly 
did ; but the tradefman, having 
never received them, refufed to pay 
for them. Upon this, the watch- 
x»aker arrefled him, and a law fuic 



cnfued, which was brought, at the 
lall afTizes at Coventry, before 
judge Eyre, who difmiffed it. The 
plaintiff therefore brought it into 
the court of King's Bench; when 
after a fhort hearing. Lord Manf- 
field declared in favourof the plain- 
tiff, as follows, with cofls ; and 
made the rule abfoiute: that, when 
the vender of goods complies witk 
the orders of the vendee, in con- 
veying them in the manner defired^ 
the moment they are delivered to 
the carrier, they bscoii.e the pro- 
perty of the vendee ; and, whe, 
ther he receives them or nor, he is 
equally anfwerable for ihe payment 
of them to the vender: but, if he 
does not receive them, he has his 
remedy againfl the carrier. Jf, on 
the other hand, the vendee o^der* 
goods to be fent by any particular 
waggon, and the vender f.'nds them 
by another, and they miscarry, 
then the vender muft look to the 
carrier for the recovery cr payment 
of them, and not to the vendee, 

A letter from Jamaica, of ^ , 
this date fays : ** By a vef- 
fel put in here we learn, that they 
have had three fhocks of an earth- 
quake at Hifpanioia in two days,' 
which havedifconcerted ihefchemes 
of the Spaniards, who had. built 
Horehoufes, Sec, and intended to 
make that place a rendezvous foe 
their fleet defivrned for the A- 
merican and Well Jndia fcrvice. 
Their fiorehovjfes are thrown down, 
and the fea has broke in and done 
great damage. Moft of the fl»ips 
|;hat lay there are much damaged, 
'but we do not hear of above five 
lives being lofi." 

The new fhip Port Morant, 
Raffles, from Jamaica to London, 
loaded with fix hundred hogfhfads 
of f'Jgar, and fcvcral puncheons 

of 



126] 



CHRONICLE. 



of rum, having ftruck on a place 
called the Kog-Siyes, in the wind- 
ward pafTage, both (hip and cargo 
were totally loll. The captain, 
crew, and feveral of thepaflengers, 
were faved by taking to the boats, 
and getting to a rock, on which 
they lived for ten days, with no- 
thing to eat but fome raw beef and 
pork that they faved out of the 
ihip ; when they were providcnt- 
tially taken up by a fmall veflel, 
carried to Providence, and put on 
board the Charlotte, Green, who 
has brought them hon:ie, 

Capt. O'Kelly lately fold one of 
"his Eclipfe colts for looo guineas 
down, and 500 more, if h« wins 
-the lirft time he ftarts. 

, An important queflionbe- 
^9'"' tween the Stationer's com- 
pany and Mr. Carnan, of St. Paul's 
Church-yard, concerning the right 
of printing Almanacks, was de- 
termined, by the unanimousopinion 
of the judges of the court of com- 
mon Pleas, in favour of Mr. Car- 
lian; and, the Friday following, 
teing the 2d of June, the injunc- 
tion obtained by the Stationers 
company in jhe court of Chancery, 
Novembej 29, 1773, to prevent 
Mr. Carnan's printing and felling 
almanacks, was diffolved by the 
Lord Chancellor. 

Ataufewas tried in the Com- 
mon Pleas, in which Mifs Davies, 
formerly a finger at the Opera- 
houfe, was plaintiff, and Richard 
Yates, Efq; manager of that houfe, 
defendant. The trial lalled from 
ten in the morning till fix in the 
evening, when the jury found a 
verdid for the plaintiff for 1500 1. 
her falary for a feafon> and 500 1. 
for a benefit which fhe was be- 
iides 10 have, and which fhe va- 



lued at that fum ; both> eydufivft 
of coils. 

The two unfortunate Perreaus* 
(of whom we fhall take the proper 
notice in another place) were re- 
moved from Newgate by a writ of 
Habeas Corpus to the court of 
King's Bench, in order to be ex- 
amined as winefTes, in a trial upon 
an aftion of Trover, brought by 
Mr. Belliard, jeweller, againfl Sir 
T. F— . It appeared, that the 
plaintiff had lent Daniel Perreau 
a diamond ring of 500 1. value, 
till he, the plaintiff, fhould be able 
to make one of the fame value of 
a different falhion for him ; that, 
on the deteftion of the late forge- 
ries. Sir Thomas, as principal cre- 
ditor, feized the ring in queftion 
as part of Daniel Perreau's real pro- 
perry. After a fhort confultation, 
the jury found for the plaintiff with 
one fhilling damage, which intitles 
him to cods of Tuit. 

Three placarts have been lately 
publifhed at Copenhagen; the firfl 
prohibits the exportation of pot- 
ter's clay from the Ifle of Born- 
holm ; the fecond, the importation 
of foreign fuftiafts, called there 
Olmei-dugg, or Parchents ; and the 
third, the importation and ufe of 
foreign tin-plates in Denmark, 
Norway, and the principalities of 
Slefwick and Holllein, except what 
are called the large black iron 
plates. 

The following advertife- „ 
ment appeared in the Pcnn- ^ ' 
fylvania Gazette^ 

** A gentleman, who ferved as 
an officer all lail war in the King 
of Pruffia's army, offers his iervice 
to the province of Pennfylvania, 
The men that will be entrufled to 
his care, he obliges himfelf to tcachi 

ia 



CHRONICLE 



in a very fhort time, the moft ufeful 
and neceflary manoeuvres, efpecial- 
ly quick firing, even without a 
rammer, for which purpofe he 
knows how to prepare fuitable car- 
tridges, befidcs the arc of advanc- 
ing and retiring properly ; and, 
laftly, how to avoid all confufion 
in an engagement. Enquire," &c. 
There was now to be feen, as a 
(hew, in London, what the owner 
was pleafed to ftile a Syren or Mer- 
maid : and though, by its not be- 
ing fubmitted to the examination 
of the college of Phyficians, or the 
Royal Society, the proper judges of 
fuch uncommon fubjedls, we have 
reafon to doubt of its genuinenefs, 
and therefore took no notice of it 
in our article of Natural Hiftory, 
we cannot prevail on ourfelves 
totally to omit it. It differs ma- 
tenally from that fhewn at the fair 
of St. Germaine, fome years ago : 
fo that there is reafon to believe, 
there are two diHinft genera, or, 
more properly, two fpecies of the 
fame genus, the one refembling 
the African blacks, the other the 
European whites. That which was 
formerly ihewn had, in every re- 
fpedl, the countenance of a Negro ; 
this has the features and complexion 
of an European. Its face is like 
that of a young female ; its eyes, 
of a fine light blue ; its nofe fmnll 
andhandfome; its mouth fmill ; 
its lips thin, and the edges of them 
round like that of the codfifh ,- its 
teeth are fmali, regular, and white ; 
its chin is well-fhaped, and its neck 
full. Its ears are like thofe of the 
eel, but placed like tbofe of the 
human fpacics; and behind them 
are the gills for refpiration, which 
appear like curls. Some are faid 
to have hair upon the head ; but 
this has none, only rolls inilead of 
9 



[127 

hair, that, at a diflance, may he 
miftaken for fhort curls. But its 
chief ornament is a beautiful mem- 
brane or fin rifjng from the tem- 
ples, and" gradually diminifhing till 
It ends pyramidically, forming a 
foretop like that of a lady's head- 
drefs. It has no fin on the back, 
but a bone like that of the human 
fpecies. Its breads are fair and 
full, but withont nipples ; its arms 
and hands are well proportioned, 
but without nails on its fingers ; its 
belly is round and fwelHng, bat 
no navel. Prom the wnift down- 
ward the body is in all refpe£ls 
like thecod-fifh. It has three fets 
of fins, one above the other, be- 
low the waift, which enable it to 
fwim ered upon the fea ; and it 13- 
faid to have an enchanting voice, 
which it never exerts except before 
a florm.— The proprietor fays ic 
was taken in the Gulph of Sanchio, 
in the Archipelago or i5Lgean Sea,, 
by a merchantman trading to Na- 
tolia, Aug. 1774. - 

There are now living, in the pa- 
rifh of St. Bees, Cumberland, two 
brothers, and three fillers, whofe 
ages are, Sy, 85, 83, 81, and 71 ;. 
in all, 407 years. 

And in the workhoufe at Cara- 
berwell in Surry, a woman named' 
Jones, aged 125 years, who re- 
members her being at fcrvice when 
King Charles the fccond was> 
crowned in i56o, and at this time 
enjoys her perfefl fenfes : and,, 
what is full as obfcrvable, the nurfe 
who attends her is aged 101. The 
tendered care imariaable is taken 
by the governors and mafters of 
that charity to prcferve the lives of 
two fuch remarkable perfons. 

Died lately, at Sheltingtcnnrar 
Tamworth, in Warwick O1 ire, ao^ed 
fifty-fevcn, IVJr. Spooncr, farmer, 

uf 



128] 



CHRONICLE. 



of that place. He was thought 
to be the fatteft man in England, 
weighing, four or five weeks be- 
fore his death, forty (lone and nine 
pounds. He had not been able to 
walk for feveral years, but had a 
little cart and able horfe to draw 
him abroad for air. He meafured, 
after his death, four feet three in- 
ches acrofs the fhoulders. He was 
drawn to the church-yard in the 
cart he ufed to ride in» His coffin 
was made much longer t^an his 
body, on purpofe to give the bearers 
lOom to carry him from the cart to 
the church, and from thence to the 
grave. Thirteen men carried him, 
fix on each fide, and one at the 
head. His fatnefs, fome years ago, 
faved his life; for, being at Ather- 
Hone market, and fome difference 
arifing between him and a jew, 
the Jew llabbed him in the belly 
with a pen- knife; but the blade, 
being fhort, did not pierce his 
bowels, or even pafs through the 
fat which defended them. 

And, on the ift inftant, Dodlor 
Rutty, one of the people called 
quakers, an eminent Phyfician in 
Dublin, and author of fome very 
learned and ingenious pieces. 

Mr, Ifrael Lyons, eminent for 
his extraordinary genius and exten- 
five knowledge, particularly in bo- 
tany, mathematics, &c. He ac- 
companied Capt. Phipps in his 
voyage to the North Pole, as prin- 
cipal aftronomer ; and was the au- 
thor of the tables annexed to the 
account of that voyage, and of fe- 
veral other ingenious publications. 
He has left many valuable notes 
and obfervations, for an edition of 
Dr. Halley's works collected into 
a volume, which he'had juft pre- 
pared for the prefs, with the fane- 
lion of the Philofophical Society, 



Humphry Coates, Efq; latd A 
candidate for Weftminfter, and re- 
markable for ^is Iteady adherence 
to Mr. Wilkes. 

On the 13th, Do£lor Nicholas 
Robjafon, atlflington, a celebrated 
Phyfician, author of many learned 
pieces. 

On the 19th, Jonathan Howes, 
in Raft-Smithfield, aged 106. 

On the 24th, Michael McLaugh- 
lin, aged upwards of one hundred, 
at Athlone in Ireland. He had five 
wives, the laft of whom he has left 
with a child not above a year and 
a half old. 



JUNE. 

During the Mon tern, a year- ,, 
ly feftival celebrated on this 
day by the Eaton fcholars, at Salt^ 
hill, there fell the mod violent 
ftorm of hail and rain ever remem- 
bered in that part of the country. 
The hail-ftones were as large as 
playing marbles, and the fudden 
flood was fuch, that feveral perfons 
were up to the ancles. Moft of the 
many noblemen and gentlemen who 
were prefent, were as wet as if they 
had been drawn through a river. 

This day came on at Weftmin- 
fter-hall, before Lord Mansfield, 
an aftion in which the Earl of 
Brifiol was plaintiiF, and the prin- 
ter cf a itiorning paper defendant* 
for a libel in the faid paper on the 
cth of December laft ; when the 
jury gave a verdi(5l for his Lord- 
ihip with 300I. damages. 

A man was carried before the 
Lord mayor, for attempting to 
bribe the two blue coat boys, who 
drew the Mufeum lottery, to con- 
ceal a ticket, and bring it to him, 
promifing he would next day let 
ihem have it again, when one of 

ihem 



CHRONICLE. 



[129 



them was, it feems, to convey it 
back privately into the wheel, but 
without letting go his hold of it, 
and then produce it as if newly 
drawn ; theman*s intention being to 
infure it in all the" offices againft 
being drawn that day. But the boys 
were honeft, gave notice of the in- 
tended fraud, and pointed out the 
delinquent, whoj however, was dif- 
charged, as there is no law in be- 
ing topunifh the offence. 

At a meeting of tradefmen at 
the Kii)g*s-arms tavern in Corn- 
hill, it was unanimoufly agreed to 
contribute to the Hopping of the 
circulation of bad halfpence, by 
tefufing to take any. 

As one of the charity boys of St. 
James, Clerkenwell, was bathing 
in a pond at Iflington, he was 
feized with the cramp, and funk ; 
and his body was fo entangled in 
the mud at the bottom, ihat-it was 
a very confiderable time before it 
could be found. It was then car- 
ried to a public houfe at Jilington, 
when Mr. Church, of that place, 
one^of the medical alfiftants to the 
Society for the recovery of drovyned 
perfons, was fent for. Ic is ge- 
nerally believed that it was near an 
hour before any means whatever 
were ufed to reftore this objet^ to 
life; and it was an hour and a half 
more, before any pulfation was 
perceived; and what could then be 
perceived, was very feeble. This • 
however was fufficient to make Mr. 
Church perfevere in the means he 
thought proper for full four hours, 
when the boy fell into ilrong con- 
valfions, and after fome time be- 
came fenfjble. He had a tolerable 
good night, and was pronounced 
out of danger next morning. This 
cafe is inferted to keep alive the 
attention of our Readers to the 
Vol. XVIil. 1775. 



above moft ufeful eftabliftiment ; 
and to fhew, among many other 
cafes, that on fuch occafions, fcarce 
any circuraftances can be defperate 
enough to excufe the not puttings 
in practice their prefcripcions, or 
not perfevering in the ufe of them. 
See our firft article under the head 
of Projedls for this year. 

The Ruffian admiral lately ar- 
rived at Spithead faluted the Eng- 
liQi flag with fifteen guns, whicb 
were returned with thirteen. Buc 
he refufed this compliment, till he 
had received orders to pay it from 
her Imperial Majelly's ambaiTador 
at London. 

The maglftratesofBruffels have 
ifTued orders, that all Jews, fettling 
in that city for the future, Ihall pay 
3C0 florins yearly to the receivers 
of the Emprefs Qjeen's revenue; 
or be banifhed ; and that, if any 
Jews (hould, under pretence of be- 
ing travellers, flay there above for- 
ty-eight hours, they (hall be ob- 
liged to pay the fame fum. 

Lord Sandwich, accompa- . , . 
nicd by Lord Seaford, Sir 5^"- 
Hugh Pailifer^ Mr. Banks, and 
Omiah, the native of Otaheite, 
began his annual furvey of the 
Royal Navy, by examining the 
ftate of Chatham yard. The ar- 
tificers and workmen of the dock 
yards, with the officers of fhips and 
feamen in ordinary, were muf- 
tered before his Lordfliip. Omi- 
ah was condu6\ed by Mr. Peake, 
builder's amitant, on board the 
Viftory of 100 gun?,- now repair- 
ing. His furprize at feeing fo large 
a fhip can fcarcely be exprefTed. 
By this furvey, it appeared, that 
there were eighty-feven fhips then 
fit for fervice, including thofe al- 
ready in commiffion ; and alfo fe- 
vera! frigates, 

[/] A but- 



^3^]. 



CHRONICLE. 



6ih. 



A buttock of beef, which 



fome time ago had been fent 
from London to Charles -Town, in 
South Carolina, in the Pallas, Capt. 
Turner, as a prefent, would not 
be fulFered to be landed there. It 
was therefore brought back again, 
and this day eaten at the Jamaica 
cofFee-houfe, Rotherhithe. 

The reigning Prince of Naffau- 
Ufinguen, being willing to efta- 
bliih in a Catholic church in his 
country, the exercife of the Lu- 
theran religion, and having fent 
thither for that purpoO? a Bailiff, 
accompanied by feveral armed men, 
the inhabitants, aflifted by fome 
peafants of the country of Mentz, 
oppofed « them ; and the oppofite 
parties came to blows. The Bai- 
liff was dangeroufly wounded, 
and fome of his companions were 
killed. 

., The feffions ended at the 
' ' Old Bailey, when fourteen 
convifts received fen tence of death, 
"viz. the two unfortunate brothers, 
l^obert and Daniel Perreau, for 
forgery ; four, for ftreet, field, and 
hTgh way robberies; three forhoufe- 
breaking,and houfe robberies; one, 
for theft ; one, for firing a pillol at 
Walter Butler, one of the patrole, 
near the Foundling Hofpital, and 
wounding him in the neck ; two, for 
coining ; and one, for horfe deal- 
ing ; one received fen tence of tfanf- 
portation for fourteen years ; fix- 
teen, fentence of tranfportation for 
feven years; and nine convided of 
coining halfpence, were branded 
in the hand, and fentenced to fufi^er 
sin imprifonment in Newgate for 
twelve months. One, for a fraud, 
was fined is. and ordered to be 
imprifcned fix months. And on 
the 19th of July following, feven 
of the above capital convids were 



executed at Tyburn ; among whom 
were the two coiners. But the twO 
brothers were not fo much as re- 
ported, in hopes the trial of Mrs. 
Rudd, fuppofed to be concerned 
with them, might produce fome- 
thing to exculpate them, or at leall 
alleviate their goilr, without ex« 
pofing them to the aggravated dif- 
trefs of fufFering after a reprieve. 

Came on before Lord Manf- ^ , 
fieldand afpecial Jury,the well 
known caufe between Charles Mor- 
ris, Efq. cornet of dragoons, plain- 
tifi^, and the Rev. Mr. Charles 
Everard, defendant. The aftion 
was brought for the recovery of 
damages for a caning which the 
former received in the Hay market 
from the latter. The defendant 
not denying the faft. Lord Manf- 
field direded the Jury to find for 
the plaintiff what damages they 
thought proper. The Jury, after 
going out about fifteen minutes, re^ 
turned into court with a verdid for 
the plaintiff with 20I. damages. 

His excellency Count de Guines 
arrived at his houfe in Great 
George- ftreet, from France, af;er 
gaining, on the 2d, a decree of the 
Chatekt, againft one of his fecre- 
taries, who had accufed his ex- 
cellency with ordering him to game 
for his, his excellency's, account 
in the Engliih flocks. His excel- 
lency, immediately on his arrival, 
was vifited by all the foreign mi- 
nifters, the fecretaries of ftate, and 
a great number of the nobility, 

Mrs. Ivy, of the Borough, ia 
coming from Guildford, was ftung 
by a gnat on the chin ; which fo 
inflamed her jaw and head, that 
a mortification enfued, and flie 
died in lefs than twenty-four hours. 

This being the day ap- 1 

pointed for the coronation 

of 



CHRONICLE. 



b3i 



•f his moft Chriftian Majefty, the 
places in the cathedral at Rheims, 
where the ceremony was to be per- 
formed, were filled at five in the 
morning. At fix the Queen made 
her appearance, and in about half 
an hour after his moft Chriftian 
Majefty. The ceremony was per- 
formed by the Cardinal de la Rou- 
cheaumon, and ended a little be- 
fore one ; the whole having been 
conduced with the greateft regula- 
rity as well as magnificence. The 
throne was no lefs than fixty feet 
in height. 

An advertifing conjuror, being 
convifted before the Lord Mayor, 
of defrauding a poor fervant maid 
out of place, of fourteen pence, on 
pretence of telling her her fortune, 
thought he might efcape punifti- 
ment by being a houfe-keeper, and 
as fuch not coming within the 
meaning of the vagrant ad ; but, 
as that aft exprefsly mentions per- 
fons pretending tobe (killed in phy- 
fiognomy, &c. or to tell fortunes, 
Ihall be deemed vagrants, the Lord 
Mayor over-ruled that objeftion, 
«nd committed him to Bridewell 
to hard labour for the fpace of one 
month ; and declared that, for the 
next offence of the like nature, he 
would commit him as an incorri- 
gible rogue, and have him tried 
ds fuch at the feflions. 

1 M.BrizioGuiftinianowas 

"*■ * crowned doge of Venice 
with the ufual ceremonies. 

The fenate of Milan lately re- 
ceived a fupreme order, abolifti- 
ing for ever the tribunal of the in- 
quifition ; and applying the efir'efls 
of it to the ufe of the hofpital for 
orphans. 
J . The Americans before 

' * Bofton werg driven by the 



King*s troops from fome works 
which they had thrown up, the 
preceding night, on one of the 
heights of the Peninfula of Charles 
Town, called Bunker's Hill. 

Ended the drawing of the Mu- 
feum Lottery. 

Between five and fix in the af- 
ternoon, the following melancholy 
accident happened in Chifwell- 
ftreet. One of fome houfes building 
on contrail for Mr. Gilbert, gro- 
cer, fell in, occafioned by the flight-' 
nefs of the workmanftiip, ^nd bu- 
ried twelve perfons in the ruins; 
three of whom were killed ; the 
reft were taken out alive, but feven 
fo much hurt, that they were fent 
to St. Bartholomew's hofpital with 
very little hopes of recovery. 

The town of Lenczno, in Po- 
land, belonging to the grand Gene- 
riil Branicki, and famous for its 
horfe markets, was, fome time fince, 
entirely burnt to alhes on the lirft: 
day of the fair. 

Appeared in the public ^ , 
papers, the copy of a pro- '°^ • 
clamation, iffued by General Gage, 
at Bofton, on the 12th of laft month, 
offering his Majefty's pardon to 
all perfons who fhould immedi- 
ately lay down their arms, except 
Samuel Adams, and John Han- 
cock; declaring all thofe rebels, 
who ftiould not comply with thefe 
terms; and all perfons to be trai- 
tors, who ftiould aid and aflift, or 
hold any correfpondence with the 
rebels ; and moreover, ordering^ 
martial law to be in force wit hia 
the province of Maffachufett's-Bay, 
fo long as the prefent unhappy oc- 
cafion ftiall require it. 

The Beft)orough, lately arrived 
from Coaft and China, after a 
voyage of near three years, ha« 

[/] 2 brought 



13^3 



CHRONICLE, 



brought home feme of the greatcll 
curiofities of the animal and veget- 
able kind that ever were feen in 
Europe. The following are a few 
of the moil farprizing: The fkin 
of a large Oranoutang, which died 
on the pafTage ; this creature came 
from a remote part of the Ifland of 
Sumatra; one would take them to 
be a fpecies of the human creation ; 
they have many of the adions of 
man; and even feem to have a 
kind of government and police a- 
mong themfelves; but their fpeech, 
if it may be called fuch, is not in- 
telligible. — A large Brandafornia, 
from the diamond mines of Gol- 
conda, fomething refembling a 
monkey, with a large white beard, 
fierce, ftrong, and terrible, yet very 
tradable : this kind of creatures 
are made ufe of by the natives of 
Golconda as coolys or flaves in the 
mines. During a very hard gale 
of wind, being put in the cable 
tier below, he drew the fplite of 
the (heet-cable ; which is almoft in- 
credible.— A fmall black amphi- 
bious animal, in every part refem- 
bling our cat, only it has no tail ; 
caught on a reef of rocks near Prin- 
cefs's Ifland, in the Straits of Banca, 
where it lived on flying-fifti, which 
it is very expert in catching; it 
now lives on fmall fiih or frefh 
meat; it is very docile and trada- 
ble.— -A large horned dog, by the 
natives called Picrobus, made every 
way like a dog, all to it's horn 
and claws.— An exceeding beauti- 
ful Crown-bird, and two Cockato- 
ries, who have been fo well trained, 
during the voyage, that they will 
anfwer fome little quelHons, and 
even afk them. — Among the plants 
there is the famous Maribolus, or 
walking plant; being in a fmall 
bafket of earth, when thefun£bines 



on it, once a day, it will graduall/ 
move about by the help of its 
branches; a tea-tree, with a few 
bloflbms on it; a real tallow-tree; 
a nutmeg and cinnamon tree ; and 
feveral other exotics ; befides a 
number of fmall birds. 

When the learned and ingenious 
Doctor Franklin arrived fome time 
ago at Philadelphia, the General 
Afl'embly of the Province, which 
was then fitting, on hearing of his 
arrival, immediately a(ked hiscon- 
fent to be chofen one of their de- 
legates to the Continental Con- 
grefs ; and, on his confenting, elec- 
ted him accordingly. 

At a Quarterly General n 

Court of the proprietors of 
Eaft-India ftock, the half-yearly di - 
vidend from Chriftmas to Midfum- 
mer was declared to be 3 per cent. 

Being the day appointed for . 
keeping the anniverfary of his 
Majefty's birth-day, who entered 
into the 38th year of his age on 
the 4th inflant, it was celebrated 
with the ufual joy and fplendor. 
Lord Stormont*s St. A ndrew's crof?, 
fet round with diamonds, and ap- 
pended to his ribbon of the order 
of the Thiftle, was cut from it, at 
court, by fome Iharpers, who made 
off with it undifcovered. It was 
worth feveral hundred pounds. 

The fame day, his Majefty'e 
birth-day was celebrated with bon-r 
fires and illuminations of a new 
kind, at Mr. Hartley's, at Buck- 
lebury. The bonfires were made 
within doors, not without ; and the 
illuminations were made upon the 
floors of the feveral apartments. 
Their iVIajefties healths were drank 
round a great bonfire in one room ; 
in another thirty-feven large fag* 
gots, anfwering to the years of his 
Majefly's age, together with a 
quant't)* 



CHRONICLE. 



1^33 



qoaotity of pitch and tar, were 
burnt. As this room was too hot 
for company, the following toafts 
were drank in the room above, 
while the fire below was burning 
in its utmoll fury, viz. the king, 
queen, and royal family, peace and 
unanimity, &c. Several other fires 
were made in different parts of the 
floors, ftair-cafes, &c. which were 
all left to burn out ; yet no damage 
happened to any parts of the build- 
ing, but where the fires were adlu- 
ally laid. 

, An entertainment, called a 

' * Regatta, b )rrowed from the 
Venetians, was exhibited, partly 
on the Thames, and partly at Ra- 
nelagh ; and, as it was quite new 
in this country, we ihall give a more 
particular account of it in our ap- 
pendix to this article. 

, The inhabitants of So- 

•5 * merfet-houfe received writ- 
ten notices, to quit their apartments 
by Michaelmas-day next, figned by 
the folicitor for the affairs of his 
Majeliy's treafury. 

26th '^^^^ ^^y ^ caufe came 

on in the c6urt of Common 
Pleas, Guildhall, between a gen- 
tl;»man, plaintiff, and a lottcry- 
crP-ice-keeper in the city, defendant ; 
the caufe of this adion was as fol- 
lows : the gentleman, pafTing by the 
lottery-office, obferved a woman 
and boy crying, on which he afked 
the reafon of their tears ; they in- 
formed him, that they had infured 
a number in the Lottery the night 
before ; tmd, upon inquiry at ano- 
ther oftice, found it to have been 
drawn ^ye days before, and there- 
fore wanted their money again ; 
the gentleman, taking their part, 
Mas affaulted and beat by the office- 
keeper. "The jury gave a verdict 
in favour of the genUcpian, with 
fiye pounds damage. 



The long-contefted difpute be- 
tween the polUmafter-general, and 
the Eaft-India company, was at 
length amicably fettled. All let- 
ters from India direded to private 
perfons, are for the future to be 
fent to the Poll-office, and regu- 
larly delivered from thence as other 
foreign fbip letters are ; fo that all 
perfons, who have relations or 
friends in India, may be fure of 
receiving their letters from them 
regularly, without applying fo ma- 
ny times at the India-houfe as they 
were formerly obliged to do. 

The two prizes annually given 
by the Chancellor of the Univer- 
fity of Oxford, for two compofi- 
tions in profe and verfe, were re- 
fpedively adjudged to Mr. G rat- 
tan, fellow of New College, and 
Mr. Warton, fcholar of Trinity. 

Yeflerday and this day j. , 
came on to be argued in the ^ 
court of Chancery, a plea put in 
by the Dutchefs of Kingfton, to a 
bill filed by Lady Meadows, the 
filler and heir at law of the late 
Duke of Kingfton. Her Grace 
pleaded a fentence of the Ecclefi- 
aftical-court, by which fhe was de- 
clared to be a fingle woman before 
the late Duke nfiarried her, and alfo 
the probate of the late Duke's 
will ; when, after a long and fo- 
Icmn debate of the matter, the 
Lord Chancellor was pleafed to al- 
low her Grace's plea. 

Was tried before the Barons of 
the Exchequer, a caufe wherein the 
Rev. Mr. Bateman, vicar of Wha- 
plode, in Lincolnfhire, was plain- 
tiff, and his parifhioners defen- 
dants. This gentleman, in 1770, 
filed a bill for the accuftomcd tythe 
of flieep, of barren and unprofita- 
ble cattle, and for the tythe of 
lands before held untytheable, as 
formerly belonging to the abbey of 

[/] 3 Crowland; 



CHRONICLE, 



29th. 



130 



Crowland ; and, on that ground, 
he gained a decree in his favour, 
April 4, 1774. But, to prevent 
the efted of this decree, the. pa- 
rifliioners filed a crofs-bill in No- 
vember laft, in the court of Ex- 
chequer, on the ground of eftab- 
lifhing modufes, and obtained an 
injundion to flop proceedings 
againft them in the fpiritual court. 
To diflblvethis injunction the pre- 
fent trial commenced, and the court 
has diflblved the fame accordingly. 
Was held at the Old Bailey 
a high court of admiralty for 
the trial of capital offences com- 
mitted on the high feas, when five 
mariners were tried for mutiny on 
board the ihip Little Will, where- 
of Jofeph Spence was mafter, and 
in which mutiny the faid Spence 
loil: his life, the (hip was feized by 
the mutineers, and afterwards re- 
feized by the officers. The pri- 
foners, however, not appearing to 
be ringleaders, were ail acquitted. 

The mafter of a veffel on the 
flave trade was alfo tried for the 
murder of one of his men, by 
ftriking him on the head with a 
crow ; but it appearing that the 
man died of a putrid fever, and 
that the whole charge was an infa- 
mous fcheme to extort money, the 
mafter was honourably acquitted. 

The fame day. General Harvey 
and Sir William Erfkine had the 
honour of prefenting to the king a 
very curious dragoon-faddle, which 
^as honoured with his majefty's 
approbation for its peculiar light- 
nefs and conftrudlion, as it affords 
a much eafier feat to the rider, and 
the means of carrying hay and 
corn enough for three days, with a 
complete (et of camp equipage, &c. 
without any material inconve- 
nience. The hay confifts of two 



truffes; one beat into the lengtK 
of 3-4ths of a yard, placed under 
the cloak-bag ; the other beat 
equally clofe into two balls, and 
hung like kettle-drums before the 
rider. This faddle was made by 
Mr. Gibfon, Saddler, in Great 
Windmill-ftreet, St. James's; and 
the merit of it had been previoufly 
afcertained, by aftual experiment, 
before General Harvey, who or- 
dered an handfome reward to the 
men employed for that purpofe. 

The king has been pleafed to 
order letters patent to be paffed 
under the great feal of Ireland, for 
conftituting one body politic and 
corporate, by the name of the Hi- 
bernian Marine Society in Dublin, 
for maintaining, educating, arid 
apprenticing the orphans and chil- 
dren of decayed feamen in his ma- 
jefty's royal navy, &c. 

The filver medals annually given 
by the hiftorical fociety in the uni- 
verfity of Dublin for the beft En- 
gliih compofitions, were this year 
obtained by the Rev. Mr. Scott, 
for profe; for verfe, by Meffieurs 
Ball, Charles Henry Coote, and 
Edward Synge. 

His imperial majefty ar- -^ 

rived at Luxembourg, from ^ 
a tour of fome weeks he had been 
making, incognito, through Italy. 

Four veffels, containing about 
700 emigrants, have failed for 
America from Port Glafgow and 
Greenock, in the courfe of the 
prefent month, moft of thera from 
the north Highlands. 

Whilft the diet of Poland was 
granting new liberties to the Diffi- 
dents, the Jews, whofe numbers 
and credit were very great in Po- 
land, have been treated very ri- 
goroufly. They are forbidden from 
carrying on any public trade in the 
ftreets ; 



CHRONICLE. 



ftreets ; and, as this is depriving 
them of all the ufual means of fub- 
firtence, they are leaving Warfaw. 
They were offered warehoufes for 
their goods, which they refufed. 
Prince Poninfki, willing to engage 
them to fettle on his eftale at Wola, 
about half a league from Warfnw, 
promjfed them his prote(^ion, as 
did likewife Prince Sulkowfki, if 
they would eftablilh themfelves 
there. 

Count Alexis Orlow, before he 
left Leghorn, publilhed a mani- 
fefto, the fubftance of which was, 
" That the Emprefs of Ruffia, his 
fovereign, pardoned the republic 
of Ragufa the hoftilities committed 
againll her, on condition that that 
republic would, for the future, ob- 
fervc the moll fcrupulous neutrality, 
and allow the Ruffian conful the 
fame prerogatives that the other 
confuls enjoyed ; particularly that 
of having a chapel in his houfe, 
for the exercife of the RufTo-Greek 
religion. 

The fame princefs, at the folici- 
tation of the inhabitants of the 
new acquired province of VVhite- 
Ruffia, to have their taxes put 
upon the fame footing on which 
they were before it came into her 
hands, inftead of barely granting 
them their requeft, was gracioufly 
pleafed to reduce their taxes dill 
lower, by taking off one half of 
what they were rated at. 

Moreover, to encourage trade in 
the Black Sea, lately opened to her 
by the treaty with the Porte, where 
Oie will not meet with thofe hin- 
drances which nature has placed in 
the Baliick, the climate of which 
puts a flop to trade the greateft 
part of the year, and the danger- 
ous coafts caufe numberlefs fhip- 
wrecks during the remainder; her 



Ins 

imperial majefty had been pleafed 
to allow fhips freight-free to Mr. 
Goufetnikoff, a Ruffian merchant, 
who has raifed a capital for that 
undertaking ; and alfo to pro- 
mi fe to make good all his lofTes, 
leaving, at the fame time, the whole 
profits which may accrue from fuch 
trade tohimfelf. To confirm part 
of what has been obferved con- 
cerning the Baltick, it may not be 
incurious to obferve, that, this laft 
winter, the ice prevented any- 
foreign (hips from reaching the 
road of Revel till the 15th of 
May, and that of Cronftadt till the 
2 1 ft. And that the 25 th of May, 
when the fquadron that conveyed 
the King of Sweden to Finland 
arrived at Abo, the trees there were 
without any figns of verdure. 

Accounts from Conftantinople 
mention politively, that the Grand 
Signor, having received complaints 
from his fubje^s of the grievances 
they fufFer from the governors of 
the different provinces of his em^- 
pire, thought himfelf obliged, not 
only to ilTue feveral firmans to mofl 
of his pachas and other officers, 
with regulations for the eftab- 
lifhmentof good order throughout 
the Ottoman empire, and very fa- 
vourable to the Chriflians and 
Jews ; but likewife to make ex- 
amples of fome of the governors. 
Accordingly, one was ftrangled and 
beheaded by his highnefs's orders, 
and his head expoT^d at the door 
of the feraglio ; and more than fe- 
venteen others, of three tails, were 
depofed, and fent into exile, 
among whom was Achmet'EfFendi, 
firft favourite of the emperor. 
Among the above firmans was one 
particularly addrefTed to the pacha 
of Salonica, enjoining him to re- 
form his houlhold, which for the 

[r| 4 future 



CHRONICLE, 



future is only to confiftof 150 per- 
fons, inftcad of 400 or 500, which 
was a great expence to the people 
lunder his government. And thjs 
crder, it is thought, will be made 
univerfal with regard to all the 
pachas. 

Births. On the 25th inllant, 
the wife of Mr. Ladenberg, wine- 
merchant, in Caftle-ftreet, JLcicef- 
terfields, in the 54th year of her 
age, was brought to bed of twins. 
Mrs. Ladenberg, though married 
upwards of 30 years, never had a 
child before. 



JULY. 

J A grand Spanifh Armada, 
- ' which had been preparing for 
feme months paft, and which many 
perfons affedled to think too ilrong 
to be intended againft any part of 
the world but Great-Britain, arriv- 
ed before Ai^jiers; and, on the 
^th, mifcarried in an attack upon 
that place. 

The burning mountain, called 
Pacayita, in the province of Gua- 
timala, in New Spain, after 
threatening an eruption, for fome 
time, by fubterraneous noifes, and 
earthquakes, adually broke out, 
after a moll violent report; when 
a lava of nitrous and lulphurous 
matter poured cown the fide of the 
mount'ain, whilfr it threw up clouds 
of cinders and fmoak, which con- 
/umed ne*"'' 40 leagues of the di- 
jlrid of St. Antonio Cuchutepequc. 
fThe town of St. Chriiloral Amati- 
clan was intirely deferted ; from 
nine cavities in this mountain the 
flaming lava continued ro run till 
the iirft of Auguft following, to 
the S' uth Sea; and it was then fear* 
^d ^hat the Pecaya Grande would 



alfo bresk cut, as it was in vaft 
agitation ; which would finifh the 
deftru^ion of the valley of Panchoi, 
in which (lands the town of St. 
Japo, the capital of the province. 
Two men, concerned in trepan- 
ning a tra4efman*s daughter, about 
18 years of age, from the houfe 
of her father, a tradefman in this 
city, on board a (hip in the /iver, 
and fending her abroad, were exa- 
mined before the lord- mayor; the 
hearing lafted three hours; counfel 
being employed ; after which the 
prifoners were remanded back to 
the Pouhry-compter for a further 
examination; and, after fuch ex- 
amination on the loth, were re- 
committed to the fame prifon, with 
time gll next January, to return 
the gi|-I to her parents, on pain of 
being tried for the offence at the 
following feflions. And, in the 
mean time, a profecuiion was or- 
dered to be commenced againll the 
mafler of the Ihip for receiving hey 
pn board. 

Lord Chief- Juftiire De , 
Grey, Lord Chief- Baron ' 
Smythe, Mr. Juftice Alton, antj 
Mr. Jullice Afnhurfl, the commif- 
fioners appointed to review the pro« 
ceedings on an information of dif- 
franchifement filed againft Mr. 
Alderman Plumbe, met, according 
to adjournment, at Guildhall, and 
delivered their judgment, which 
was, That ihcy were unanimoufly 
of opinion, that the informatio:? 
was erroneous in many particulars, 
which they feveraliy fpecified ; and 
that Mr. Alderman Plumbe, by 
negleding to fummon the livery of 
the goldfmith's company, of which 
he was prime warden, to attend 
Alderman Beckford, when lord- 
mayor, at a common hall^, had not 
been guilty of any oftence againft 

hi? 



CHRONICLE. 



r.137 



iiis oath and duty as a freeman ; 
confequentiy the judgment of dif^ 
franchifement pronounced againft 
him in the mayor*s court by the 
recorder was by them reverfed. 
J. t The Ruffian fquadron, 

• ' ' under the command of Ad- 
miral Baisballc, failed from Portf- 
mouih for Rufiia. 

, The royal regiment, of 

^° artijlery, quartered atWooI- 
wich, were revievved by his Majefiy 
on BKickheath, Part of the exer- 
cife coniifted in an attack by fome 
of their, on a kind of fort gar- 
rifoned by the reft, on the op- 
pofite fide of a temporary bridge. 
About a quarter before eleven the 
fight began, and lafted an hour, in 
which the engineers, &c. acquitted 
themfelves wiih fatisfattion to his 
majefty, and a prodigious number 
of fpedators. The Duke of Glou- 
certer was prefent. 

Two caravals, bound from Te- 
tuan, with a reinforcement of Turks, 
for Algiers, happening to fall in 
with two Maltefe frigates, there en- 
fued a very long and fierce engage- 
ment, in which 800 Turks were 
killed. The caravals were likewife 
taken, and conveyed to Malta. 
, The feffions ended at the 

Old-Bailey, when fentence 
of death was pafled on four convi(fls; 
two, for houfe-breaking; and two, 
for robbing on the highway ; and 
of tranfportatxon, on fixteen ; feven 
were ordered to be privately whip- 
ped ; two, branded in the hand ; 
one of whom was John Wallh, for 
bigamy, who is alfo to be impri- 
foned fix rnonths in Newgate ; 
thirty-nine were difcharged by pro- 
clamation ; and, on the fixteenth 
following, the two houfe-breakers, 
and one of the highwaymen, were" 
executed at Tyburn. 



This morning a fire broke 
out at a foap-boiler's, in the 
Lower - ftreet, Dorchefter, nearly 
oppofite the gaol, which raged 
with great fury for feveral hours, 
taking very irregular direftions, 
making great havock among the 
thatched houfes, and paffing thofe 
which were roofed with tiles or 
flates ; water was fo fcarce for fome 
time, that one of the engines, in 
a narrow lane, was obliged to be 
abandoned by the men who work- 
ed it, and by means of the falling 
thatch caught fire, and was totally 
deftroyed; the whole town muft 
have been burnt down, had it not 
been for a detachment of dragoons 
belonging to fir John Cope's regi- 
ment, who happened to be quarter- 
ed there. Both officers and com- 
?non men were indefatigable in ex- 
tinguifhing the flames, which, af- 
ter confuming 35 or 40 dwelling 
houfes, chiefly the habitations of 
poor people, were at length got 
under. 

This day a cup, value ^ , 
twenty guineas, given by *" * 
his royal highnefs the Duke of 
Cumberland, was failed for from 
Weftminfter- bridge to Putney, and 
back again. The Aurora, belong- 
ing to Mr. Parkes, late of Ludgate- 
hill, having won the prize, his 
royal highnefs, who honoured the 
fport with his prefence, filled the 
cup with wine, drank out of it, 
and delivered it to Mr. Parkes. 

The lord mayor, alder- , 

men, and commons of the ^^ * 
city of London, waited on his 
majerty, with an humble addrefs 
and petition; which, with his ma- 
jefty*s moil gracious anfwer, we 
fliall give in their proper place, in 
the following fheexs* 

Came 



IJS] 



CHRONICLE. 



i8th. 



Came on before the court 
oflelTion in Scotland, a caufe 
between Mr. Dodlley, of London, 
bookfcller, plaintiff, and Meflrs. 
Ch. Elliot and Colin M'Farquhar, 
of Edinburgh, bookfellers, defend- 
ants. The a^ion was brought for 
xe-printing Lord Chellerfield's Let- 
ters, the copy-right of which had 
coft the plaintiff 1575 1. On the 
26ch, their Lordfhips were pleafed 
to determine in favour of Mr. 
Dodfley, by continuing the inter- 
didl he had obtained again ft Meffrs. 
Elliot and M*Farquhar, by a ma- 
jority of nine againll five. 

r Marihal Romanzow ar- 

rived at Kolomifki, near 
Mofcow, and was received by the 
Emprefs with every poffible mark of 
fatisfaftion : he declined the ho- 
nour of a triumphal entry, which 
was intended him, and for which 
magnificent preparations had been 
made, Thenext morning, iheEm- 
prefs, accompanied by the Great 
Duke and Duchefs, and attended 
by the great officers and ladies of 
Xhe court, the knights being in the 
,Jiabits of their refpeclive orders, 
walked in grand procelTion from 
the old palace in the Kremlin to 
the cathedral^ where folemn mafs 
was performed by the Archbiihop 
of Peterfburgh, and "I'e Deum fung 
for the concluiion of the war; after 
which the five firft: clafies of the 
nobility had the honour of kiffing 
her Majelly's hand. The Keeper 
^f the Privy-Purfe then read aloud 
j,a,li{l of the gratifications and re- 
wards, which the Emprefs was 
pleafed to bellow upon this occafion. 
Amongft the principal ones were. 

To Marfhal Romanzow, an eftate 
of 5ooo*peafantsj 100, coo roubles 
jn n^ney. afervice of plate, a hat 



with a wreath of laurel, enriched 
with precious ilones, to the value of 
30,000 roubles, a diamond-ftar and 
Ihoulder-knot, a Marfhal's ftaff, 
and a diploma adding to his fur- 
name that of Sadounalkoy, which 
may be tranflated The Ultra.-Da- 
nubian. 

To Count Alexis Orlow 60,000 
roubles, and a fword enriched with 
diamonds of very confidcrable va- 
lue, and a diploma granting to 
him the furname of Chefme. 

To General Potemkin, adiploma 
of Count of the Ruffian empire, 
and her Imperial Majefty's pidure 
fet with diamonds to be worn by 
him. 

To General Panin and Prince 
Dolgorouki, 60,000 roubles each, 
with a fword and diamond liar; 

To Count Soltikow, the fecond 
order of St. George. 

To Count Ivan Czernichew, the 
order of St. Andrew. 

Several ribbons of St. Alexander 
Newlky were conferred, and mili- 
tary promotions made. 

Admiral Greig was advanced to 
the rank of Vice-Admiral, and ap- 
pointed Commandant of Cron- 
Itadt. 

Next day the Great Duke be- 
llowed eleven ribbons of the order 
of St. Anne. 

Large gold medals, ftruck upoti 
this occafion, were likewife dillri- 
J^uted to the f ield-Marlbals, Gene- 
rals in Chief, and foreign minillers; 
and fome of a fmaller fize, to the 
red of the nobility of the five firfl 
clafies. 

Her Imperial Majefty was like- 
wife pleafed to recal fome no- 
blemen from their banil'hment in 
Siberia, two of whom had refided 
there ever fincg. the year 1 746. 

About 



CHRONICLE. 



[139 



About the fame time, ten vefTels 
laden with wine, having on board 
fome Chriftian emigrants from the 
Morca, appeared at ibe Darda- 
nelles, to pafs from the Archipe- 
lago to the Black Sea, in order to 
go to the Ruffian territories, on the 
borders of the fea of AzofF, The 
commandant of the Dardanelles 
fent an officer to fearch them, and, 
upon the Captain's refufing to let 
them, he obliged them to anchor 
under the caftles, and fubmittobe 
vifited. Colonel Peterlbn, Charge 
des Affaires from Ruflia, being in- 
formed of this violence, demanded 
fatisfadion immediately, as a viola- 
tion of the nth article of the treaty 
of peace ; and the Porte difpatched 
a firman, by which the commandant 
was ordered to let thofe veiTels pafs 
freely. — About the fame time great 
and unexpefted changes happened 
in the minillry at Conflantinople. 
The Grand Vifier, Ifled Mehemet 
Pacha, was depofed, and replaced 
by Derwifch Mehemet Aga, his 
Kiaja Bey. The Chiaoux Bafchi 
was difmifled, and his place given 
to the father-in-law of the new 
Grand Vifier ; and the Superin- 
tendant of the Colloms was re- 
placed by Ifmael Aga, Governor 
of Cyprus. Sahih-Guerey, for- 
merly Kan of the Tartars of Cri- 
mea, was banilhed to Rodofto. 

The news of the death of Me- 
hemet Aboudahab was confirmed ; 
but his army, fo far from being 
beat, had on the contrary feized 
on all the pofleflions of the old 
Chiek Dahar. The Captain Pa- 
cha's arrival at Smyrna had put a 
Hop to the diforders there. Aivas 
Aga, and fourfcore more of the 
mutineers, had their heads ilruck 
oiF; and great numbers were con- 
demned to ch^ gallies. 



Though the Emperor of Mo- 
rocco had accepted the prefents from 
the republic of the United Pro- 
vinces, he neverthelels thought 
proper to continue the war againit 
their High Mightinefies for three 
years, to be reckoned from the fir (I 
of January laft. 

About the middle of this month. 
Col. Guy Johnfon, his Majelly'i 
Superirttendanc of Indian affairs, 
arrived at Montreal, accompanied 
by a confiderable number of chiefs 
and warriors of the fix nations : 
after which he held a general con- 
grefs with the chiefs and warriors 
of the Canada Confederacy, to the 
amount of 1700, who, in prefence 
of his Excellency General Carleton, 
unanimoufly refolved to fupporc 
their engagements with his ma- 
jelly, and remove all intruders oa 
the feveral communications. 

Two executions in the , 

houfe of Daniel Perreau, 
one by virtue of an alTignment to 
Sir Thomas Frankland, the other 
at the inftance of the upholfterer 
who furnifhed the goods, were with- 
drawn, by virtue of the fheriif's 
claim, who, on the conviclion of 
capital offenders are entitled to the 
goods and chattels, lands and te- 
nements, of the convids, under the 
city's charter. Mrs. Rudd claim* 
ed an exemption of her goods, &c, 
in the fame houfe, (he not being 
the wife of Daniel Perreau, nor yet 
a convift. 

The quantity of wheat at this 
time ici Briftol was fo great, that, 
almoft every warehoufe, malthoufe, 
and granary being filled with it, 
they were obliged to lodge large 
quantities of it in private houfes. 

At a court of Lord Mayor, 
Aldermen^ and Common 



21ft. 



CouncU> 



1 40] 



CHRONICLE. 



Council, at Guildhall, a motion 
was made for an anfwer to be fent 
to New- York, on the addrefs re- 
ceived from thence, which had been 
laid before that court, when great 
debates aiofe ; but the queftion be- 
ing put, there appeared 56 for fend- 
ing an anfwer, and 69 againli it. 

By letters from the inhabitants 
of New-York, the people of theif- 
landof Bermuda are under the moll 
difmal apprehenfions of rtarving, 
in confcquence of the prefent dif- 
agreeablc fituation of public affairs ; 
and, to prevent it as much as pofli- 
ble, had paffed a law, that no provi- 
fions (hould be fent off the ifland, 
at any rate whatfoever ; and were 
about difpatching a veffel to Phi- 
ladelphia, to requeft the continental 
congrefs to take their cafe into their 
ipoll ferious conficeration, 

, ' About tvv'o in the morn- 
^^ * ing, fome villains broke in- 
to the parlour of Copped Hall, 
near Epping, EiTex, the feat of 
John Conyers, Efq; member for 
that county. From the parlour 
they forced their way into the but- 
ler's pantry, where the butler lay 
in bed. The noife of their entry 
waking him, one of the ruffians 
threw the bed-clothes over his head, 
and with both his hands held a 
cutlafs righf^ acrofs his throat, 
^wearing tim h" would kill him if 
he offered to move or alarm the fa- 
mily. In this condition he conti- 
nued for a confiderable time, dur- 
ing which he heard the clock ftrike 
three, and likewife heard the 
thieves put the plate into facks. 
As foon as they had finifhed, they 
all quitted his room, except the 
fellow placed as a guard over him, 
who ftaid a few feconds after his 
accomplices, and then- -left him^ 



threatening, with horrid impreca- 
tions, that he would blow his brains 
out if he either ro(e or called out for 
an hour to come. After remaining 
quiet near fifteen n:inutes, the but- 
ler got up, and finding that his 
door v;as locked en the outlide, he 
was under the neceTfity therefore of 
breaking through a window-frame 
placed high in the wainfcot ; a cir- 
cumftance of no little difficulty, as 
he was hardly recovered from hav- 
ing lately fraftured his collar-bone : 
at length however he atchieved it, 
and alarmed the family. A num- 
ber of fervants were inftantly dif- 
patched different roads in purfuit 
of tbe robbers, but in vain. It was 
luckily difcovered, that a four- 
wheeled carriage had Hopped and 
turned round at the park gate, and 
from fome hay and oats which re- 
mained on the ground, it was evi- 
dent the horfes had been fed while 
the carriage waited : two meffen- 
gers were therefore fent to the pub- 
lic office in Bow-ftreet, and that 
in the Curtain road, with all the 
particulars of the robbery ; the 
butler himfelf coming to the for- 
mer, and 'giving a circumflantial 
information of the whole affair. 
Upon this the fcouts of both offices 
were difpatched, without delay, to 
Houndfuitch, Duke's Place, and 
every ftreet, lane, and corner, where 
perfons fufpcfted as melters of plate 
werefuppofed to refide ; but though 
thefearch was diligent, it was with- 
out effeft. About two in the af- 
ternoon, a letter was received by 
Sir John Fielding, from a magif^- 
trate at Stratford, informing him 
that a hackney-coach. No. 44, was 
feen to pafs that road in the way 
from the foreft to London, early in 
the morning j that the blinds were 

drawa 



CHRONICLE. 



[i4t 



drawn up, and that a fecond perfon 
fat on the box with the driver. 
Upon the receipt of thia letter. Sir 
John Fielding fent to the coach- 
office, and learnt there, that the 
coach. No. 44, was one among 
others belonging to Mr. Mounraine, 
a man of property and reputation 
in Oxford- road. Mr. Bond applied 
to Mr. Mountaine, and was in- 
formed, that the number had been 
in his pofleffion and his father's 
near fifty years ; that his driver had 
not brought the coach home on 
Sunday evening, which gave him 
great uneafinefs, and that he could 
by no means account for his ab- 
fence. A peace-officer was fta- 
tioned at the yard, who waited till 
ten at night, when the fellow 
drove in, and was immediately ap- 
prehended and taken to Bow-ftreet, 
where he gave a moll incredible 
account of the manner in which he 
had fpent his time for the two pre- 
ceding days. He was properly ad- 
vifed of his danger by the bench, 
but continued oblHnaie for fome 
hours; at length he confefled the 
truth, acknowledging that he drove 
one Lambert Reading, and five 
others, to Copped Hall, in the night 
between Sunday and Monday j and 
that, on his return, he carried them 
toa houfe in Brick-lane, Old-llreet, 
where they depoiited the plate. A 
proper force was inftanily fent to 
Brick-lane, where they entered the 
houfe defcribed by the witnefs, and 
found Lambert Reading in bed 
with his girl, ten loaded piftcjs 
lying by him, and the greateft part 
of Mr. Conyers's plate. Both per- 
fons and property were fecured, 
and the former carried to Reading's 
old and familiar lodgings in New 
Prifon, Clerkenwell, in which gaol, 
within the lall two years, he had 



beep frequently an inmate. It 
feems this daring invader of the 
laws had taken the houfe he was 
apprehended in but a few days be- 
fore, and had moved into it only on 
Monday. He had a brother ia 
Nevvgate at the time of his com- 
mitting this robbery, and loft one 
lately by the gaol diftemper. 

The aforefaid Lambert Reading 
was apprehsndedon Tuefday morn- 
ing early; examined at Bow-flreet 
onWednefday, and committed to 
New Prifon, Clerkenwell, whence 
he was removed in acoach and four, 
at five o'clock on Thurfday morn- 
ing, to Chelmsford, where he took 
his trial, and was convided the 
fame day. After the trial, the 
judge told him to prepare for hi* 
approaching fate, for that he was 
to be taken back to prifon, and 
executed on Saturday before two 
o'clock ; and he was executed ac- 
cordingly. 

About noon, the inhabi- , 
tants of Caftle-Cary were ^o^". 
alarmed by a violent tornado, of 
hurricane, which in its noife re- 
fembled the falling of a large caf« 
cade, and in its courfe carried be- 
fore it the thatched roofs of houfes, 
the leaves, and large branches of 
trees, &c. fo that the atmofphere 
appeared, as far as the eye could 
reach, one general fcene of confu- 
fion, and the people in the ftreets 
were forced to catch hold of any 
thing they could, to prevenc their 
being blown away. Sixteen houfes 
fufFered more or lefs, and fome were 
fo completely unroofed, that not a 
ftraw remained on the rafters: 
branches of trees, as thick as a 
man's leg, were blown 100 yards 
or more; hay-ricks blown a^ay» 
&c. The hurricane proceeded ia 
a i^raight line, extending about 40 

yards 

X 



142] 



CHRONICLE. 



yards^ in breadth, and did not con- 
tinue above a minute in one place. 
It began at North-Cadbury, by 
burlling open the doors, and dafli- 
ing to- pieces the windows at the 
Sun inn, and thence continued to 
Galliampton, Caftle-Cary, Anf- 
ford, and acrofs the river Bru to- 
wards Lamyat, doing more or lefa 
damage all the way that it went. 
When it was near the end of its 
courfe, it burft like an explofion 
more than once, and fmoke and fire 
were perceived feveral times. 

The aflembly of the French clergy 
have voted their monarch a free 
gift of 20,000,000 livres; and a 
loan of the like fum is negotiating 
for his Majefty. 

About this time, there raged fuch 
a famine at St. Jago, and fome 
others of the Cape de Verd iflands, 
that, in St. Jago alone, it is faid to 
have carried off i6,ooo of the in- 
habitants. 

This morning an exprefs 



31ft. 



arrived at the Admiralty- 



office, with an account of the En- 
deavour bark, Capt. Cook, being 
fafe arrived off Portfmouth, from 
the South-Seas. 

Among Capt. Cook's difcoveries, 
there was faid to be an ifland in the 
South-SeaFj 160 miles long, and 
146 broad ; the climate delightful, 
and the foil of the mod luxuriant 
fertility; fugar-canes, cocoa-trees, 
cinnamon, and nutmegs, being a- 
mong the fpontaneous growths of it; 
the natives not numerous, bat of a 
mild and civilized difpofition; fo 
■as to be thought the moft eligible 
place for eftabliihing a fettlement, 
of any yet difcovered, in the late 
circumnavigations. 

All private letters coming with 
the governmeni's difpatches from 



America were at this time opened 
before delivery. 

Laft week a gentleman of this 
place went to Dunbar, to dive for 
the wreck of the Fox man of war, 
that was lotl near that place in the 
year 1745, ^^^^ ^ great deal of mo- 
ney on board. He went down fe- 
veral times the depth of feven fa- 
thoms, and continued fome mi- 
nutes under water, but could find 
no vellige of the wreck. 

Died lately, Mrs. Toul-min, by 
pricking a whitlow on her finger, 
which brought on a mortification. 

And on the 31ft, at Woolwich, 
■ Purfleet, Efq; who but 
two days before came of age, and 
to the poffeffion of 8000 1. a year. 



ift. 



AUGUST. 

A fire broke out in the 
houfe of Mr. Browning, auc- 
tioneer in the Old Bailey, which 
burnt furioufly, and confumed 
goods, &c. to the amount of 3000 1. 
It was fuppofed to have been wil- 
fully fet on fire, as fome people 
thought they faw a man coming out 
of it by a fire -ladder; but, though 
rewards were feverzll times bid, 
even by the Lord Mayor of Lon- 
don, no difcovery has yet beea 
made of the atrocious offender. 

According to annual cullom, fix 
young watermen ftarted at the Old 
Swan to row from thence to the 
Swan at Chelfea, for Dogget's coat 
and badge; five of whom belonged 
to Hairs below London bridge, and 
oneabove, viz. Lambeth. It waa 
generally allowed to be as good a 
match as had been known for many' 
years. A man belonging to Iron 
Gate came in firft, and was iatitled 

to 



CHRONICLE. 



['43 



to the coat and badge; the Lam- 
beth man came in fecond, who was 
intiiled to 5I. and the third man, 
who belonged to Horfleydown, was 
intitled to 3 1. 

, A commiffion pafled the 

^ * Great-St-al, appointing Ge- 
neral Gage Commander in Chief 
over all North-America. 

By letters from Batavia, from the 
20th of November laft to the 4.th of 
January, they had felt fevernl great 
earthquakes at that place; the laft 
was the molt violent, having thrown 
down the walls of many houfes. The 
volcano near the Governor-Gene- 
ral's country palace had likewife 
thrown out prodigious flames ; and 
they were in no fmall fear that 
much damage had been done in the 
adjacent country. 

The crops of fugar this year in the 
ifland of Barbadoes have been fo re- 
markably bad, that thirty-one 
neighbouring eftates made but6400 
pots of fugar, (a pot of fugar weighs 
about 70 pounds) one of which in 
a plentiful year is capable of pro- 
ducing a larger quantity. 

Some time ago, on the arrival of 
the Two Sillers, Capt. O'Neale, 
of Eriftol, at Dominica, a cheft, 
containing upwards of 4000 1. in 
Portugal gold, fell over-board as 
they were putting it into a boat to 
fend it a(hore, and was loft in ten 
fathom water. The money was 
the property of fome merchants at 
Brillol, butinfured. We infert 
this, as fome of our ingenious read- 
ers might poffibly hit upon fome 
method of recovering it. See our 
own thoughts on a fomewhatfimilar 
fubjeft, in an article of intelligence 
from Rome, of the 29thinftjnt. 

1 An extraordinary match at 
^ * cricketwas played at Moulfey- 
llurft, between 6 unmarried againft 



the fame number of married wo- 
men ; and was, won by the former, 
though one of the latter ran feven- 
teen notches. There were great 
beas depending. 

An addrefs from the Ge- . ^, 
neral Affembly of Antigua "t' * 
was prefented to his Majefty, ex* 
preffing their gratitude to his Ma- 
jefty for having fent them a Gover- 
nor [Sir Ralph Pnyne], the true 
reprefentativeof his Royal Mafter; 
and fupplicating the King to render 
them again happy, by returning 
him to his government of the Lee- 
ward Iflands, 

Letters from Gibraltar mentioa 
a violent fhock of an earthquake 
having lately happened at Tangier, 
on the coaft of Africa, by which a 
number of houfes had been throwa 
down, feveral of the inhabitant* 
buried in the ruins, and the walls 
of the city greatly damaged. 

His Grace the Duke of 1 
Newcaftle gave a magnifi- ' ' 
cent regatta at Oatlands, at which 
were prefent his Royal Highnefs 
the Prince of Wales, and the Prin- 
cefs Am.eli?. 

Capt. Cook, lately re- ^ * 
turned from the South Seas, ^ * 
had the honour of prefenting his 
Majefty with feveral maps and 
charts, conftruded in the courfe of 
his voyage. 

Arrived at Cadiz from the 
Havanna, *under the com- 
mand of Rcar-AdmiralDonAdriaa 
Cain'ron Cantin, the St. Michael 
and Aftato, of 70 guns each ; and 
the Ureas Sea. Rita, St. Carlos, 
and St. Jofeph;- with a ireafure of 
7,500,000 dollars, and about the 
Value of a million and a half ia 
cochineal and other efFefls. 

About the fame time arrived at 
LifDOD, 'from the Brazils, a fleet 

with 



nth. 



14+] 



CHRONICLE. 



with 1500 o6laves of gold, 200,000 
crufades of filver, and 80 ferons of 
cochineal, bi-'fides other Icfs valua- 
ble articles. 

, The prince of Anhault 

^3^"' Deffau, and his Princefs, 
niece to theKing of Pruflia, arrived 
at court, and foon after repaired to 
Bath, her Highnefs being adviled 
by her phyficians to drink the Bath 
waters for the recovery of her 
health. 

This morning early a very 



14th. 



remarkable and Ihocking 



murder was committed, at the 
George inn atWan{tead,onEpping 
foreft. Mrs. Campin, a widow, 
the miftrefs of the faid houfe, had 
for fome time paft been couried by 
a cooper at Limehoufe, and they 
were to havebeen married onThurf- 
day laft ; but fome objections be- 
ing made on her part in regard to 
ber fettlement, the match v/as put 
off: however he went down on Sa- 
turday laft to renew his addrefles, 
but (he told him, *' Ihe never would 
kave him;'* he notwithftanding 
continued in the houfe, snd, after 
all the company were gone, (which 
was not till between twelve and 
one o'clock in the morning) they 
were left together ; when, by every 
circumftance,) he firll murdered her, 
by ftabbing her through the neck 
with a large knife ; and fome time 
after he laid himfelf down by her 
fide, and cut his own throat: they 
being found on the floor together 
dead in the tap-room, he lying on 
ber arm; (he was quite cold, and 
l^e, to all appearance, had not put 
a period to his own exiftence but a 
very (hort time before they were 
difcovered, which was not till be- 
tween five and (ix o'clock. And 
although there were not lefs than 
fix pcrfons in the houfe (cxclufive 



of the deceafed) at the time this 
melancholy event hapnened, not 
the Jeaft noife wi^s heard to alarm 
them. Two or three days after, 
the coroner's inquell fat on the bo- 
dies, and brought in their verdiift. 
Wilful murder, by fome perfon of 
pcrfons uiiknowa. ^ 

Laft funimer, an enormous ball> 
the fize of a common cabbage, was 
extraded from 'the large inteftine of 
a ftout drarght-horfe, about eight 
years rid, belonging to one Mr. 
Truman. It is furrounded with 
net-work indentures, not much un- 
like the appearance of a pine-apple* 
The outfide cuts like buff-leather, 
and appears like it, both to the 
naked eye and through a glafs, ex- 
cepting in its colour, which is likef 
dirt. The protuberances concen- 
trate, but quickly Jofe their bufF- 
like contexture in a darker fort of 
dirt, full of fmall (hining particles* 
It weighs four pounds and a half in 
its prefent dried flate ; the circular 
circumference is nearly twenty one 
inches, the oblong half an inch 
more. 

The beaft was fond of licking 
dirt from walls, and even from the 
ground, hut was not obferved to 
hrive any illnefs till within a month 
of his death, when he was feized 
fuddenly on the rcaJ, and after 
that ti«ie was unable to work, noi' 
voided any excrement, but made 
urine as uiua!. 

Three or four days before his 
death, he feemed in uncommon 
agonies, and beat and tore the 
ground in a dreadful manner. 

It was impofTible for the mfft 
ficilful to know ihe caufe of his ill- 
nefs, and squally impoflible to give 
him relief, had it been known^; 
The above account is given by 
a gentleman, who figns himfelf 
J.Lowe; 



CHRONICLE. 



['45 



J» Lowe ; and who adds, "I ftiould 
be obliged to any of your corre- 
fpondents,if ibey could account for 
its bufF-like texture on its outfide, 
for it does not feem like hair." 
^ , A confiderable feizure of 

^ * pieces of handkerchiefs, 
muflin, and other goods, was made 
at a cofFee-houfe in the city, by 
three oflicers belonging to the cuf- 
toms. They had a conftable with 
them to keep the peace; but after 
they had packed up the goods t9 
take them to the Cuftom-houfe, the 
conftable in filled that they fliould go 
before the Lord Mayor, to fhew by 
what authority they made the fei- 
zure. Accordingly they went with 
the gdods, when his Lordfhip told 
them that he had no objedlion to 
their taking the goods with them 
to the Cullom-houfe, nor did he 
doubt their having a deputation ; 
but they mult appear before him 
next day, to give an account by 
what authority they made the fei- 
zure, without a legal warrant from 
a magiftrate of the city. On their 
appearing next day, his Lordlhip 
reprimanded them feverely for ma- 
king the feizure in the city, with- 
out any legal warrant from a city 
magiftrate; and then, on their pro- 
miiing not to do fo for the future, 
difmifled them. 

The Maids of Honourbelongiog 
to the Queen's houlhold, having 
prefented a petition to the Lord 
Steward, for a compenfation in lieu 
of fuppers, they being feldom at 
home, his Majefty, being made ac- 
quainted therewith, ordered an ad- 
dition of 70 1. per annum to their 
falaries, which is to take place the 
firft of next month. 

By letters from Madrid of this 
date, Don Domingo de Salcedo, 
Governor of the fortrefs of Ceuia* 
Vol. XVIIL 1775, 



had fent advice to the court, that 
on the 2d of this month five of the 
Emperor of Morocco's galliots ap- 
peared in the road carrying colours 
of peace, the commander of which 
gave him three certificates, by 
which the confulsof England, Por- 
tugal, and Venice at Tangicrs de- 
clare, * That that commander had 
protefted in their prefence, and in 
that of a fecretary, that the King 
his mafter had abfolutely forbid 
him to offend or moleft in any (hape 
any Spanifli (hips he might meet 
with in his cruife, ordering him oa 
the contrary to give them every af- 
fiftance. At the fame time that 
faid commander gave thefe certifi- 
cates, he declared, * that the King 
his mafter had not only charged 
him to confirm the contents, but to 
affure him, that his Majei\y of Mo- 
rocco was more than ever defirous 
of renewing peace wirh the King of 
Spain ; and that in confequence he 
hoped for a favourable anfwer from 
his Majefty on that head.* On 
this advice the King of Spain or- 
dered Don Domingo de Salcedo to 
give the following anfwer to the 
Moorilh commander : * That his 
Majefty perfiils in his refolutlon of 
not lillening to any propofals of 
peace but v^hat are preceded, on 
the part of the Emperorof Morocco, 
by a complete and propcriionable 
fatisfadtion for the infult offered to 
the Spanifh arms in befieging Me-i 
lille, contrary to the ten(» of a fc- 
lemn treaty, and againft the friend- 
(hip propofed and agreed to ;* and 
his Majefty orders Don de Salcedo 
particularly to repeat a former de- 
claration, * Thac the war whicli 
fubfifls between Spain and Morocco 
fhall extend by lea as well as by 
land, fo that the Morocco com- 
manders may condaft -thcmfelves. 
[^J accoidint^ly, 



I46T 



CHRONICLE. 



accordingly, and not think it 
Orange that they are treated in an 
hoftile manner by the Spanish men 
of war wherever they meet with 
them, according to the pofitive or- 
ders which were given them imme- 
diately after the rupture between 
the two powers.' 

^ , An information having 

^ * been given at the Cuftom- 
houTe, of upwards of 3C00I. in 
36s. pieces, &c. being put on board 
a fhip in the river, for Bofton ; in 
confeqaence thereof, fome officers 
were fent in fearch of it on board 
faid ihip, feized it, and brought 
it to the Cuftom-houfe. 

By a letter from Glafgow, more 
than half a million of the debts 
due from America to the merchants 
of that town had, by the a<5livity 
and prudence of the ftore-keepiers, 
been recovered, and fent home in 
the courfe of a few months paft ; fo 
that there remained but a trifling 
fum due from America to Scotland. 
, A large party of White 

^''^ * Boys broke into the houfe 
of James Tcbin, of Biillyco.mey, 
near Calllecomsr, blinded him, 
dragged him out of his bed, and 
brought him near four miles from 
his houfe, naked, to the lands of 
Johnrothllown, within two miles of 
Bilkenny, where they flit his ears; 
and after giving him feveral lirokes 
of a loaded v;hip on the head,, 
were going to bury him, ti!! one of 
the partyi more humane thaii ihe 
red, interfered and difmilTed him 
almoft dead, after fwearing him not 
to profecute any of the party if he 
knew them. The reafon of this 
treatment was owing to Tobin's 
ferving fome procefies in that coun- 
try for tithe-money. 

, Some failors, who had 

* been engaged, on board a. 



Guineaman, fitting out in one or 
the docks at Liverpool, having fi- 
nifhed iherigj^ing, demanded their 
wages, at the rate of 30 s. per 
month, for which they had engaged;; 
but were given to underftand by 
the owners, that, as there were 
plenty of hands to be had, they 
would give but 20 s. upon which 
they returned on board the veflel, 
and in a Ihort time cut and demo- 
lifhed the whole of the rigging, 
and left it on the dock. A party 
of conilables immediately feized 
nine of the principals, and brought 
them before the magiftrates, who 
committed them to prifon ; upoa 
which a grtat number of failors,, 
fuppofed to be upwards of 2000, 
armed with handfpikes, clubs, &c. 
proceeded to the gaol, the windows 
of which they foon deftroyed : up- 
on this the riot-acl was read to 
them,, which, having no effcft, as 
they were determined to refcue 
their companions, or deftroy the 
gaol, eight of them were accord- 
ingly difmified, v/ith whom they 
marched off in triumph ; but, up- 
on muftering, and finding one 
had been detained, they inflant- 
ly returned to the prifon, and 
brought him off, together with a 
woman, who had been alfo commit- 
ted for aiding and affilting in the 
riot ; v/hen, after parading and ter- 
rifying the inhabitants till near 12 
o'clock at night, they difperfed, 
and next morning ail was quiet.. 
Some days after, however, there 
was another rifmg of the failors in 
the fame port, in confequence, 
fome will have it, of the flave-trade 
having been greatly affeited by the 
late orderoFcouncil for prohibiting 
the exportation of gunpowder, &c. 
the failors out of employment on 
that account,, afTemble^ in a body, 
threatened 



CHRONICLE. 



['47 



threatened deftru<f^ion to the whole 
town, and had aftually got feveral 
pieces of cannon, which they fired ; 
but a party of light-horfe being 
fent for from Manchefter, they were 
foon difperfed, and about forty of 
them lodged in gaol. 

Their High Mightinefles have 
farther prohibited the exportation 
of ammunition, &c. from any of 
the United Provinces to any of the 
Englifh colonies in America, for 
the term of one year from this 
date. 

The Pope has at laft brought to 
light the affair of the poifon, of 
which fomehave pretended that the 
late Clement XIV. died, and in 
which they feemed to involve feve- 
ral great ones of Rome, who had a 
right to have this point cleared up. 
The Holy Father, by tracing thii 
falfe rumour back to its fource, ob- 
tained information, that fome minor 
conventual friars, and among the 
reftF. Martinelli, Confultor of the 
Holy Office, had been the authors 
of it, by giving out, that the late 
ClementXlV. a ihort lime before his 
death, had declared to the General 
of the Minors, that he knew for 
certain he (hould die of the poifon 
which had been adminiftered to 
him, and that he knew the author 
of this wicked attempt, whom he 
did not chufe to difcover, although 
it had been reprefented to him that 
it was a great fin not to tell his 
name, in order to prevent repeti- 
tions of the fame crime. In confe- 
quence of this information, the 
Pope put the F. General of the 
Friar Minorsunder an interroga- 
tory, wherein he (hould declare and 
depofe, whether it were true, as had 
been rumoured by fome of his re- 
ligious, that he fhould fay, that 
Clemqit XIV. feme time before 



his death, had fpoken to him of the 
poifon, and named the author of it 
to him ? To which this religious, 
refpeftnble in every regard, firlj: 
verbally depofed and declared, that 
Clement XIV. neither in his life- 
time nor at his death, had men- 
tioned to him any thing either of 
the poifon or of the author of it. 
His Holinefs having referved the 
verbal depofition, ordered n»xt 
this worthy General to commit the 
fame to writing, and to fign it, re- 
quiring before-hand, that he fhould 
f^wear to tell the truth, which was 
punftually executed. This depo- 
fition, made upon oath, and which 
is the fame with that verbally de- 
clared, has been in the hands of 
the Holy Father, ever fince the 
27th of July. This General, ef- 
teemed for his uprightnefs, has 
fworn that he never faid to any one 
that the late Clement XIV. either 
in his life-time or at his death, had 
made to him any mention of poifon, 
or of the author of it; and that he 
could not have faid fo, becaufe 
Clement XIV. had never fpoken to 
him on that fubjeit, either in his 
life- time or at his death ; and that 
it was an impofition to have in- 
volved and quoted him, the Gene- 
ral, in fuch an affair. 

A faithful copy of the oath, 

'* I, underwritten,GeneraIof the 
Conventual Friars, of the order of 
St. Francis, do folemnly fivear, 
and call God towitnefs, that Pope 
Clement XIV. of happy memory, 
never did fay to me, at any period 
of time whatfoever, that he was 
ever poifoned, or ever had felt the 
efFefts of poifon. lalfofwear, and 
call God to witnefs, that I never 
did fay to any one, that he was 

[AT] % poifoned. 



148] 



CHRONICLE, 



poifoncd, or ever hurt by poifon, To 
help me God. Br. Aloyfius Maria 
Marzoni, General, &-c. Signed 
and fealed in the convent of the 
Twelve Apotllcs, this 27th day of 
July, 1775." 

[The reader will find Memoffs 
of the late Pope in our article of 
Characters for this year.] 
■ . The mafter of the Rofe 

^ ■ and Crown, the corner of 
Downing-ftreet, Wellminfl^cr, in- 
tending to get cleaned an old muf- 
ket, which had been a long time 
loaded for the fecurity of his houfe, 
drew out the flugs, as he thought, 
and gave it to a man to fire oiF the 
powder, which the man did ; but 
there being a flag left in the gun. 
On firing it, it went into the dining- 
room of Sir Jeffery Amherft, which 
is almoft oppofiie ; took with it the 
glafsof the window, psfiTed over Sir 
JelFery*s head as he fat writing, and 
after ftriking againft the oppofite 
jide of the room, fell on the floor. 
Happily Sir JefFery had left the 
window about five minutes, or he 
would have been fliot. The land- 
lord and man were fentfor; but, the 
circumflanccs being clearly proved. 
Sir Jeffery forgave them, as he had 
received no hurt. 

About feven o'clock in 
the evening, in lUe parifli 
of Stone, nearKidderminUer,Wor- 
cefterfliire, there arofe a tornado. 
Or violent whirlwind, attended with 
a heavy florm of rain and hail, the 
appearance and effects of which 
^ere very Airprifing and alarming. 
— Itwasfirftobferved toadl upon a 
large piece of water, belonging to 
John Baker, Efq; in fome pares of 
which it raifed waves 10 an amazing 
'height, and agitated the whoie in 
a wonderful manner. A houfe 
izndlng near the v/ater was in- 



2lfl. 



ftintly unroofed, and the windows 
driven in by its force. It thea 
took its courie to the northward, 
and in its way detached the end of 
a barn, belonging to the Rev. Mr. 
Jervis, from its foundation ; rent 
theroofof that, and anotherof Mr. 
Pratt of Dunclent; tore off many 
branches and arms of large trees ; 
and, in its further progrefs, being 
obilruded by another barn of the 
faid Mr. Pratt, about half a mile 
diftance from that before mention- 
ed, it there, to all appearance, 
vented its greateft force; for, though 
it was a Ihong building, with a 
quantity of grain in it, and a wag- 
gon loaded with barley, the whole 
was overturned, and removed to a 
confiderable diftance from the foun- 
dation of thebuilding. Thetornado 
then carried a confiderable number 
of corn flieaves out of one field into 
another adjoining, and by this time 
may be fuppofed to have fpent it- 
felf, as no further effed was ob- 
ferved. Its whole courfe feems to 
have been about a meafured mile. 
About eight the fame evening, 
in confequence of the late rains, 
the land water overflowed the banks 
of the river at Bridge-End, iu 
Glamorganfhire, and continued ri- 
fing till near two in the morning, 
in fuch an alarming manner as to 
break in the windowsof theground- 
floors of almoft all the houfes in the 
place, and in feveralof them reach- 
ed up almoft to the ceiling. It 
likewife carried away the bridge. 
The lofs was fo great and general 
throughout the place, as well as 
the country adjacent, as not to be 
readily afcertained. 

Confiderable damage was done 
to the corn, S^c. between Neath, 
and Swan fey, by flioods produced 
by the fame caufe. 

Afi:e 



CHRONICLE. 



['49 



J A fire happened at Abo in 

Sweden, by which above two 

hundred houfes, and fifteen mills, 

were confumed ; and fome lives 

loft. 

1 A proclamation ifTued for 
^ ' fuppreffing rebellion and fe- 
dition, which we (hall give with 
the other ftate papers of thi"? year. 
And on the 29th, it was read in Pa- 
lace-yard, Weltminft?r, and at Tem- 
ple-bar, by the Heralds, (tc. and 
at the Royal Exchange, ac no n,by 
one of the Lord Mayor's officers, 
accompanied only by the common 
crier. After it w-is ended, there 
was a general hifs. The Lord 
Mayorwould not permit the officers 
to have horfes, as ufual on fuch oc- 
cafions, nor fufFer the mace to be 
carried there. 

, By letters from Madrid 

^ * of this date, the Portu- 
guefe made, an attack on Monte 
Video, in the Rio de la Plata, in 
the month of April laft, with a 
fquadron of five fhips and {ocp.f land 
forces; but our governor repulfed 
them, and even funk one of their 
/hips; and, on occafion of this adt 
of hoftility, the governor of Buenos 
Ayres raifed 11,000 men, part of 
whom, after incorporating them 
with 1000 veterans, he intended to 
employ in defence of ih.u colony, 
whilft the red went to attack the 
Portuguef^ in theirs of St. Sacra- 
inent. 

It is very remarkable, that, 
though the fquabbk's between the 
Spaniards and Portugufe about 
thefc two fettiemenis have been fo 
frequent, fo much fpoken of, and 
often fo likely to ^nd in an open 
war between the two nations, we 
have no account of them worth 
rpeaking of, but in Charleroix's 
l\lkory of Paraguay, written at the 



recommendation of the late Duke 
of Orleans, and fome time fince 
irinflated into Englifh by the ad- 
vice of a gentleman of ^reat emi- 
nence in the republic of letters. 

At a poll aflembly of the „ , 
Sheriffs and Commons of 
the city of Dublin, their addrefs to 
his Majefty having been rejected 
bv the Lord M^yor and board of 
Aiderm^n, as inexpedient, it was 
relolved. That whoever refufes his 
confent to a dutiful petition to the 
King, tending to undeceive hisMa- 
jefty, and from which it could be 
hoped that theeffufion of one drop 
of fubjcifl blood might be pre- 
ventfd, is not a friend to the con- 
ftitution. 

A profecution has been co.m- 
menced by government againft the 
Reverend Mr. Home, for an ad- 
vertifementfignedbyhim, from the 
Conftitutionalfociety,refpe«ftingthc 
Americans; and all the printers, in 
whofe papers it appeared, have been 
ferved with notices that the Attor- 
ney General has filed informations 
ex ofic'io againft them. 

A moft audacious robbery , 

was committed by ten vil- ^ * 
lains, armed with cutlafles, at th« 
compting-houfeof Meflrs. Marfhal 
and Co. brewers, at Shoreditch, 
After binding the miller, and 
wounding a drayman, from whom 
ihey apprehended oppofition, they 
broke open the counting- houfe 
defk, and took from thence acon- 
ii'Jerable fum of money, with which 
they got clear olf : one of the viU 
lains has fince bet?n taken. 

By letters from Romeof this , 
day, they had then ended their ^^ * 
third trial of fe:;rGhing in the Ti- 
ber, for antiques, &c. and with the 
lame bad fuccefs pf not a halfpenny 
profit, though they had this year an 
[A.' J 3 En^lifli 



ijo] CHRONICLE. 

Englifli chain-pump, that did for of three hours, during which time 
its part wonders,, in throwing out the candle fell amongft, and fet 
the water; but it feems all the fire to, the litter about him, and 
pumps in the navy would not an- fome hay in that part of the fta- 
fwer the purpofe, as the water ble, by which means fix good 
leaked in as fad as it was thrown chaife horfes were fuffocated. 
out. ThuSjif they made any more By an order of the Lord « 
trials, it muft be in the manner they Mayorof the 29th, to fall the ^^ * 
fliould have begun by, that is, by price of bread h:.lf an alCze, or one 
fcooping up the dirt, as is done in penny in a peck-loaf, the peck- 
rivers and harbours to keep them loaf, weighing 171b. 6oz. was to 
clear ; but it was prefumed they be fold, this day, for two (hillings 



would want a new fubfcription for 
It, and that few would contribute 
after fo many unfuccefsful trials. 
We cannot, however, forbear re- 
commending the trial of Doftor 
Halley's diving bell on the occa- 
iion. The leakage, which has hi- 
therto proved fo fatal, is in all pro- 
bability from the bottom. Now, 
Doftor Halley's diving bell may be 
cleared of water within a very fmall 
way of its lower rim, and this lower 
rim brought fo clofe to the bot- 
tom, if any way even, as to afford 
the workmen the fame opportunity 
of digging, &c. which they would 
have in a piece of ground over- 
flowed with water to a fmall depth. 
Nay, the bell may be lowered, 
with the fame advantages, in pur- 
suit of treafure, into the hole itfelf, 
let it be ever fo deep, if made liirge 
enough for that purpofe. 

, The Prince of Hefle- 

3°'^"- Caifel arrived at her Royal 
Highnefs the Princefs Amelia^s 
from Germany. 

About twelve at night a poft-boy 
carried a naked lighted candle into 
one of the flables at the Angel- 
jnn, inDoncafter, and very foolifli- 
ly Ituck it againft the wall, till he 



and four pence three farthings. 

Laft week was reaped a field of 
Siberian wheat, belonging to a gen- 
tleman at Well-hall, near Mcthley, 
in the weft riding of yorkfhire. 
The feed was not fovvn till the be- 
ginning of April, and,notwithftand- 
ing the extreme drought which fol- 
lowed, turned out an amazing fine 
crop. This fpecies of wheat was 
firft introduced by his Majefty; 
and a quantity of it made a pre- 
fent of to an ingenious farmer in 
Surry, who, by flipping and tranfr 
planting, raifed from one bufhel 
an extraordinary increafe, which 
he diftributed among the curious 
in agriculture throughout the king- 
dom. This muft be a great ac- 
quifition to the farmers when it be- 
comes more general, as they will 
then always have an alternative, 
whenever the autumn feafon proves 
unfavourable for fowing the Eng- 
lifti wheat. The grain in fhape 
and fize is nearly the fame with 
our own J but it is faid to yield 
much finer flour. 

The harveft in Flanders proves 
to be more plentiful this year than 
for many years pall; and through- 
out the Venetian ftate, the crops 



dreffed his horfe; when,, being * are faid to be abundant enough to 
wearied with his long day's work, fuffice for the confumption of four 
he fell afleep with the halter in his years, 
hand, and fo continued for upwards 

At 



CHRONICLE. 



[15^ 



At a veftry at Lambeth-church, 
came under confiderarion the pro- 
priety of charging the Archbi/hop 
of Canterbury to the poor's ra:e. 
Sec. when there appeared 6 1 for it., 
and 6{j againft it. 

The prizes of fifteen guineas 
each fcr the heft compofitions in 
Latin profe, annually given by Ri- 
chard Croftes, Efq; and the Right 
Hon. the Marquis of Granby, 
members of parliament for theuni- 
verfity of Cambridge, were this 
year adjudg.ed to Mr. Sandiford, 
of Sidney-college, fcnior bache- 
lor ; and to Mr. Mathias, of Tri- 
nity-college, and Mr. Seal, of 
ChriH-college, middle bachelors. 

Canine Madnefs., 

As, when perfons have been bit 
by a dog, that is apprehended to 
be mad, the dog is generally killed 
before any one has afcertained his 
condition ; in confequence of which 
•the perfons bit continue in a cruel 
-uncertainty,; M. Peiit, an eminen; 
furgeon in "t'rance, has publiihed 
the following expedient for putting 
an end to this uneafinefs. He rubs 
the throat, the teeth, and the gums, 
of the dead dog, with a piece of 
.meat that hath been drcfi'cd, tak- 
ing care that there be no blood to 
ftain it ; and then offers it to a 
living dog. It the living dog re- 
fufes it with crying and howling, 
the dead dog was certainly mad : 
but, if the viduals are well re- 
ceived, and eaten, there is nothing 
to fear. 

The miftrefs of the Crown ale- 
houfe, in St. Paul's church.-yard, 
was delivered the 27th inltant of 
two girls and a boy, all living. 

Was lately married, viz. the 27 th 
inftant^ Mr. John Scott, of Penis- 



hole, Northumberland, aged 60, 
four times married; to Mrs. Elea- 
nor Hood, aged 50, thrice mar- 
ried, and mother to 14 children. 

Died lately, viz. the 4th inftant, 

in Hatton-ftreer, Mr. Hou- 

Hon, the moft eminent mezzotint© 
engraver in England. 

Theizth, The Rev. and learned 
M.deMifley, preacher at the French 
x:hapel, St. James's. 

The 18th, at Evefhara, Wor- 
ceilerQiire, Mr. Jofeph Barnes, and 
Mr.. Anthony Warrand, two of the 
greatell gardeners in Europe. 

The 24th, in his 9111 year, Mr. 
vGreen, ot Mount-fireet,Southwark. 
He had been in 21 battles, and had 
received 1 1 wounds in the fervice 
of his country. 

The 26th, at Iflington, Mr. 
James Burgh, formerly maiterof an 
academy at Ncwington-gretn, and 
author of the Dignity of Human 
Nature, Political Difquiiitions, and 
feveral other works. 

l^e 28th, Alderman George 
Paulkener of Dublin, remarkable 
for having been the favourite prin- 
ter of Dean Swift, and the printer 
of the Dublin Journal; and for 
feveral oddities, all innocent, and 
fome of them of the moH beneficial 
nature. 

The 31ft, Mr. Fowlis, printer 
to the Glafgow Univerfity ; and 
celebrated for his editions of the 
Gretk and Latin claffics., and hi? 
encouragement of learned and in- 
genious men. 

Lately, Mrs. Buchy in Dublin, 
aged 103. 

Lately, Mr. Clayton, in Berk- 
fhire, formerly a wealthy farmer, 
in the 115th year of hi*- .ige; be- 
fore he ieh off farming, he rented 
one farm 90 years; he retained his 
[if] ^ fenfe* 



CHRONICLE. 



152] 

fenfes to the laft ; and has left 
children and grand-children 28, 
the eldefl 82 years old. 

SUMMER ASSIZES. 

At Oxford, for the city, three; 
and for the county, two; were ca- 
pitally convifted. 

At Northampton, two were ca- 
pitally convided; one of them for 
forgery, was executed ; and the 
other reprieved. 

At Wincheller, three were capi- 
tally convided. 

At Worcelter, fix were capitally 
convidled ; one for murdering his 
own child, an infant about a month 
old, the iflueof an unlawful com- 
merce with *a girl, whom the pa- 
rifh-officers afterwards forced him 
to marry,— a cuftom, which muft 
fometimes be produdlive of much 
mifery, by adding difcontent to po- 
verty. The murderer and two of 
the others fufFered ; the other three 
were reprieved. 

At Chelmsford, feven were ca- 
pitally conviAed ; one of them 
was Lambert Reading, of whom 
we have already fpoken ; and ano- 
ther was Chapman, the coachman 
to Mr. Conyers, who diredled the 
attempt. He was taken the day 
Reading was tried, and next day 
carried to Chelmsford, where he 
likewife was tried, and, being 
convided, received fentence of 
death. 

At Hull, a game-keeper, for 
Ihooting at another man, was capi- 
tally con viifted ; but reprieved. 

At York, nine were capitally 
convifted ; but all reprieved ex- 
cept two, one of whom was Geo. 
Bulmer for the murder of his 
wife, and another for robbing the 
mail. 



It was on the 16th of June Bul- 
mer committed the horrid deed. 
As bis wife lay afleep in bed, he 
Wrangled her by means of a muflin 
handkerchief which he had twilled 
in the manner of a cord for that 
purpofe. The handkerchief with 
which the unhappy woman had 
been (Irangled was untwided, and 
left round her neck. The perfons 
about her difcovering a mark on her 
neck beneath the handkerchief, 
which appeared to have been done 
by fome violence, examined the 
body more carefully, and difcp- 
vered the whole to be uncommonly 
black. Alarmed at this and other 
fufpicious circumitances, they fent 
for the Coroner. I's^ the mean time 
the hufband cut his throat, but 
raiiTed the windpipe: and a fur- 
geon being procured, fewed it 
up. He afterwards attempted to 
break the flitches, but was pre- 
vented, and properly fecured: the 
Coroner's Jury brought in their 
verdift Wilful Murder. Previous 
to this, Bulmer had confefTed the 
fa£l, and the manner of perpetrat- 
ing it, as before dcfcribed. He 
was upwards of 60 years of age; 
his wife was not much above 20. 
The caufe he affigned for commitr 
ting this horrid crime was, that he 
had become connected with another 
v/oman. 

The man convi^ed for having 
robbed the mail, acknowledged, 
that about ten years ago he had 
wilfully fet a barn on iire ; and, 
while the family was employed i^ 
excinguilhinjr the flames, robbed 
the houfe of 50!, 

The Hertford, Bedford. Carlifle, 
and county of Nottingham alfjzcs, 
proved maiden. 

At Glouce/ler, five were capi- 
tally convicted. 

At 



CHRONICLE. 



[153 



r 



At Oakham, two were capitally 
convifted. 

At Huntingdon, two were capi- 
tally convifted. 

At Monmouth, five were capi- 
tally convifted, but were all re- 
prieved. 

At Maidflone, two were con- 
vidled of murder, and executed. 
Another was alfo capitally convidl- 
ed, but reprieved. 

At the above afllzes, a bill of in- 
diftment was found againft twelve 
fhip-wrights, who lately belonged 
to his Majefty's yard at Woolwich, 
for unlawfuUyconfpiring and com- 
bining together, in order to get 
their wages increafed. 

At Nottingham town, two were 
capitally convifted, but reprieved. 

At Derby, two were capitally 
convided, but reprieved. 

At Leicefter, one was capitally 
convidled, but reprieved. 

At Coventry, two were capitally 
convifted. 

At Bury, four were capitally 
convided ; one of whom, for the 
murder of his wife, and two for 
burglary, were left for execution — 
the other reprieved. 

At Warwick, one was capitally 
convided. 

At Norwich, for the county, 
three; and for the city, one; were 
capitally convided, but were all re- 
prieved. 

At Newcaftle, two were capi- 
tally convided, and both reprieved. 

At Lewes, one was capitally con- 
vided. 

At Shrewfbury, two were capi- 
tally convided. 

At Durham, three were capitally 
convided. 

At Croydon, ten were capitally 
convided, two of whom were re- 
prieved. Among thofe acquitted. 



was Mrs. Jane Butterfield, accufed 
of having poifoned William Scaw- 
en, Efq; and, as the cafe was very 
curious and interefting, we fhall 
give fome account of the trial in oar 
appendix. 

At the fame aflizes, a trial came 
on between Mr. Cawfey, haber- 
dafher, of Guildford, and Sir Jo- 
feph Mawbey, Bart, to recover the 
fum of 117I. 6s, for ribbands, faid 
to be delivered by Mr. Cawfey, 
during the late general eledion in 
1774, ^° ^^^ Jofeph Mawbey** 
voters; the counfel for the plain- 
tiff were, Mr. Lad, Mr. , and 

Mr. Martyr; for the defendant, 
SerjeantGlynn,SerjeantKemp,and 
Mr. Lucas. Three young ladies 
were called on the iide of the plain- 
tiff, who fwore they tied up the 
cockades, and believed that there 
were 1996 'tied up nhe £rft day, 
and that a letter was accordingly 
fent the firft evening of the eledion 
to Sir Jofeph, acquainting him with 
the fame. The plaintiff called fe- 
veral other people who had rib- 
bands of him, but as they could 
not prove that any orders were gi- 
ven by Sir Jofeph, their evidence 
was but of little efFed. The plain- 
tiff's witneffes likewife fwore, that 
350 cockades were delivered the fe- 
cond day, which made in the whole 
2346, which, at is. each, amount- 
eo to the fum charged; ihey like- 
wife fwore, that, after all the lib- 
bands were ufed in Guiliiford the 
firft night, they fent to Farnham, 
and purchafed all in that town, for 
which Mr. Cawfey paid 5 1. 12 s. 
6d. Mr. Serjeant Glynn remarked 
on their evidence wiih great judg- 
ment and ffverity, and obferved, 
that, as Sir Jofeph*s voters did not 
amount in the whole to more than 
1400, the greaieft part of whom 

C4a;e 



'54] 



CHRONICLE, 



came from the Borough, Rother- 
hithe, Lambeth, &c. and all thofe 
provided with ribbands in town, it 
was improbable to think, that 2346 
Tibbands could be dillributed at 
•Guildford, when Sir Jofeph's voters 
in that town did not amount to more 
than thirty; he then {hewed, that 
propofals had been made to Mr, 
•Cawfey, either to leave it to three 
indifferent tradefmen in the town 
of Guildford, voters againfl'Sir 
Jofeph Mawbey; to pay him for 
as many ribbands as he had in two 
years, to be proved by his books ; 
or to take 30 L which, valuing the 
ribbands at 9J, each, would be 
more than in reafon could be ima- 
gined to be expended, and which 
i"um he had paid into court ; all 
which propofals were refufed on 
the part of Mr. Cawfey. That, 
as to the idea of his having rib- 
bands fuihcient in his (hop to make 
up 1996, it was prepofterous, as 
the whole town of Farnham had 
not more than amounted to 5I. 12 s. 
.6d. The evidence on the fide of 
the plaintiff could by no means be 
pofitive, either to the ftock of rib- 
bands they had in the fiiop at the 
time they began, nor the number 
jdelivered, as they very frankly 
owned they were taken away fo 
fall, that they took no account un- 
til the fecond day; (yet they knew 
the number on the firil day to be 
1996). The jury were out about 
half an hour, and brought in their 
verdidl, ' that 29 1. was full fdffi- 
cient.' Lord Mansfield therefore 
acquainted the court, that, as Sir 
Jofeph had paid 30]. into court, 
and a verdi^ given for only 29 1. 
the verdidl of courfe was for the 
defendant ; which faddJed Mr. 
Cawfey with all the coils. 



At Abingdon, three were capi- 
tally convidled. 

At Hereford, a farmer of con- 
fiderable property in the neighbour- 
hood of Cardiff, was capitally con- 
vidled of plundering a wreck oa ' 
the Glamorganlhire coall, and re- 
ceived fentence of death. 

At Cambridge, John Stickwood, 
for the wilful murder of Andrew 
Nunn, was convidled and executed. 
James Stickwood, the brother, was 
admitted evidence for the King, 
and his depofition circumltantially 
corrcfponded with his examination 
taken before the coroner. The 
criminal, after his condemnation* 
made an ample confeffion of the 
fa6l, and foleranly protefled, that 
his brother James, whom he faid he 
fincerely forgave, was the iiift in- 
fligatorof the robbery and murder 5 
that he was equally culpable, and 
helped to llrip the body of the de- 
ceafed. James, howover, was dif- 
charged by proclamation, 

Ac Exeter, one was capitally 
convifted for murder, but recom- 
mended for mercy. 

At Wells, Reginald Tucker was 
capitally convided for the murder • 
of his wife, one of the fined women 
in that country; and fuffered ac- 
cordingly. 

At Lincoln, William Farmery 
was tried, condemned, and exe- 
cuted, for the murder of his own 
mother. All that he would con- 
fefs was, that his fpite againft his 
mother was becaufe fhe coriedled 
him when he was a little boy,. 
However it appears, that having 
fome words wiih his mother in the 
morning on which he committed 
the fail, he went out, and whetted 
his knife very fharp ; and then, 
coming into his own room, where 

his 



CHRONICLE. 



[155 



his mother was making his bed, he 
lluck her in the throat, as a butcher 
do«s a fheep, and then left her 
weltering in her blood. Upon his 
examination he owned the faft, and 
even that he had determined to 
murder her three years ago. He 
faid further, that, while he flept 
in the round-houfe (where he was 
at hrft confined), he felt fomething 
move within him, and, when he 
awaked, his mother's Ihade pafled 
before him. The above unhappy 
criminal was twenty-one years of 
age ; and had been put apprentice 
10 a flioe-maker at Leafingham. 

At Wells, an aftion brought a- 
gainft the returning officer at the 
late general eleftion for Taunton, 
came on in the morning, and 
lafted till four the next morning ; 
when the jury, which was fpecial, 
withdraw for about an hour, and 
then delivered a verdid at the 
judge's lodgings in favour of the 
defendant. 

At Salilbury, three aftions came 
againil an agent to one. of the can- 
didates at the late Hindon elcdion, 
who gave money to the eledlors 
thrio^gh a hole in the wall ; when 
the charge being fully proved in 
every inftance, the defendant was 
fined 1500I. conformable to the Ila- 
tute. 

At Stafford, four were capitally 
Convifted, but afterwards reprieved. 

At Dorchefter, Mr. Mortimer 
profecuted the following perfons, 
for notorioufly bribing, and en- 
deavouring to bribe, at the laft 
eledion for members for Shaftef- 
bury, and recovered damages in 
every aftion ; viz. Mr. P. Brown 

500 1. Mr. John Good 1000 1. Mr. 
.R. Everett 500 1. Mr. R. Hunt, 
cool. Mr. R. Gough5ool. Mr.R. 
k Auckland 1500 1. 



In the courfe of the evidence, 
the whole llory of Punch and his 
aflbciates was rehear led, and af- 
forded great entertainment. 

Four adlions vvereentered againft 
Mr, Mortimer's friends, one of 
which was tried; when, a verdift 
being given for the defendant, Mr. 
Parker, the records of the other 
three were withdrawn. 

Four perfons who had been fub- 
pcenaed to give evidence did not 
appear when called upon, and were 
fined lool. each. 

Mr. Mortimer had many more 
aftions of the like kind to bring, 
but faid he would not trouble the 
county with them. 



SEPTEMBER. 

Five horfes in a waggon, , 

drawing home a load of ^ ' 
barley, at Windrulh, in Gloucef- 
terlhire, about four miles from 
Burford, in Oxford fliire, were ftruck 
dead by lightning. The boy that 
drove the team, and a woman up- 
on the mow in the barn, were 
ftruck down, but efcaped further 
injury. The flaihes of lightning 
were continued, and extremely tre- 
mendous, the thunder uncommon- 
ly loud, and the rain which accom- 
panied the (lorm was (o heavy at 
to be produdive of many fudden 
inundations; there being imme- 
diately a flood both on the Cher- 
well and Ifis. The river Cheir>vcll 
overflowed ail the pallures near 
Mariton, Sufcot, Wood-Eaton, 
Iflip, and many other places. 
Magdalen College water-walks, 
Merton fields, Chrift Church Mea- 
dow?, Hinkfey, Ifley, KenniiTgton, 
Standford, Sec, were one entire 
fcene of water. In the parifh of 

•St. 



CHRONICLE. 



ti6] 

St. Thomas, wefl of Oxford, the 
inhabitants were obliged to remove 
to the fccond floor, the water be- 
ing nearly up to the firft ftory ; 
where their food and necefTaries 
were conveyed to them by boats, 
while part of their houfhold furni- 
ture was floating in the flreet. The 
cattle, in fome places, Hood up to 
their bellies in water, and many 
cf the roads leading to Oxford were 
rendered impafl!able. 

, Several gentlemen from 

7 Dublin having lately waited 
on the Right Hon. John Wilkes, 
Efq; Lord Mayor of this city, at 
the Manfion-Houfe, with the refo- 
iution of the guild of merchants of 
Publin, to prefent him the lincere 
thanks of that guild, »* for the ef- 
fential fer vices, they fay, which he 
lias rendered to his king and coun- 
try, by his ftrenuous efforts in the 
caufe of freedom, and for his de- 
fence of the rights of the people 
to petition the throne, &c,'' the 
Lord-Mayor exprelled his thanks 
for the honour done him by fo re- 
fpedlnble a body, and defired the 
gentlemen to tranfmit the fame, 
jnoft humbly, to the mafters, war- 
dens, and brethren of the guild of 
merchants. 

At the anniverfary meeting of 
the fons of the clergy at New- 
caftle, the colled^ion at church 
amounted to 23 1, which, with 
449 1; fubfcription, was diltnbuted 
to 55 indigent widows, fons, and 
daughters of clergymen, according 
to their fcveral necelTities. 

Their high mightinefl'es the 
States General have prohibited the 
exportation of ammunition from 
any of the United Provinces to any 
of the Britifh colonies for one 
year. , 

The Prufilans now flopt all veflfels 



deflined for Dantzick, wljeiher 
coming in or going out, and infilled 
on their unloading before they en- 
ter the Fahr-Walfcr, and paying 
the cuftom-houfe duties, piece by 
piece, cf their cargoes; but none of 
the burghers of that unhappy placr, 
nor any foreign mafters, had, as 
yet, confented to this; chufing ra- 
ther to go back with their lading, 
than fubmit to fuch an exa<5iion. 
In confequence of this and other 
grievances, the city of Dantzick 
was now going to ruin apace. 
Thofe of its inhabitants who were 
worth any thing, were daily get- 
ting away with their efFefis ; while 
thofe who had nothing to lofe, ex- 
claimed loudly againii the oppref- 
fion they laboured under. Appli- 
cation had been made to different 
powers to intercede in their favour, 
but they met with nothing but pitv. 
In the mean time, the city was faid 
to be blocked up by the Pruflians, 
and that they had cut off all its 
communications. 

His Swedifh majefty, in order to 
reduce the exorbitant price of 
provifions, has ordered a bounty tp 
be given to fuch farmers as fhall 
bring the greateft quantities of pro- 
vifions to market. 

Between ten and eleven at 
night, the (hock of an earth- 
quake was very fenfibly felt at 
Bath, Worcefter, Salifbury, D(5r- 
chefter, Shrevvlhury, Trowbridge, 
AynhoinNorlhjimptonftiire, Swan- 
fea in Wales, Gloiicefter, Evefham, 
Coalbrook Dale, Wellington, 
Wolverhampton, Brewocd;' and 
many others, efpecially the inter- 
mediate places. In fome places, 
this (hock was preceded by a vio- 
lent ilorm of rain ; in others, ac- 
companied with a very clofe and 
hot atmofphere. In ibmc places, 

again, 



8th. 



e H R O N 1 C L E. 



E^S7- 



nth. 



agffin, it lafted but two or three 
feconds; in others it is reprefenled 
as having been of fome con- 
tinuance. Though not attended 
w ch any defultory noife, many, 
both in bed and out, and in the up- 
per and lower rooms of their houfes. 
Wire alFeftcd with a violent hori- 
zontal agitation or pcrcuflion, ef- 
pecially ihoi'e in bed and above 
ftairs. Several perfons perceived 
their windows fhake, and their 
feats move under them ; and mod 
of thofe who felt it, ran out of 
their houfes, for fear of their 
tumbling about their ears. It 
proved moft violent at Swanfea, in 
Glamorganinire, where feveral 
chimnies were thrown down, fome 
houfes cracked, and others tum- 
bled in, through the violence of the 
Ihock. 

At St. John's, and other 
places, in Newfoundland, 
there arofe a tempeil of a moft par- 
ticular kind — the fea rofe on a fud- 
den 30 feet; above feven hundred 
boats, with all the people belong* 
ing thereto, were loll, as alfo eleven 
fhips with moll of their crews. 
Even on fliore they fev^rely felt its 
cfTefts, by the deftrutflion of num- 
bers of people ; and for fome days 
after, in drawing the nets afliore, 
ihey often found twenty or thirty 
dead bodies in them ; a moft ftiock- 
ing fpeflacle! At Harbour Grace, 
no fewer than three hundred boats 
were loft. 

, A baker was convi<5led 

^^ ' ' before the Lord Klayor for 
having in his houfe izolb. weight 
of allum; and fined lol. 

1 he Charming Nancy, with 
General Gage's lady, and one 
hundred and feventy fitk and 
wounded foldiers and officers, ar- 
rived from Boften at Plymouth -, 



all in great diftrefs, though but 
twenty-four days on their paiTage. 
They failed from Bofton the 20 tU 
of Auguft, at which time nothing 
material had happened, except u 
notification being ported up, fig- 
nifying, that fuch inhabitants as 
were deiirous of quitting Boftow 
might give in their names to the 
Town-Major, and receive a licenfc 
fo to do. This, it was fuppofed, 
was owing to the fcarcity of provi- 
fions, by which Gen. Gage was re- 
duced to the neceffity of fupplying 
the people from the king's ftores, 
or fuifering them to periih. 

A few of the men came on (hore, 
when never hardly were feea fuch 
objeds I fome without legs, and 
others without arms ; and their 
cloaths hanging on them like a 
loofe morning gown, fo much 
were they fallen away by ficknefs 
and want of proper nourifhmect. 
There were moreover near fixty 
women and children on board; the 
widows and children of the raea 
who were flain. Some of thefe too 
exhibited a moft ftiocking fpe^fla- 
cle ; and even the veffel itfelf, 
though very large, was almoft in- 
tolerable, from the ftench ariiing 
from the fick and wounded, for 
many of them were hardly cured 
yet. Two more tranfports were 
daily expeded with invalids, who 
failed from Bofton with the above. 
It was a great hardftiip on this oc- 
cafion, though perhaps the nature 
of the fervice cannot immediately 
relieve it, for the men to remain on 
board till an order from the war-of- 
fice arrived for their debarkation ; 
cfpecialiy as the veiTel was obliged 
to go up into Hammoazre to get in 
a new raainiraft, from thence to 
procpcj fr the river with the in- 
valids, in order for their CAam-na- 

lion . 



158] 



CHRONICLE. 



tion for Chelfea-Hofpital. As^to 
the widows and orphans, who came 
home in the above fhip, a fub- 
fcription was fet on foot in four 
or five days after their arrival, by 
Meff. Jardines, merchants at Ply- 
mouth, which by the zzd amount- 
ed to an hundred and four pounds, 
and next day was diftributed at the 
Guildhall, according to their fe- 
verai neceffities. 

, An ordinance of this date 

^ * has been publifhed at Vien- 
na, extending to all the hereditary 
ftates, which greatly diminifhes the 
right of afylum in churches, cloy- 
flers, and other holy places, and 
deprives the following malefadlors 
of any fuch benefit, viz. All blaf- 
phemers J. thofe who have commit- 
ted murders in churches, and facred 
places; robbers of churches or 
holy utenfils; thofe guilty of pre- 
meditated murders ; highway rob- 
bers; thofe who fpoil or Ileal the 
produce of the country; all affaf- 
fins and their accomplices ; thofe 
guilty of high treafon or rebellion; 
all falfe coiners ; all who counter- 
feit the feal or fignature of the fo- 
vereign ; thofe who poifon the wells 
or public refervoirs; all who take 
unlawful advantages of a fire, 
inundatioti, or fhipwreck ; thofe 
who plunder the public money ; 
and all perfons guilty of rape?, &c, 
thofe guilty of any of the above- 
mentioned crimes, who may have 
efcaped out of prifon ; all bank- 
rupts ; deferters ; and thofe who 
allaffinate any one employed under 
the fovereign. Moreover, by the 
name of afylum no places are to be 
underHood but thofe, in which the 
holy facrament is kept. 

The judge is authorlfed to re- 
claim any prifoner that may have 
taken refuge there improperly froxn 



the direflor of the place, without 
confulting any other fuperior ec- 
clefiailic, and in cafe of refufal the 
judge may take up the criminal. 

A vefTel coming up the ^ , 
river happened to run her 
head on fhorc ; when the flern 
fwinging round fqueezed a boat, 
in which were three men and a wo- 
man, befides the waterman, be- 
tween her and another veffel. The 
boat was ftaved to pieces ; one man 
was killed ; the woman was fo much 
hurt that there is no hope of her 
recovery; the waterman had both 
his legs broke ; and the other two 
men were drowned. 

There was a riling of the people 
at Malta, headed by an ecclefiaftic, 
who, taking advantage nf the ab- 
fence of the gallies and the men of 
war, and being joined by fome fol- 
diers, feized on a baftion of the 
caftle of St. Elmo, and another 
in the habitation of Caflille. Their 
intention was to deftroy the maga- 
zine of powder, and make a ge- 
neral pillage wherever they could. 
But, by the timely refolution of the 
Grand Mafter, aiTifted by feveral 
knights and burghers, it was put a 
flop to; and the three moft culpa- 
ble, one of them a priefi, being ex- 
ecuted, and a general pardon iflued 
to the reft, tranquillity was im- 
msdiately eftablifhed. 

In the afternoon a recruit- „ , 
ing party beating a drum in 
the Old Bailey, and the found alarm- 
ing the court, the recorder ordered 
the drummer to be taken into cuf- 
tody. Mr. Payne, the conflable, 
went immediately, and took the 
drummer near Newgale, and 
brought him into court. Upon 
his being alked by the recorder, 
how he dared to attempt to beat 
his drum there? he replied, the 
ferjeant 



CHRONICLE. 



Vsf 



ferjeant ordered him ; but on his 
begging pardon, and promirmg ne- 
ver CO offend again, he was difmilfed. 
Soon after Mr. Payne had brought 
in the drummer, ihe city marfhals 
brought in the ferjeant, who plead- 
ing ignorance, and making the 
feme p/oniifs as the drummer, was 
difcharged, after receiving a (harp 
reprimand. 

Within thefe few days, the go- 
vernment contratled with Mr. Mel- 
lilh to fupply the troops at Boiton 
with a \eiy confxderable number of 
oxen, and 14,000 fbecp^the largeft 
and fatteft that can be procured.— 
Several of the oxen, and 4000 of 
the (beep, were to be fentover im- 
mediately, alive,.and the remainder 
as foon as they could be purchafed. 
They lilcewife centra6led with Fe- 
lix Calvert apd Henry Thrale, 
ETqrs. for 5000 butts of ftrong beer 
each; Mr. Slade, for 5000 chal- 
dron of coals; Mr. Duffey, of 
Tooley-Ilrcetjforavery largequan- 
tity of potatoes ; all for the fame 
purpofe ; nay, a quantity of faggots 
have been (hipped on board feveral 
tranfports at Deptford. Happily 
there was a very large fleet of col- 
liers in the river, or the above ex- 
tenlive ccntracl might have greatly 
enhanced the price of coals, as they 
were all taken at the market price. 

^j^ The feflions at the Old 

° * Bailey ended, when two 
convidls, for returning from tranf- 
poriation ; one, for traiteroufly 
making a mold to coin (hillings ; 
ten, two of them women, for high- 
way robberies ; two women, for 
Healing fifty-one guineas anS feven 
half guineas, from Alex Hanna, a 
foreigner, at a houfe on Saltpetre 
Bank ; and one, for horfe-Ilealing, 
received fen ten ce of death ; thirty- 



eight, to be tranfported for feven 
years ; and one, for fourteen years j 
one, to be branded in the hand ; 
feven, privately whipped ; and 4^ 
were difcharged by proclamation. 

And on the z6th of Odober the 
two criminals, for returning from 
tranfportation ; the man,convifted 
of having made the mold to coin 
(hillings ; and one of the highway- 
men ; were executed at Tyburn. 

In the afternoon, a mod , 

violent (lorm of rain and 
hail, accompanied with more dread- 
ful thunder and vivid lightning 
than had ever been remembered by 
theoldefl perfon living, fell in Ox- 
ford and Salifbury, and other places 
in their neighbourhood. Several 
ftreets were overflowed; the light- 
ning was almoft one continued'flalh 
for two hours;, the fouth-weilern fir- 
mament, in particular, frequ^nUy 
appeared one vallexpanfe of fire. At 
Oxford , among other efFeds lefs re- 
markable, the lightning, entering^ 
the garret of Mr. Stevens's houfe^ 
in Holiwell-flreet, (Iript the plaiiler 
both within and without above a 
yard fquare, and like wife tore off 
the plainer from the ceilings of the 
other >rooms, leaving the timbers 
and laths uninjured ; and in Dr,. 
Boucher's garden^ the corner of the 
fame iL-eet, perforated the groynd 
about three feet deep, and eighteea 
inches wide. 

And the next morning,, about 
ten, there arofe fuch another ftorm- 
of thunder and lightning at Leeds 
in Yorkfhire ;. in which four or five 
perfons, and fome cattle, were kil- 
led by the lightning. 

Being the anniverfary of 
their Majeflies coronation, 
the fame was obferved with 
commoa demoDllraiions of 



22d. 



joy. 
Xht- 



i6o2 



CHRONICLE, 



The illuminations at the French 
ambailador's were the grandeil ever 
known on the occafion. 

, The fhip Jupiter, from 

3 * DunftaiFnage Bay, with 200 
emigrants on board, chiefly from 
Argyleihire, fet fail for North-Ca- 
rolina, declaring that the oppref- 
iions of their landlords were fuch as 
they could no longer fubmit to. 
On the other hand, we are aflured, 
that a nobleman, who has large pof- 
lellions in a part of Lancafhire bor- 
dering upon Weftmoreland, having 
been Tome time ago offered 1000 1. 
per ann. (clear of all expences) 
above what he now receives annual- 
ly for his eftatcs there, he rnildly 
rejected the propofal by a reply, 
which deferves to be recorded : 
•* My rents (faid he) are honeflly 
** paid; I wifti to fee all my te- 
*' nants profper; and i defire no 
** more." 

On opening the theatre in Drury- 
lane this evening, for the firi't time 
this feafon, it appeared more like a 
new than an old theatre, in confe- 
quence of the great alterations made 
in it during the lall fummer. The 
new front is fimple and elegant, 
and confiderably improved by the 
addition of eight grand lamps. 
The moft ufeful alterations within 
doors confill in the heightening of 
the ceiling, tsvelve feet ; the re- 
moval of all theold fide-boxes, top 
and bottom, and fubilituting others 
on a larger fcale, fupported by 
light elegant pillars; the addition 
of different paffages to the upper 
and lower boxes, and fpacious en- 
trances from Bridges-ftreet to every 
part of the houfe; with dirtdlions, 
in large letters, to each. The chief' 
ornamental improvements within 
doors confift of numberlefs decora- 
tipDs, which cannoi fail to Ilrike 



the beholder. The roof is covered 
with a circular painting, finely ex- 
ecuted, and remarkable forits well- 
fiudied fimplicity. The light airy 
pillars that fupport the u pper boxes, 
galleries, &c. are inlaid with plate- 
glafs on green and crimfon ground, 
which being finely con trailed, afford 
a happy and elegant effeft. Around 
each of thefe are fome pretty fan- 
cied open paintings, with various 
borders, which, together with the 
crimfon fpottcd lining of the boxes, 
and thelight feftoon curtainpainted 
underneath the whole, relieve them 
finely. The flage-doors, for united 
elegance and delicacy, are fuperior 
to any thing of the kind we have 
feen pr heard of in this country. 
The old chandeliers are taken 
down; thofe on the fides are re- 
placed by neat gilt branches on the 
pillars, holding two candles each ; 
in the front are four new chande- 
liers, of a more light and fafliion- 
able conftruftion: and there is no 
flit to be in the new curtain.— 
The alterations, as well within 
as without, are fuch, in fliort, 
as do great honour to the taile of 
Mr. Adam, the artill whodefigned 
them, and the fpirit of the ma- 
nagers, who have now converted an 
old barn into the moll fplendid and 
complete theatre in Europe. 

At a meeting of Middle- , 

fexjuftices, atHicks'sHall, ^^ 
it was unanimoufly agreed to ad- 
drefs his Majefty, to exprefs their 
readinefs to fupport fuch meafures 
as fhould be thought expedient to 
reduce the colonies to a proper 
fenfe of their duty. 

At a meeting of the free- .u 
holders of the county of ^ * 
Middlefex, in order to confider 
what meafures were proper to be 
adopted in the pi'efent crifis, much 
cli^mouj. 



CHRONICLE. 



ti6l 



clamour arofe ; a fet of inftruftions, 
however, was produced and read, 
10 be prefented to the county mem- 
bers ; but a proteft was made againll 
them, and very little unanimity 
wasobferved throughout the whole. 
The (heriffs differed in opinion: 
and one of them only, Alderman 
Plomer, figned all therefolutions. 

Prince Czartoryfki has not only 
granted leave for two churches to 
be built on his ellates in Poland for 
the diffidents, but has given 80,090 
Poliih florins towards the expence 
of erefting them. At the fame 
time, feveral of the cities in Poland, 
particularly Warfaw, Cracow, and 
Rawa, are taking very (evere mea- 
fures to expel the Jews; but the 
latter, by building houfes for them- 
felves near the bounds of thefe ci- 
ties, |;ive the merchants fettled in 
them juft reafon to fear, that they 
will, by their adivity and dili- 
gence, be of as much detriment to 
them there, as before within their 
walls. 

26th A detachment of 400 foot, 
and a troop of horfe, under 
Col. Luttrell, attended by Juftice 
Sweeney, were fent to Ru(h, near 
Dublin, to feize the ringleaders in 
fome late difturbanccs there ; but, 
though they fecured every avenue 
to the place, not a man was to be 
found : the women and children 
only remained, who, on the appear- 
ance of the army, uttered difmal 
Ihrieks and cries, though the Co- 
lonel and Juftice ufed every means 
to pacify them. At laft, however, 
feeing four men enter into a houfe, 
the U)ldier5 furrounded it, and 
followed them ; but, notwithftand- 
ing the moft diligent fearch, no 
perfon was to be found. It was 
then fufpefted they had efcaped 
through fome fubterraneous paf- 
fage, the entrance of which was 

Vol. XVIIIt 1775. 



in vain fought for. Juft aftei* 
this they were again confirmed 
in their opinion of fome fubterra- 
neous hiding-place being near 
them, by the following circum- 
(lance: a trooper's horfe happening 
to neigh, a moment after they heard 
a horfe under ground neigh feveral 
times. Upon this they renewed 
their fearch, but could not find the 
aperture which led to the place 
where this beaft was concealed.* 
They found, however, a cavern fo 
capacious, that 100 foldiers entered 
it. In this, and buried in the fand,^ 
were found eighteen bags, and 
three calks of tea ; two barrels of 
gunpowder; one box of mufquet- 
cartridges, and one of bullets. The 
wherries and cutters were then 
fearched, and a number of carriage 
and fwivel-guns taken out of them ; 
as alfo a great quantity of mulkets, 
carbines, and cutlaiTes. 

There was a hearing of , 
two hours before the Lord- ' * 
Mayor, relative to a paragraph 
lately inferted in a morning paper, 
which it was thought refteded oa 
his Lordfhip as a magiftrate. Two 
gentlemen, who were fuppofed to 
be the authors of it, appeared, and 
brought with them Counfellor Lu- 
cas, who attempted to juftify his 
clients. It appeared on the hear- 
ing, that the two gentlemen a few 
days ago hired a pair of oars to go 
to Woolwich, and agreed to give 
them feven ihillings ; they were 
not to ftay a long time there : how- 
ever, the gentlemen dined, and af- 
terwards ordered the watermen to 
take them further down the river, 
and put them on board a fliip, 
where they waited ; they then di- 
re<fted them to take in fome goods, 
and kept them late: when they re- 
turned home, the watermen de- 
manded 14s. which the gentlemen 
[L] paid. 



C H R O N I. Ct L E, 



162] 

paid, but fummoned them to Wa- 
terman's hall, for taking mdre than 
they agreed for; but, as the gen- 
tlemen exceeded the bounds of their 
agreement, they could not obtain 
any redrefs there. Upon this they 
took the watermen before the Lord 
Mayor, who was of opinion that 
the affair did not lie before a ma- 
giftrate; but that, if they were in- 
jured, they fhould feek their re- 
medy at common law, and there- 
upon difmiffed the watermen. No- 
thing material was faid in fcpport 
of the infinuation againft the Lord 
Mayor; and his Lordfnip told the 
gentlemen, that, if they had not 
tefleifled on his charadler as a ma- 
"^iftrate, he Ihould have taken no 
Tioticeofit; but, if they thought 
Tie had not done them juftice, he 
Vas willing to anfwer them in any 
•court of law they thought proper. 
One Thomas Bell was ch;frged 
before the magiftrates, in Bow- 
Jftj?e-et, with an intended forgery on 
the bank of Scotland. Hefirftap- 
' "plied to a paper-maker to make 
'liim a quantity of paper with the 
^K or ds Bank of Scotland wrought in 
It, and afterwards to an engraver 
'^o get a plate exaftly imitating that'' 
'of a Scots bank note, which he pro- 
duced.' This done, he produced 
^the paper to havey 06 copies wrought 
6ff/ but Mr. Mackey, the engraver, 
having previouily acquainted Mr, 
Kinloeh, agent for the bank of 

■ Scotland, with every Hep taken, 

■ Bell was apprehended and commit- 
ted to prifon in order to take his 
trial. Though but a young man, 
he was fome time ago imprifoncd 
for a fimilar offence, but releafed 
for want of fufficient evidence. 

Was held a fpecial court of the 

-Eaft-India Company, when Mr. 

Roberts, who filled the chair, ac- 



quainted the court, that advices of 
confequcnce had been rccriyed from 
Bengal; that an unfortuniUe dif- 
agreement had taken plr.cc b'i;tween 
the members of the fupreme coun- 
cil; but that it would be neceffary 
to arrange thf* papers relative there- 
to, before a clear Hate of the cafe 
could be lard before the prrprietors. 
He faid further, that great difliirb- 
ances prevailed among the Moratto 
powers; that Hyder Ally had taken 
advantage of rhofe troubles, and 
acquired a confiderable increafe of 
power and territory. Healforead 
letters from Bombay, in which an 
'account was given of the taking of 
the iflands of Salfct and Ceringa ; 
and that, in ftorming the fort of 
Tanna, which defended the former. 
Commodore Watfon was mortally 
wounded. 

In confequence of an information 
given of a cohfiderable quantity of 
contraband goods being lodged at 
a houfe in Buckridge-ftreet, St. 
•Giles's, Mr. Phillips, a Cuftom- 
houfe officer, attended by a num- 
• ber of peace-officers, and a file of 
mufquetcers from the Savoy, went 
in fearch of the goods ; and, in 
one room where they got entrance, 
they found a bag and eight pounds 
of tea, which were lodged in the 
Cuftom-houfe. Immediately after 
the officers and guards had left the 
houfe, and got into the ftreet, they 
were fired at feveral times from the 
mob, and pelted with brick-bats, 
&c. but no perfon received the leaft 
hurt from this outrage but Mr. 
Phillips, who had his nofe cut by a 
pieceofglafs bottle. Not content 
with this, the mob followed them ; 
and, after pelting, fired at them; 
on which the guard returned, and 
difcharged their mufquets among 
the mob, when fome, it is faid, 

were 



CHRONICLE. 



Ei6j 



were killed and wounded. One of 
the ringleaders of the gang was ta- 
ken before the,magiftrates of Litch- 
field-ftreet, who committed him to 
Newgate. 

Notwithftandingagreatdrought, 
occafioned by the fummer heats in 
Sweden, it has been obferved, that 
on the top of the higheft mountain 
in Scania, called KinaKulle, they 
have had a continued fucceflive 
abundanceof flowers^ofthegreateft 
luftre, whilftthofeat the bottom of 
the fame mountain, and in the fur- 
rounding meadows, were totally 
burnt up. Thefe heats were like- 
wife attended with very great ftorms 
in almoft every province of the fame 
kingdom ; and, what was much 
v/orfe, occafioned fevers which pre- 
vailed for fome weeks, and have 
Carried oif vaft numbers in the ca- 
pital, and many other parts.. 

g 1 About eleven o'clock at 

night, a fire broke out at a 
turner's in Ro/Tel-ftreet, Covent- 
Garden, which burnt with great 
fury, and confumed feven houfes, 
and damaged feveral others, before 
it was extinguiihed. Two perfons 
were fuppofed to have perifhed in 
the flames. 

His majefty has been pleafed to 
recommend to the care of the re- 
gency of Hanover the fucceffion 
of the late Queen Matilda of Den- 
mark, for the advantage of her 
children. In confequenceof which, 
the regency have charged the Baron 
de Seckendorff with theadminiftra- 
tion of that fucceffion. 
2oth. At a meeting of the li- 

^ very of London in common 
hall, the Lord Mayor informed 
them, that he had received a letter 
from the congrefs at Philadelphia. 
Mr. Stavely moved, that the letter. 
Ihould be entered on the records 
of the city, and the motion was 



received with only about a dozen 
diflenting hands. Mr. Stavely itext 
moved, and his motion was carried 
unanimoufly , that it fnould be fign- 
ed by the Lord Mayor, Sheriffs, and 
Town Clerk, and printed in the 
public papers. [We fhall give the 
letter in our Appendix.] 

Some weeks ago, a mafon and 
his labourer, having been employed 
in pulling down Fenwick Tower, 
near Stamfordham, inNorthumber- 
land, found, between the floor and 
the arch, a confiderable number of 
gold pieces, of the coin of Ed- 
ward IL and III. But quarelling 
over their cups, about dividing the 
booty, it came to the ears of Sir 
Walter Black'et, who, as lawful, 
owner, demanded the fame, and 
received from one 80, and from the 
other 35 pieces. They are about 
the fize of a thirty-fix fliilling piece, 
and as frelh as if juft come out of 
the mint. 

Chrillopher Nicholfoti, of Bal-. 
rath, in Ireland, who died fome 
time jfince, has bequeathed 850I. to 
Sir Edward Newnham for his pub- 
lic conduft; 350I. to John Wilkes, 
Efq; and lool. and his hounds to 
Meath hofpital. 

Died, the ijthinftant, Captaia 
Thomas Forbes, of the royal navy^ 
aged 102, at Harwich. 

OCTOBER. 

Their Royal Highnefl*es « 
the Princes Erneft and Au- 
guftus, with the Princefs Elizabeth, 
were inoculated for the fm a 11 -pox. 

At Haddington, in Scot- . 
land, a heavy rain came on, 
which fwelled the river Tync fo 
much, that it overflowed the eaft 
end of the town, and threatened the 
deftruflion of the whole. It rofe 
eight feet perpendicular. The 

[L] 2 people 



i64 



C H R O N I OLE. 



people were In the utmoft confterna« 
tion, fome wading up to the arm- 
pits toefcape, and others climbing 
up the roofs of the houTes. The 
cries of women and children were 
dreadful ; houfes, bridges, mills, 
and furniture of all forts, werefeen 
floating together, and much cattle 
were carried off by ir. 

Notice was given from the Ex- 
cife-office, that there were now in 
circulation counterfeit guineas,dat- 
td 1 775, which nearly refemblethore 
iflued from the Mint, and bear 
their full weight, diftinguifhable 
only by a fainter iiupreffion of the 
die on the arms fide, a pale reddifh 
cobur, and by a more acute tinkling 
found in founding them. 

^ The following edift was 

^^' figned bytheKingof Den- 
3aark: 

WE, ChriHian the Seventh, by 
the grace of God, King of Den- 
mark and Norway, &c. Whereas 
his Majelly the King of Great- 
Britain has defired us to forbid our 
iubjedts giving any manner of af- 
flllance to the inhabitants of Ncrth- 
iimerica, who are engjiged in open 
war againft England, and we being 
difpofed to comply with this friend- 
ly requifition ; therefore wc will 
and enjoin, by thefe prefents, all 
our fubjeds, whether traders or 
others, not toprefume,iillourpl€a- 
fure ^e farther made known, to 
fend, for the purpofe of traffic, ei- 
ther for their own accounts, or that 
of others, unto our iflands and co- 
lonies in America, on bo^rd (hips 
carrying our flag, or provided with 
our fea-paflports, anyammunicion, 
or other commodities whatever ferv- 
ing for warlike armaments, and 
conftdered as articles of trade ; or 
to take part in any fuch contraband 
trade, which is difagreeable to us. 



and liable to many misfortunes' t* 
themfelves: the whole on pain of 
arbitrary and (evere puniihment for 
rhofe who fhall prefume to infringe 
this our gracious ordinance. 

To which all and fmgular our 
cullom-houfe officers, in our king- 
doms of Denmark and Norway, 
and in oiir principalities, as alfo 
our governor-general, regency, and 
council, in our Weft-India iflands, 
are refpeftfully to conform them- 
MveSf and by fo doing will be in- 
de;mnified for all damages. 

Given under our royal hand and 
feaU in our royal caftle of Fredenf- 
burgh, the 4th of Oflober, 1775. 

CHklSTIAN R. 

(Counterfigned) 

Molcke. Proetorius, 
Erkhfen. Trant. 

This morning, about one ^, 
o*clock, a lire broke out at 
a block-maker's, nearRotherhithe 
church, which confumed that, a 
fail-maker's adjoining, and feven- 
teen other houfes, befides worfc- 
fliops, warehoufes, large quanti- 
ties of timber belonging to boat- 
builders, &c. The flames fpread 
io faft, by large quantities of com- 
bullibles being in the warehoufes, 
that mofl: of the inhabitants loft all 
their goods, &c. and with difficulty 
faved their lives. It burnt down 
to the water- fide, and feveral vef- 
fels were unmoored to fave them, 
from the flames. At the iirft break- 
ing out no water could be got for 
near an hour. Two engines were 
continually kept playing on the 
church, as it was in danger of tak- 
ing fire, and feveral of the ftones in 
thefteeple cracked by the exceflive 
heat. 

Theparliamentoflreland j^ 

met. — [We ftiall give the 
fpceches, addrefics, and anfvyers,oa 

this 



CHRONICLE, 



b^s 



tbis occa-don, in our article of State 
Papers.] 

, Joannes Baptifta Pele, a 

native of Genoa, was exe- 
cuted at Liibon, for having plotted 
againft the life of the Marquis of 
Pombal. Hewas drawn in quarters 
byfour horfe6,afcerhavinghis hands 
chopt off; and afierwards burnt to 
a(he5. The villain had been there 
fome time under pretence of learn- 
ing to paint, and had taken the 
upper part of a houfe, where he was 
every night vifiteJ by three men 
with long cloaks, douched hats, 
and armed. Their delign was to 
' put a box full of gunpowder under 
the feat of the marquis's ftate- 
coach, in which he was to appear 
in public at the putting up of the 
(latue of his Majefty. They had 
contrived itfo as to contain a match, 
which would burn fome time be- 
fore it fet fire to the powder. All 
the preparations for ihls villainous 
plot, together with feveral letters 
and papers, and the models of the 
Jceys of the coach-houfe, belonging 
to the Marquis, were found in the 
rooms of the mifcreant, who was 
iirft detefted by a phyfician, who 
lived in the under part of the houfe, 
and had found a note on the ftairs, 
which firit raifed his fufpicion, 
Pele was thereupon immediately 
taken up; but, though the above- 
meniioned proofs were brought 
againit him, he perfifted to the lafl 
in his innocence. Ic is even re- 
ported, that, though he fuffered the 
ordinary and extraordinary torture, 
from the beginning of his tortures 
to his dying moment, not fo much 
as a figh efcaped from him. 

The King of Pruflia has given 
proofs to the Poles that they have 
loll nothing by changing mafters, 
flis Majcity's firft adl ot benevo- 



lence to his new fubjefls was a gift 
of 1,500,000 crowns, to build 200 
villages in that part of Poland 
which fell to his fhare. 

The deplorable fituation of the 
city of Dantzick feems to intereft 
the republic of Poland very fe- 
rioufly ; in confequence of which 
complaints have been made to the 
mini Hers refiding at Warfaw from 
Vienna, Peterlburg, London, and 
Copenhagen, of the behaviour of 
the court of Berlin to that place, 
with a rcqueft to them to engage 
their refpedive courts to employ 
their good offices with his Pruffiati 
Majerty, on the prefent melancholy 
occafion. 

By a memoir lately publifhcd at 
Bruflels, concerning the commerce 
eftablifhed fome time fince, be- 
tween Triefte and Ollend, it ap- 
pears that the funds delHned to carry- 
it on amount to 3,400,000 florins 
iffuing from the efFeds of the for- 
mer fociety, and 500,000 florins 
in difl^erent manufadure?. The re- 
maining million and half is to be 
divided into adions, of which the 
Baron Fries is faid to have already 
taken 500,000 florins. 

In theevening, oneofthe , 

moll dreadful Itorms arofe ^ * 
that has ever been remembered, 
accompanied with a great fall of 
rain, which raifed the rivers in 
many -places to an unufual height. 
This llorm continued at Leeds, in 
Yorklhire, for thirty-fix hours, 
without the leaft intermiifion, and 
becaraein the higheft degree alarm- 
ing to the inhabitants, hundreds of 
whom durft not lie down in their 
beds the firft night, and many dc- 
ferted iheir honfes, expecting no- 
thing lefs than to find them in ruins 
the next morning. The faccceding 
night proved equallv ftlarming ; 



i66] 



C H R O Ifl 1 C L E. 



the prodigious quantity of rain 
which fell, being driven down the 
jiver, exhibited the moll (hocking 
fcenc that can be imagined, the 
whole neighbourhood being under 
water : large quantities of grain 
depofited in warchouf^s were walhed 
away ; cloth was in fome places 
torn from off the tenters ; in others, 
the cloth and tenters were carried 
*»way together ; feveral dwelling- 
houfesanddyehoufesfufferedgreat- 
Jy, the dyeing-vats being torn out 
of their places; the pavement in 
the llreet broken up; walls thrown 
down ; cows, horfes, (heep, &c. 
forced into the river, and drowned : 
but (hocking as the foregoing ac^ 
•counts are, thofe from the neigh- 
bouring parts were a great deal 
more fo; Swillington, Calverley, 
-and- Oiley bridges, thrown down; 
large Hacks of grain, a large quan- 
tity of coals at Wakefield, and looo 
cart-loads of Flockton coals, fwept 
away from near Ferrybridge ; the 
driver and feven horfes belonging 
to Cave's London waggon, loit 
Dear Wakefield bridge, &c. Im^ 
menfe damage was done upon the 
fea-coafts, where the gale lafted 
about forty-eight hours. At Liver- 
pool, houfes were unroofed, chim- 
nies thrown down, fmall craft funk 
in the river, and no lefs than fif,- 
teen (hips driven on fhore, or bulged 
againft the rocks, and moft of their 
crews perilhed. Two packets from 
Parkgate to Dublin, one the Non- 
pareil, Davis; the other, the Tre- 
vor, Tottie, foundered; and every 
foul on board periihed. Among 
the pafTengers were Major Caul- 
iield, (brother to the Earlof Charle- 
mont) his lady, (the only child of 
the Right Hon. the Lord Eyre) and 
family, and feveral other refpeft- 
able perfons. What rendered the 



fate of moft of thofe who perlfhed 
on board one of thefe packets ftill 
more lamentable was, the Captain's 
being obliged, in a manner, to put 
to fea againft his own opinion, by 
oneof the paffengers who happened 
to be in a greater hurry to get to 
Dublin than the reft. — At Holy- 
head, the deftruftion was equal ; 
no lefs than five (hips were wrecked 
within a few miles of the harbour ; 
and a packet-boat, bound to it from 
Dublin, foundered at fea, with 36 
paflTcngers on board, feveral of 
them young gentlemen^ the hopes 
of their families, who were coming 
to England toftudy the law.— .An- 
other packet boat, the Clement, 
Capt. Taylor, bound from Dublin 
to Holyhead, was at fea all the time 
the ftorm continued; but though 
Capt. Taylor had many paffengers, 
carriages, and horfes on board ; and 
perceived many vefTels foundering, 
others driving with the wind and 
tide without a creature on board, 
yet, with God's alTiftance, the 
goodnefs of his vefTcl, the know- 
ledge of himfelf and crew, he land- 
ed all his paffengers at Holyhead 
the morning the ftorm ceafed, after 
having been toffed to and fro for 
eight-and-forty hours. — The ac- 
counts from the North of Scotland 
were equally deplorable; pieces of 
wreck, and dead bodies, being hour- 
ly feen floating on the waves. 

Thefortof Chamblee, in ^ 
Canada, furrenclered, by ca- 
pitulation, to a party of Americans, 
commanded by Major Browne. 

A melancholy accident happened 
in the family of Mr. Gardner, St. 
Bennet's Hill, Doctor's Commons ; 
a cat that was ftiut up in a room 
where three of his children flept, 
went mad, flew into the bed, and 
bit them all. Mr. Gardner, on 
hearing 



CHRONICLE, 



[.67 



hearing their cries, went up to the 
joom, on entering which, the cat 
flew at him likewife, and bit him 
in the leg. A man going by, 
and hearing the cries of the child- 
ren, rapped at the door, and en- 
quired the caufe; and being in- 
formed, and admitted into the 
houfe, he attempted to kill the cat, 
when {he flew at him likewife, and 
faftened on his throat. They all 
went to the fait water to be dipped. 

n The felfions ended at the 

Old Bailey, when eleven 
prifoners, together with a woman, 
(convifted in September fefhons) 
received fentence of death ; twenty- 
one, to be tranfported for feven 
years; nine, branded in the hand, 
fix of whom are alfo to be impri- 
Ibned one year in Newgate; three, 
privately v/hipped ; and fixteen, 
difcharged by proclamation. 

Among the capital convi<5l? was 
one for the wilful murder of his 
brother-in-law, who was executed 
on the 23d, While in the Prefs- 
yard, he confeffed the murder; 
faid, it was a family quarrel, and his 
being very paflionate, that was the 
occafion of his committing the rafli 
aftion. He was about 30 years of 
age, and behaved at the place of 
execution with that decency which 
became his unhappy fltuation. Af- 
ter execution, he was carried to 
Surgeon's Hall for difieftion. And, 
on the zoth of December following, 
feven out of the remaining ten, 
among them awoman for burglary, 
were executed at Tyburn. 
^1 Stephen Sayrc, Efq; hav- 

^ ' ing been accufed, by an 
information upon oath, of high 
treafon, was this day taken into 
cuftody, and after having been ex- 
amined by the Earl of Rochford, 
one of his Majefty's principal Se- 
cretaries of State, was committed 



prifoner to the Tower. London Ga» 
zcl/e. [We fhall give an account 
of the further proceedings in this 
affair in the Appendix.] 

The poems forSeaton's prize, at 
Cambridge, for the years 1774 and 
1775, both of which had for their 
fubjedt Duelling, were adjudged to 
Charles Peter Laynard, M. A. of 
St. John's college, and Samuel 
Hayes, M. A. of Trinity college. 

His Majefty went inllate ,, 
to the Houfe of Peers, at- 
tended by the Duke of Ancalter 
and Lord Bruce, and opened the 
feflion of Parliament with a mod 
gracious fpeech from the throne; 
which, along with the addrefles of 
both Houfes on occafion of this 
fpeech, and the anfwers to thefe 
addrefl'es, we ihall give with the 
other fta'te- papers. 

The Sheriffs of London , 
put a petition from the *7 • 
Common Council to the Houfe of 
Lords into the hands of a noble 
Peer, who prefented the fame to 
that Houfe; and then prefented, 
themfelves, the fame petition, with, 
only the variation of addrefs, at the 
bar of the Houfe of Commons. 

Was launched, at Woolwich, his 
Msjelly's fliip the Bedford, of 74 
guns, fuppofed to be the highefl 
feafoned (hip in the navy. She is 
the third (hip whofe materials have 
been hardened and feafoned under 
the infpci^ion of Humphry jack- 
fon, Kfq; F. R. S. by order of the 
Lords of the Admiralty. The du- 
rability of fliips of war depends 
principally upon the high-dried 
lUte of the timber ; by Mr. Jack- 
fon*s invention it becomes perfectly 
feafoned in half the ufual time. 
This is efl^efled by introducing cer- 
tain matters into the pores of the 
wood, which fpeedily dry up the 
internal fap-juices, and which can- 

[L] 4 not 



i68] 



CHRONICLE. 



not be re-diffolved by any water : 
confequently the fl)ip remains per- 
fedly dry in moift, foggy weather, 
which is the rcverfe when falts are 
ufed to preferve wood, which al- 
ways re-diflblve, corrode the iron, 
Tender the timber damp, and pre- 
judicial to the health of feamen. 
Ships of war in general laftonly jz 
or, 1^ years : it is fuppofed the du- 
jabilitywillbeincreafed to 20 years 
"by this difcovery ; but this remains 
to be confirmed by experience. It 
is undeniable, however, that thro' 
the fuperior dry Hate of this pre- 
pared timber, the Intrepid of 64 
guns, launched five years ago, and 
lately returned from theEaft-Indies, 
where fhe was fent purpofely on 
trialj, has been examined and re- 
ported to the Navy-board as per- 
ieflly found, although fhe proved 
leaky by running a-ground on her 
homeward paflage. And it is no 
lefs certain, that the Intrepid and 
AAeonfrigates atlaunchingproved 
more buoyant than two other ihips 
exaftly under fimilarcircumftances, 
the former drawing one inch and 
half, and the latter one inch lefs 
water, by which acquifition they 
were enabled to ftow thirty-five tons 
more provifions, &c. than any othef 
ihips of fimilar fcantling; a cir- 
cumftance of no fmall importance, 
where h long voyage produces a 
fcaniv allowance to the mariner. 
A great number of large vats, and 
other brewing utenfils, which haye 
t>ecn prepared after the fame man- 
ijep many years ago, by ftill conti- 
nuing in a perfectly found (late, af- 
fbrdihelUongeli prefumptiveproofs 
of the future utiiity of the above 
invention in naval architedlure. 

In confcQuence of a refolution 
pafied the council, orders were late- 
ly given, that no pcr'on whatever 
ihall be admitted into any of the 



dock-yards, public magazines, or 
fortrelTes of this kingdom, without 
previous leave obtained from the 
governors. 

The vintage this year about 
Bonn, and in other parts of Ger- 
many, has been fo exceedingly fa- 
vourable, both in quantity and 
quality, that on the Mofelle they 
were obliged to order that no cyder 
fhould be made, there not being a 
fufficient quantity of caiks for the 
wine alone, 

The fields of Martlnico have 
been of late infefled with ants to 
fuch a degree, that the deputies 
from the different parilhes of that 
iiland have unanimoufiy refolved 
to aifure 50,000!. of their currency 
to the perfon, of any nation, who 
fhall difcover a method effedtually 
to deftroy them. 

Some years ago, the fhip-wrights 
in the king*s yards were looked 
upon as a very happy fet of me- 
chanics. They had two Ihillings 
and one penny a day befides their 
chips, which might be worth four 
pence a-day more. Winter and 
fummer, they were in conftant pay 
and employment; and in the fum- 
mer months they might work ex- 
tra, which, at one tide, was {even 
pence half-penny a-day; they 
might befides remain in the yards 
as long as they lived; and ac- 
cordingly, many were known to 
remain there after they had been 
pall their labour. At length, 
however, mofl of them grew dif- 
contented with iheir condition, or 
at lead affeded to be fo ; and, 
having petitioned their fuperiors 
for redrcfs, it was thought proper 
to pay them, for the future, ac- 
cording to their earnings, as prac- 
tifed in the merchants yards, jull 
withholding the chJp5,theallowancc 
of which was thought to be attend- 
ed 



CHRONICLE. 



[169 



cd with a much greater lofs to the 
public, than with advantage to 
thofe who enjoyed it. But this re- 
gulation putting it, fo at lead their 
advocates afTerted, in the power of 
any petty officer to deprive them 
of the hard-earned reward of their 
labour, inttead of remonilrating, 
as there might be occafion, againll 
any fuch oppreffion, they again 
petitioned for what they called re- 
drefs ; and, on their not obtaining 
it, numbers of them quitted the 
yards in May, June, and July laft ; 
at a time the government Itood molt 
in need of their labour. Nay fome 
at Woolwich, adding violence to 
complaints, made it neceflary to 
call the military power, as the 
readieil part of the pofle comitates, 
to the aflillance of the civil, to pre- 
vent mifchief; whilll others elk- 
where contented themfelves with 
abetiing the petty outrages by wo- 
men and boys belonging to them, 
as too mean objects to have any 
thing to fear from the feverer dif- 
cipline of the law; and, in the 
mean time, all the five yards peti- 
tioned his Majefty himfelf by their 
deputies for redrefs, fetting forth, 
jt has been affirmed, that they were 
forry to acquaint him, that ** their 
earned foliciiations to the boards 
having proved ineffectual, they 
were under the neceffity of quitting 
for ever his maje(ly*s yards, unlels 
rcdreffed in ail their grievances j" 
though it has been affirmed, and 
not contradi<^ed that we can recol- 
Jett, that, under the prefent regu- 
lation, they had earned from 3s, 8d. 
to 45. 5d. a-day : a circumftance 
his majelly cannot be fuppofed to 
have been ignorant of. Be that 
as it will, the petitioners not only 
had no anfwer from his majelly, but 
the lords of the admiralty pubiilhed 



an advertifement fetting forth their 
defetlion as tending at lead, if not 
aftually intended, to diilrefs go- 
vernment in a critical conjuncture, 
and offering great encouragement 
to other fhipwrights to come in and 
fupply their places ; their lordfhips 
even ordered the commiffioners at 
the feveral yards to employ a cer- 
tain number of houfe-carpenters ; 
and it was not long before this 
fpirited behaviour had the defired 
effed. Theabfentees, finding their 
places likely to be foon filled oa 
the one hand, and their credit for 
neccffaries, vvhilft unemployed, fo 
much the more likely to fail on the 
other, even independent of the 
odium which the charge of an un- 
manly and ungenerous defertion 
had call upon their caufe, began to 
think better of the matter ; accord- 
ingly they applied by degrees for the 
favour of being re-admitted into the 
king's fervice, and reltored to their 
former privileges in it; and were by 
degrees re-admitted and reftcreJ, 
afierfomelittle menaces and delays, 
which were probably thought re- 
quifue to make them, for their own 
good and the public's, more fenfi- 
ble of their miltake. By the be- 
ginning of this month, they were 
all entered again, even the old ones, 
in whom a longer experience of the 
government's goodnefs feemcd to 
render the abufe of it more crimi- 
nal ; and we have great reafon to 
believe, that both young and old 
have ever fince behaved with the 
greatell diligence and alacrity* 

NOVEMBER. 

The town of St. George, 
the capital of the ifland of 
Grenada, was almoit entirely de- 
Itroyed by fire, 

St. John's 



fd. 



i7o] 



CHRONICLE, 



2d 



St. John's Fort, in Canada, 
furreadered, hy capitulation, 
to the Americans. 

A great powder magazine, half 
a league from Carthagena, in Old 
Spain, containing between three 
and four thoufand quintal?, was 
blown up by lightning, together 
with the gdiird of feven foldiers. 
Several houfes in the country were 
fliakv-n by the cxplcfion, and al- 
moft all the windows broken in 
Carthagena. 

^ , A caufe was tried before 
judge Gould and a Ipecial 
jury of merchants,: the adion was 
brought for the value of a bale of 
muflins fold to the defendants, 
which they, on examination of the 
goods, and finding that they had 
been exported to obtain the draw- 
backs, and afterwards fmuggled 
back, to the great injury of the 
fair trader, and the defrauding of 
the revenue, immediately carried 
to his majefty*s warehoufe ; where. 



ca, from which Supply they are 
now cut off by reafon of the pre- 
fent interruption of commerce with 
America; and that the quantity of 
wheat and meal flour, bread and 
bifcuit, now allowed by law to be 
exported to the faid colonies from 
the port of London, will be greatly 
infufficient for the fuftenance and 
ufe of the inhabitants of the fugar 
colonies during the continu^ition of 
fuch interruption ; and therefore 
praying the houfc will take the 
premifes into ccnfideration ; and 
grant fuch relief as to them ftiall 
feem meet. 

Some days ago thofe mifcreants 
the white-boys, in a vifit they p-iid 
to Johnllown, in thecounty of Kil- 
dare, Ireland, befides breaking the 
windows of the inhabitants, and 
other fimilar outrages, buried a 
priell to the neck, firll incloiing 
him naked in brambles and thorns ; 
and threatened the like ufage to 
every prieft they could lay hands 



on informing the commifiioners of on, on account of their endeavour- 



the cuiloms of the circumftance 
the muflin was feized and con- 
demned. A verdidl was given for 
the defendants without going out of 
court. The judge, and the coun- 
fel on both fides, agreed that it was 
cftabliftied by many precedents, 
* that no perfon, felling fmuggled 
goods, can ever bring an adion le- 
gally to recover of the purchafers, 
the property of fuch goods being, 
at all times, his majefty's.- 

A petition of the merchants 
cf London, trading to the Weft- 
Indies, was prefentecj to the Houfe 
of Commons, fetting forth, that 
the inhabitants of thofe iflands 
have hitherto been fupplied with 
very large quantities of flour, 
bread, rice, ai^d Indian corn, 
from th? continent of Ameri- 



ing to diffuade them from their 
wicked praclices. 

The feffions of gaol-deli- ^ , 
very, for the High Court of 
Admiralty, was held at the Old- 
Bailey, when two prifoners were 
tried, viz. Thomas Sawyer, on two 
indidlments, for felonioufly aiding, 
afTilHng, and comforting Samuel 
Brown in the wilful murder of 
William Barbut, mafter of the (hip 
or veffel Hannah, and of Samuel 
Henley, mate of the faid vefTel, on 
the high feas, within the Juriidic- 
tion of the Admiralty of England, 
viz. in the latitude of 30 dcg. 
north, on the 23d of June, 1774, 
and who were thrown over-board 
by Brown, Sawyer being prcfenr. 
On thefe indiftments Sawyer was 
acquitted. He was alfo indicted 

for 



CHRONICLE 



for felonioufly making a revolt on 
board the faid (hip, turning pirate, 
and running away with the lame, 
the cargo of which he and Brown 
/bid to two merchants, who came 
on board near Trinidada, and de- 
livered at Curaflbw; after which, 
returning to the Granades to re- 
ceive the money, he was, on the 
information of one of the mariners, 
apprehended and brought to Eng- 
land. On this indidment he was 
capitally convifted, and received 
fentence of death ; and was foon 
after executed at Execution Dock. 
Brown efcaped out of the Marftial- 
fea. A mate of the York India- 
man was tried for the wilful mur- 
der of Robert Patterfon, on the 
high feas, about three leagues from 
Bencoolen, and acquitted. 

, His Grace the Duke of 

^ ' Grafton refigned the feals. 
Mr. Wilkes, on going out of of- 
fice this day at Guildhall, made a 
long fpeech to the livery, full of 
the fevered reflciftions on two great 
afTemblies and the minillry. He 
charged the firft with endeavouring 
to ellablifh defpotifm, in New- 
England ; and popery, in Canada : 
the fecond, with an attack upon 
every commoner of England, and 
the efTential privileges of London, 
in the perfon of a citizenof London, 
Mr. Randal, whom they ordered, 
unheard, into cullody, without any 
appeal to a jury, only for difre- 
fpe(Slful words againft a member of 
their houfe; and the miniftry, with 
adviiing the King not to receive 
their petitions and rcmonllrnnces 
on the throne. Then, after expa- 
tiating on his oppofition to all thele 
roeafures, and his diligence in the 
difcharge of all his other duties, as 
Lord Mayor of the city of London, 
he renounced the ufual exemption 



[.71 

from public bufincfs during the en- 
fuing twelvemonth, 

Bt-ing Sunday, about fe- , 

ven in the afternoon, three 
villains got into the houfe of a ba- 
ker in Wincheller-ftreet, by means 
of a pick-lock key ; but the houfe 
having been attempted for feveral 
Sundays pall, nearly about the fame 
hour, a proper guard was kept; 
and the robbers hardly entered, 
when the foremoft of them received 
a (hot in the head, which killed 
him on the fpot; upon which the 
other two immediately made off, 
though it is thought one of them 
was wounded by the fame ihot 
which killed his accomplice. A 
pair of piilols, four guineas, and 
three half guineas, were found in 
the pockets of him that was killed ; 
who proved to be one Armftrong, 
formerly employed in the Ealt- 
India warehoufes, but who had Neen 
tranfported fome time ago for a 
theft. The fellows had got a 
moGrning-coach in waiting to car- 
ry off the effeds. 

The town of Montreal, in Cana- 
da, furrendered, by capitulation, 
to the Americans under General 
Montgomery'. 

General GugQ arrived in , 

town from Boiton. ^ • 

The lottery began drawing at 
Guildhall. 

A moft dreadful ftorm . 

arofe on the eailern coalls ^ * 
of Great-BriLain, and the oppofite 
coads of the continent. The fol- 
lowing being the fulleft, as well as 
mod authentic account, of the me- 
lancholy efFeds of this dorm on the 
Dutch coad, where it did mod mif- 
chief, as opponng tiie difcharge of 
their great rivers into the (ca, is 
taken from the London Gazette of 
the 28th indanc. 



lya] 



CHRONICLE. 



Hague t Ncv. 21. The efFeft? of 
the late ftorm of the r4tli inltant 
appear, by accounts from all parts 
of this province, to have been 
much more dreadful than was at 
firft apprehended. Commerce has 
faffered greatly by the many vefTels 
loft on our coafts, near the Texel ; 
in the Zuyder fea ; at the mouth 
of the Maefe ; and more particu- 
larly on the Tea coall of Holland, 
which is in many places covered 
with wreck-sand merchandiz;'. The 
violence of the north-well wind 
(which blew on the 14th the whole 
day) had raifed the tide in the 
morning to a very uncommon 
height; and the waters on the ebb 
being prevented, by the conti- 
nuance of the ftorm, from return- 
ing, in the evening were increafed 
to fuch a degree, as to occafion in- 
undations in many parts of North 
an<f South Holland, and even in 
the Province of Utrecht. Among 
the towns partly or entirely over- 
flowed, are thofe of Amfterdam, 
Munikendam, Edam, Horn, Dort, 
Rotterdam, Beverwyk^Delfshaven, 
and Maafsluys, All the diftrids in 
theneighbourhood of Heufden were 
under water, as alfo the country 
bordering on the river Y, between 
Haarlem and Amfterdam, and on 
the oppofite (hore of that river in 
North Holland, and the country 
lying at the mouth of the Maefe 
near Rotterdam, particularly the 
itiands of Blackenbourg andRoo- 
fenbcurg. The force of the wind 
and waves was fo great, that a (hip 
at Amfterdam, bound toPeteriburg, 
was carried over two dykes be- 
tween Muiclen and Amersfort, and 
carried to the ditlance of 200 yards 
on the land. The dykes are da- 
maged in many places by this tem- 
pcft; but, wherever there appeared 



any breaches, the inhabitants, by 
their great diligence and activity, 
immediately repaired them, and 
by that means prevented the ruin 
of the country. But, notwith- 
llanding their vigilance, the waters 
rofe above the level of the dykes, 
and overflowed the country, carry- 
ing away, with the torrent, houfes 
cattle, furniture, &c. and fome per- 
fons have perifhed. The fifliing- 
towns have alfo fuffered greatly by 
the lofs of their boats. By the 
moil exa6t enquiries it has been 
found, that the rife of the waters 
was, at this time, eight inches 
higher than in the year 1682, and 
two inches higher than they were 
in the year 17 17. Workmen are 
employed in repairing the da- 
mages ; and the communication 
between Haarlem and- Amfterdam, 
which had been interrupted, is 
new opened. [So far the JUondon 
Gazette.] 

During this dorm, the Cran- 
brook, of London, burthen 500 
ton5, Charles Suttie, mafter, laden 
with cloth, bales,, and fundry other 
merchandize, bound for Jamaica, 
having been wrecked about eight 
o*clock in the forenoon of the 14th, 
on the Goodwin Sands oiF Deal, 
Mr. Suttie with four others betook 
themfelves to the pinnace, whilft the 
reft of the crew and the paflengers 
got into the long boat; which laft 
was, between three and four in the 
afternoon of the fame day, driven 
afhore on the coaft of Sangatte, off 
Fort Lapin, near Calais, having 
on board thirty perfons, mariners 
and pjfiengers. As foon as the 
people on ihore difcovercd the long 
boat in the road, driving at the 
mercy of the winds and waves, they 
flocked to the coaft, in order to 
be ready 10 give immediate affift* 

ance 



CHRONICLE. 



[>7J= 



aTicc to the unfortunate people, and 
by their diligence and aftivity moll 
of them were faved, after having 
been expofed for fix hours to all 
the violence of the ftorm. 

Monfieur Porquet, the Commif- 
fary of the marine at Calais,attend- 
ed by a furgeon, with the greateft 
humanity, afforded all poflibleaffif- 
tance to the unhappy fulFerers ; and 
by the ufe of proper methods, a fai- 
lor an<i a negror, who were taken 
up with little iigns of life, were 
with great difficulty perfectly reco- 
vered. The Phyficians, furgeons, 
and the inhabitants of Calais, be- 
haved likewife, on this occafion, 
with the utmoft tendernefs to thefe 
unfortunate people* 

There is great rcafon to think, 
that above 2500 fouls perifhed on 
Ihip-board during this and the late 
ftorm in Odober. 

But perhaps one of the mod re- 
markable events which attended 
them, is the ftilling of the waves 
during the laft, by means of oil, as 
defcribed in the following let- 
ter; 

Leyden, Jan, 20, 1776. In con- 
fequence of a premium of thirty 
ducats offered by a citizen of this 
place, to whoever fhall moll effec- 
tually try the experiment of ap- 
peafmgthe waves which furrounda 
Ihip in a ftorm, by pouring oil into 
the fea, the following letter has 
been received ; 

«* We left the Texel the 3d of 
November, 1775, ^^ board a mer- 
chant (hip, Capt. Jurrien Jurren- 
fon, commander, and arrived the 
14th in the evening, on the coaft 
of Jutland in Denmark. Our in- 
tention was to enter a determined 
port, but the Captain thinking it 
fcarce pofCble to make it, on ac- 
count of the great quantity of ice, 
we put out to fea to make another : 



the tiight following a gr«at t«ro- 
pell arofe, which continued till the 
next morning, and drove us towards 
the coaft, where we found a road, 
and were near a port. This fitj*a- 
tton feemed to flatter our hopes, but 
the waves ran fo high and ftrong, 
that we had no command of the 
fhip. The Captain alarmed at cur 
fituation, and feeing no other way 
to prevent a fliip-wreck, gave or- 
ders for fix barrels of oil, whici^ 
he had on board, to be hroeght on' 
the deck, and ordered them to be 
poure<i out llowly on each fide of the 
Ihip, by which means the waves* 
were by degrees abated, the fhip 
began to anfwer her rudder, and 
foon afterwards entered the pore 
in fafety.'* See p. 70. 



Th<ir Majefties and the 



icth. 



Royal Family came to the ^ 
Quecn?s palace for the winter. 

The Houfe of Commons went 
into a Committee of the whole 
Houfe, to confider of a Petition 
from the province of Nova Scotia, 
when they came to the following; 
refolutron, which was moved by 
Lord North: ** That the propofi- 
tions contained in the addrefs, pe- 
tition, and memorial, of the Coun- 
cil and Houfe of Affembly of the 
province of Nova Scotia, of grant- 
ing to his Majefty, in perpetuity, 
a duty of poundage, ad 'valorem', 
upon all commodities imported into' 
the faid prcrince,, not being the 
produce of the Britifh dominions 
in Europe and America (bay fait 
excepted), the faid duty to be un^ 
der the difpofition of ParliamenV 
is fit to be accepted ; and that the 
amount of the faid duty fhall be 
eight ponnds per cent, upon all 
fuch commodities," 

Nine old women were burnt at* 
K^lifk in Poland, charged with ba- 
ving^^ bewitched and rendered un- 
fruitful. 



174] 



C II R O N I C L E, 



fruitful the lands belonging to a 
gentleman jn that Palatinate. 

, At a court of common 

'7^"- council held at Guildhall, 
it was refolved, at the inilance of 
Mr. Wilkes, that the proceedings 
at the Sefiions of Oyer and Ter- 
miner and gaol delivery of New- 
gate, for London and Middlefex, 
be publiihed by the Recorder, and 
authenticated with his name: and 
that 130I. be paid out of the 
chamber of London to the Lord 
Mayor, in lieu of the profit arifing 
from the Sefiions Paper; that the 
Ihort-hand writer ihould beallowed 
150I. per annum ; that the SeiTions 
paper ihould be printed on fine 
paper, in two numbers only ; and 
that a copy of the faid proceedings 
be fentto every member of the 
court, and the judges, and to thofe 
officers of the city who have ufually 
received the fame. , 

Letters from Nantz, by a fhip 
juft arrived from St. Domingo, ad- 
vife, that they have had a moft ter- 
rible ftorm there, which had da- 
maged all the buildings on the 
iJland, deftroyed many fhips, and 
totally waihed away the fugar in the 
warehoufes. 

In the afternoon, a fire broke out 
at the Blue Bell alehoufe in Swaff- 
ham, Norfolk; the wirid blowing 
very hard at North Weft, the flames 
were foon communicated to feveral 
contiguous dwelling'^, which burnt 
with fuch rapidity, that in a ihort 
time between twenty and thirty 
houfes were laid in afhes, and the 
families reduced to thegreateft dif- 
trefs. One man fell from the top 
of a houfe and was killed. 

In order to fupprefs the perni- 
cious pradice of infuring tickets 
during the drawing of the Lottery, 
orders were given that there ihould 



be no feats built for clerks to take 
down the numbers at Guildall; 
but it does not appear that this 
order has taken place ; for what 
reafons, we are not able to deter- 
mine. See page 188. 

The Unity, late Necie, belong- 
ing to Sunderland', with troops 
from Stade for Gibralter, fprung 
a leak at fea about four days ago 
in the Bay of Bifcay, in company 
with feveral other veiTels bound 
from Hamburgh to Gibralter, with 
Hanoverian troops on board. Cap- 
tain Neale, being apprehenfive fhe 
would fink, took to his beat with 
his mate, and all the officers of 
the troops, except the quarter maf- 
ter; but they had hardly left the 
fhip*s fide before thx boat overfer, 
and every foul on board her periih- 
ed ; as there remained but fix fai- 
lors on board with the foldiers, and 
all ignorant of navigation, they 
ran her on ihore on the ifle of Rhe, 
where Count Taube was foon after 
fent by his Majefly, to take care of 
the poor men, v. ho thus fo provi- 
dentially faved their lives, perhaps 
by being deferted by their officers ; 
and ccndudl them to the place of 
their deftination. 

One Smart, charged with , 

coining, and likely to fuf- " ' 
fer for it, the evidence againft him 
being remarkably flrong, contrived 
to make his efcape out of Clerken- 
well Bridewell, by the following 
odti ftratngem. His wife went into 
the prifon cloathed in two gowns, 
two pair of flockings, four petti- 
coats, and in ihort an aiTortment 
of cloaths for two women ; foon 
after which the huiband paffed out, 
drefied in what the wife had worn 
as the under fuit of cloths, and with 
his face painted. Soon after he 
was gone, the woman came down 

flairs ; 



C II R O N I C L Ei 



[«75 



Aalrs ; and meeting two men at 
the door, who alked how her huf- 
band did, fhe faid, very ill in his 
room, and then went off with them. 
The woman, however, was Toon 
after apprehended, and lodged in 
New Prifon. 

, His Majefty went to the 

^°^"- Houfe of Peers, and gave 
the royal aflent to 

The bill for continuing the du- 
ties on malt, mum, cyder, and 
perry ; 

The indemnity bil!; 

And to three private bills. 

n At the firft court of Lord 

* Mayor, &c. held this day, 

the court returned thanks, with 
but one dilTentient voice, viz. that 
of the Right Hon. Mr. Alderman 
Harley, to John Wilke?, Efq; late 
Lord Mayor of this city, for his 
indefatigable attentiqn to the fe- 
veral dutiesofthaiimportant office ; 
for the particular regard and po- 
litenefs which he has been pleafed 
at all times to Ihew the members 
of this cojjrt ; for his wife, up- 
right, and impartial adrr-inidra- 
ticn of julHce; for his diligence, 
on all occafions, to promote the 
welfare and true intercll of this 
city; and for his unblemifhed con- 
duit, and exemplary behaviour, 
during the whole courfe of his 
mayoralty. The court likewife 
voted Mr. Wilkes lool. to be 
fent him, for the care he took of 
the plate, furniture, &c. at the 
Manfion-houfe. 

, Wasdetermined,atGuiId- 
^5^"* hall, Weftminfter, a trial 
between Armie Garnault, Efq; of 
Bull's. crofs, Enfield, plaintiff, and 
Eliab Breton, Efq; of Fourtree- 
hill, in the faid parifh, and lord of 
the m^tior, defendant. The caufe 
of adion was, that Mr. Breton, 



fome month? befoce. riding by the 
plain tilF's door, followed by fome 
dog?, the houfe dog ran after them, 
to thegreatterrorof the defendant's 
horfe. Upon Mr. B*s return home, 
his youngeil fon, attended by his 
coachman, went to the plaintxiPs 
houfe; and, the gate being opened 
to them, fired repeatedly at the 
dog, without further notice, till 
he had difpatched him, Thejury, 
after examining feveral very re- 
fpeftable witnelTes, who concurred 
in giving the deceafed dog a moft 
excellent character, gave a verdift 
for the plaintiff, with 50 1. da- 
mages. 

Two propofitions having , 
been made to the Irifh Houfe ' 
of Commons; i. That 40,00 troops, 
out of the 12,000 voted for the de- 
fence of that kingdom,t be fpared 
for his Majefty's fervice abroad, the 
fame to be no charge to Ireland 
after quitting the kingdom. 2. 
That 4000 foreign protellan t troops 
be received to replace the like num- 
ber fent abroad; thefe likewife to 
be no charge to Ireland. The firfl: 
propofition was agreed to; but the 
latter rcje6led by a majority of 106 
againll 68. 

Came on to be tried before Lord 
Mansfield, at Guildhall, London^ 
a caufe, the decifion of which ma- 
terially concerns unfortunate tradef- 
men liable to become dupes to the 
defigning arts of the wretches di- 
ftinguiHied by the name of Swind- 
lers. In the prefent adion, a per- 
fon in a public office under the 
Sheriffs of London was plaintiff, 
and a tradefman in the Strand de- 
fendant; the fuit was colnmenced 
to recover the fom of lOol. upon a 
note of hand drawn by the defen- 
dant, and indorfed over to the 
plaintiff, by a notorious JewSwind- 

Icr, 



176] 



CHRONICLE. 



ler, "who obtained the fame from 
the defendant in the following cu- 
rious and artful manner. He went 
to the tradefman, and told him 
that he refpefled him much; that 
he had a long time obferved his 
induftry and care in bunnefs, and 
that he would willingly ferve him 
to the utmoft of his power. The 
tradefman caught the bait, and told 
his pretended friend that he only 
wanted a* little cafh to fet all his 
affairs right : « Oh then (faid the 
Swindler) 1*11 procure you that, 
tho' I have not at prefent much 
about me; here's my friend (mean- 
ing a genteel well d re (fed young 
man who was with him); he is a 
man of known refponfibility, give 
him your note for tool, he (hall 
give you his for the like fum, 
which any perfon will giveyou cafh 
for; and, as for your's, no ufe 
■whatever (hall be made of ic, but 
by way of acknowledgment of the 
debt, when your affairs will permit 
you to pay it. The credulous de- 
fendant accordingly gave his note 
fot locl, which was the fubjeftof 
this adion. When he came to 
know how he had been tricked, he 
brought an aflion againft the per- 
fon who gave him the counter- 
note, to which the latter pleaded. 
non-age ; and, as the plea was 
grounded upon fa£t, the tradefman 
had no remedy. The plaintiff 
proved giving a coniideration for 
the defendant's note. Lord Manf- 
iield in his charge to the jury faid, 
that, if they were fatisficd the plain- 
tiff was any way privy to the fraud 
by which the note had been obtain- 
ed, they ought to find for the de- 
fendant; that, though it had been 
proved the defendant had, when 
the note was fent for that purpofe 
by the plaintiff, acknowledged hav« 

9 



ing received a valuable confidera- 
tion for his note, yet, as he was 
then ignorant of the fraud which 
had been pra^lifed upon him, it 
ought not to operate againft him ; 
that the fending to the defendant 
fignified a fufpicion of the good- 
nefs of the note, and the manner 
whereby the fame was obtained; 
that the character of the perfon 
from whom the plaintiff received 
it, v.'as fo notoriouAy infamous, 
and as it was proved, fo well known 
to him, that he could not be fup- 
pofed to have paid a confideration 
for it, with any other view, than to 
become a nominal plaintiff in the 
aftion, and thereby to give it that 
appearance of credit, which, had 
it been commenced by the Swind- 
ler, it would have wanted. The 
jury, without going out of court, 
gave a verdift for the defendant, 
with full cofts of fuit. 

Mr. Ambrofe Power, of „ i 
Clonmell, in Ireland, was 
molt inhumanlymurdered byagang 
of the wretches called White-boys, 
after putting himfelf in their power 
in confequence of their promifing 
and fwearing not to do him any 
injury; but the Lord Lieutenant 
of Ireland having ilTued a procla- 
mation, in order to fupprefs fuch 
barbarous and inhuman proceed- 
ings, and offering a reward of one 
thoufand pounds for the firft perfon 
who (hould be difcovered as an ac- 
complice in the fame, and three 
hundred pounds for each of the 
next twelve, with a pardon to the 
informer, except he be ere of thofc 
who adlually perpetrated the mur- 
der; and thegentlemen of the neigh- 
bourhood having exerted themfelves 
with uncommon fpirit to dete(5l 
and apprehend the murderers ; fome 
of them were foon after apprehend- 
ed. 



CHRONICLE. 



['77 



fd, particularly one — Downey, 
hlias Capt. Slalher, and William 
H^vesif who being t- ied by a Spe- 
cial CommifTion at Clonwell, and 
conviiled on the cleareft evidence, 
wereimmediateiy hangedand quar- 
tered, by the light of torches, at 
the Court- houfe door. 

, In the Court of King's 

^5 Bench, before Lord Mans- 
field, an adfon was tried, brought 
ao;ainft a noble Peer for neceffaries 
fold and delivered to. his Lady ; it 
was in proof, that her Ladylhip, 
having fonie time fince got dia- 
monds from ajeweller, kept them for 
feveral months; that the jeweller, 
on calling for the money, was in- 
formed that her Ladyihip had fent 
them to a perfon fkilled in their 
value, and defired he would go for 
them ; that the jeweller complied, 
went as di reded, got the dia-.- 
monds, and a letter to her Lady- 
lhip, mentioning their value; that 
the jeweller returned in hopes of 
receiving his money, but was in- 
formed her Ladyfhip would not fee 
him, or accept of the diamonds ; 
that the jeweller, being in di- 
ftrefled circumftances, pawned the 
diamond^for money to convey him 
out of the kingdom ; and they fince 
came to the hands of his affignee, 
who brought this aftion for the 
recovery of the value of the dia- 
monds, they not being faleable, 
having already been ufed. The 
jury, contrary to the opinion of 
Lord Mansfield, found for the 
affignee. 

, Being St. Andrew^s day, 

' ' • feveral Scotch Baronets ap- 
peared at court, in the enfigns of 
IL an order which has lain dormant 
V upwards of one hundred and fifty 
B years : it was originally called, 
Br The Nova Scotia Order, and has 
I' bttt lately been revived. 
1 Vop, XVilL 1775. 



The Royal Society held their 
anniverfary meeting at their houfe 
in Crane court, Fleet-ftreet ; when 
the Prefident, Sir John Pringle, 
Bart, in the name of the fociety, 
prefsnted the gold medal (called 
Sir Godfrey Copley's) to the Rev, 
Nevil Mafkelyne, aftronomer royal, 
for his curious experiments in Scot- 
land, on the attraction of moun- 
tains, and delivered an elegant ora- 
tion on the fubjctfls contained in 
Mr. Mafkelyne's paper. After- 
wards the Society proceeded to the 
choice of the council and officers for 
the enfuing year; when,on examin- 
ing the ballots, it appeared that the 
following gentlemen were chofen 
officers: Sir John Pringle, Bart. Pre- 
fident; Samuel Wegg,Efq;Treafu- 
rer ; Matthew Maty, M. D. and the 
Rev.S. Horfley,LL.D.fecretaries. 

Letters from Lilbon gave a melan- 
choly account of the lofs of aFrench 
Indiaman, outward bound, by fireo 
Of 300 fouls on board only one 
officer and feven feamen efcaped. 
The fire broke out fo fuddenly, that 
the people on board had no time 
to hoift out the boats. The few 
that furvived faved themfelves ia 
a fmall ikiff, and were nine days 
at fea with only a fmall caft. of 
brandy to fubfift on. The (hip was 
valued at five millions of livres. 

The Pope has lately given a 
ftriking example of toleration, with 
regard to religion. As he was go- 
ing alone, according to his ufual 
curtom, to St, Peter's church to 
pray, he perceived a young maa 
copying with great attentioli an al- 
tar piece. The Holy Father ftopt, 
fixed his eyes on him without in- 
terrupting him, and took delight 
in viewing the young man's work, 
of which he conceived an advan- 
tageous idea in proportion ai the 
work advanced ; but hjis approach- 



CHRONICLE. 



178] 

ing IHII nearer, diverted the at- 
tention of the painter. The lat- 
ter had not yet feen much of Rome; 
he thought that an heretic, found 
in a church at Rome, ran the rifk 
of being punillied, as Chriftians 
are, when caught in Mahometan 
Mofques. Struck with dread at 
the idea he fainted away at the 
Pope's feet, who immediately call- 
ed for affiilance; but fome perfons 
coriiing in all halte, brought the 
young ftranger to himfelf. ** My 
iViend (faid the Holy Father to 
him) I am charmed to fee yoo pof- 
fefs fuch difpofitions for drawing ; 
you do well to Copy good pieces ; 
your drawing is very bold and cor- 
redl; I will get you received among 
the young pupils that are taught 
hereat my ex^ence." ** Ah! Ho- 
ly Father (replied the young man 
in a faultering tone) I am a Pro- 
teftant." ** AProteftant (anfwercd 
his Holirtcfs) I would rather you 
were a Catholic; but there are great 
painters among the Protcftants ; 
religion has nothing to do with 
painting; I fhall take care to pro- 
cure you all. the nccefiary helps to 
render yott perfed in your art." 
The Pope kept his word, without 
requiring the young artift to change 
his religion, and even ordered 
that no lleps ihould be taken to 
incline him to change it. 

The reader may remember our 
having mentioned fome great dif- 
turbances, during the firll months 
of this year, in Bohemia and Mo- 
ravia, occafioned by the hereditary 
opprefiion of the poor peafants of 
thefe countries by their lords ; and 
Ibme others in France, owing to 
the fcarcity and dearnefs of corn ; 
and that both had been fo far ap- 
^eafed, as not to kave much room 
t« apprehend their breaking out 



again. But this fecurity has fince 
proved, from whatever caufe, a 
great deal too premature. Some 
time about the middle of May, 
Bohemia and Moravia were again 
in a flame, and the violences at- 
tending it more fhocking than ever, 
the authors of them expreffing the 
greateft indifference concerning the 
confequences, faying,it was equal to 
them whether they periihed by the 
fword, by fire, by the hands of the 
hangman, or by the diftrefs which 
purfued them, and which drove 
them to thefe afts of defpair. Ac- 
cordingly, when fired upon fome 
time after by the troops fent againil 
them, they kept their ground, and 
returned the fire; fo that from a 
fpirit of policy as well as huma- 
nity, the troops were early enjoined 
to ad more on the defenfive than on 
theofFenf]ve,againft thefe too juftly 
it fcemsenraged peafants ;efpecially 
as, in one of feveral memorials pub- 
lifhed by them, they were faid to 
require nothing but one day in the 
week to themfelves to take care of 
their bodies ; and another, to be- 
flow on their fouls ; leaving the re- 
fliaining five to the difpofal of their 
lords. At length, therefore, the 
court of Vienna, fome time in Sep- 
tember lafl, fent a patent, regu- 
lating the affairs of Bohemia, to 
General Wallis, Commander in 
chief of the troops in that king- 
dom. He was to caufe it to be 
publifhed in the moll remarkable 
places, and the perfons, entrufled 
with the execution of his orders, 
were to be accompanied by a flrong 
military efcort. By the new regula- 
tions contained in this patent, the 
peafants are flill obliged to work 
at the corvees three days in a week ; 
before, they were obliged to work 
the whole week ; thofe who pay 

n9 



CHRONICLE. 



[179 



no more thaa nine florins per ann. 
contribution to the prince, are only 
to furnifti their perfons and the 
ftrength of their hands; but thofe, 
who by reafon of their pofleflions 
pay more, are obliged to do the 
fame corvees, and to furnifti horfes 
or oxen in proportion to their 
charge. And it is probable, that 
ihefe conceffions were well received, 
as we have not fince heard of any 
frefh violences committed by the 
wretched mortals in whofe favour 
they were made. 

As to thedifturbancesin France, 
it was not in any diltant province, 
but in the very heart of the king- 
dom, they broke out again, and 
that with uncommon indications of 
defign as well as fury; fince bread 
had been often dearer without occa- 
lioning fuch murmurs; and many 
of thofe who joined in the outrages 
committed on the bakers, and deal- 
ers in corn, appeared not to want 
money to pay for what they took 
away by force. The capital itfelf 
was, for two or three days, afceneof 
the utmoft terror and confufion ; 
the people crowded in from the 
country, and required four pounds 
of bread for eight fols, (about 4 d | 
Englilh) inftead of fourteen fols, 
(about 7d|. Englifh) which was 
then the ftatute price of that necef- 
fary; and, on being refufed, pil- 
laged the bread markets and bakers 
ftiops, and obliged the bakers to 
bake more bread for them at their 
own price. At length the King, 
not content with employing the 
military to reftore and maintain 
the public tranquillity with as lit- 
tle efFufion of blood as poffible, on 
the 5 th of May, ordered the parlia- 
ment of Paris to attend him in a 
body at Verfailles, where, in a bed 



of juftice, he informed them * that, 
in the prefent circumftances, he 
was obliged to deviate from the 
ufual coarfe of buiinefs ; that he 
both ought and would put an end 
to the prefent murmurs, which 
might caufe a rebellion; that he 
would take care to provide for Pa- 
ris and the kingdom ; that it was 
on this account he called the par- 
liament, and that the keeper of the 
feals would more amply explain 
his intentions,* 

The King clofed the bed of juf- 
tice with telling the parliament, 
that he forbad them to make 
any reprefentations on the fubje^ 
of that fitting; but, on the other 
hand, he treated them with uncom- 
mon marks of refpe6l. They were 
kept to dine at court, and enter- 
tained at three tables; a compli* 
ment which had never before beea 
paid them. 

The King, though he had thus 
provided againft any claihing be- 
tween the civil and military powers, 
thought proper however to fleer a 
fomewhat middle courfe between 
both; his Majerty commiflioned the 
provofl: of the Marchaufee, or half 
civil and half military guards of the 
high roads, with the care of dif- 
perfing the enraged multitude, and 
doing juftice, in a fummary way, 
on fome of the moft guilty; with 
an offer of pardon, at the fame 
time, to all thofe, except the ring- 
leaders, who fticuld make reftitu- 
tion for the corn they had takea 
away at the current price. This 
numbers of them had already done 
at the remonftrancesof a prieJl in 
the neighbourhood of Paris, to 
whofe parifh they belonged ; and 
their example was now followed by 
many more. Several of the reH 

[M] z fell 



i8o] 



C H R O N T C L E; 



fell under the hands of juftice. A 
lady, who had complained of her 
dountryfeat having bf en plundered 
by a body of ieventy peafants, had 
the fad fatisfadion,or rather mor- 
tification, to fee fourteen out of 
eighteen of the unhappy wretches, 
who happened to be taken foon 
after, executed, without much ce- 
remony, in her court yard. In the 
mean time the King iffued an editt, 
allowing all vefiels, as well French 
as foreigners, that fhould arrive 
with foreign corn in any French 
ports, from the 15th of May to the 
ift of Auguft enluing, a premium 
of 18 foh for every quintal of 
wheat, and 12 fois for every quin- 
tal of rye; and exempting all fuch 
fhips from any duly of freight, or 
of any other fort, in any French 
ports, during the above period : the 
above bounty to be immediately 
paid by the King's officers in the fe. 
veral ports where the fhips arrived. 
But, tho* thefe meafures quickly 
allayed the dangerous ferment, it 
was feared they had not entirely 
cxtinguilhed it; and therefore the 
troops ftill remained at the places 
where they had been originally 
polled, and efcorted all the boats 
and carriages laden with corn, 
while the reputable inhabitants of 
all the country towns attended the 
markets under arms, little think- 
ing of the dark defjgns of wicked 
men abroad in the country, and in 
other parts of the kingdom. A 
man, they tell us, was arrefted at 
Mantes, who had twenty-five cir- 
cular letters found upon him, which 
were fummonfes for a night rendez- 
vous to go among the corn in the 
fields, and fpoil it in tjie ear ; 
but the patroles of troops which 
were fent thither, and a permiffion 
granted to all reputable pciions in 



town and country to fire at any per- 
fons vvhofe cond udl might j uftly raife 
any fufpicions, fruilrated the infer- 
nal defign, if any fuch had ever been 
formed. In the mean time, a few 
perlons were taken up; but, it was 
thought, merely for the engroffing 
of corn : and even of this it is to be 
prefumed they were not guilty, as 
we do not hear of any executions 
having followed. 

There were likewife fome dif- 
turbances, of the fame kind, in the 
Brefl'an, before the harveft; and in 
Viterbo, after it. In Bavaria, the 
poor peafants in fimilar circum- 
ftances declared, that, if they did 
not receive immediate relief, they 
would deliver themfelves from the 
burthen of life, under the very eyes 
of the Eleaor himfelf; but his 
Highnefs took fuch methods as left 
them no temptation to carry into 
execution their defperate purpofe. 

Died lately, at Siara, the capi^ 
tal of a province of that name in 
Brazil, by a letter from the gover- 
nor of Fernambuco, in that coun- 
try, to his Majefty of Portugal, 
Andrew Vidal, of Negreiros, at 
the great age of 1 24. years. He en- 
joyed the ufe of his memory and 
fenfes till the day of his death. 
In the year 1772 he was chief ma- 
giilrate of the city, and, notwith- 
itanding his great age, performed 
the office of judge to the entire fa- 
tisfadion of every one. He was 
father of thirty fons, and five daugh- 
ters. 

The 8th inftant, in Hatton Gar- 
den, Mr. Warne, engraver, aged 
103. 

The 1 2th, in SufFoik-ftreet, Dr. 
Chriilopher Nugent, the ingenious 
and learned author of a new and 
fuccefsful theory of the Hydro- 
phobia* 

The 



I 



CHRONICLE. 



[i«i 



The 2ift. at Pinner, in Middle- 
fex, Mr. William Skillingfby, aged 
119 years, two months, and a few 
days. 

The zzd, at London, Sir John 
Hill, knight of the Swedifh order 
of Guflavus Vafa, botanill to the 
royal garden at Kew, &c.&c. For a 
further account of this gentleman, 
pleafetoturn toour article of Cha- 
rafters. In the mean time, it may 
not be improper to obferve, that 
he was not, as fome think, the au- 
thor of the Adventures of Pompey 



creft an hofpital in fome convenient 
place within London or Weftminf- 
ter, or the liberties thereof, which 
fhall in future be called. The Scot- 
tilh Hofpital of the Foundation of 
King Charles IL and to ordain, 
that the faid corporation (hall here^ 
after have one Prefident, fix vice- 
prefidents, and one ireafurer, (to 
be annually eleded) and fuch a 
number of governors as fhall pay, 
and continue to pay, fuch annual 
fum or fums as, under a bye-law of 
the faid corporation, ftiall be de» 



the Little. There is not a doubt of clared dujy qualified, and be ap* 
this pleafing romance being a jeu pointed to that office. 



d'efprit of the Rev. Mr. Coven 
try, of Magdalen College, Cam- 
bridge, to whom the public would 
probably have been much more in- 
debted, had he not been cut off 
by the fmall pox foon after he had 
becnprefented by his relation. Lord 
Coventry, to the living of Edgware, 
in Middlefex. To him we alfo 
owe a fine Poem on PenfhurJl, 
(where he frequently vifi ted the late 
Mr. Perry,) inferted in Dodiley*s 
Mifcellanies. J. D, 

The 24th, at Afkham, in Weft- 
nioreland, the Reverend Mr. Mil- 
ner, aged 80, 53 of which he had 
fpent as vicar in that parifli. 

The 27th, at Lilly, in Hertford- 
fiiire. Sir George Hawkinfon, 
knight, and phyfician to George 
I. aged 105. 



DECEMBER. 

8t, James's. The King 
has been pleafed to grant 
the prefent mailer, gover-* 
and affiftants of the Scot- 
tish hofpital of the foundation of 
JCing Charles IL his licence to 



ilL 

unto 
nors. 



A new regulation has been lately 
made in Sweden, with refpecl to the 
manufadluring of fait petre, by 
which the directors of the works, 
in the feveral diftrids, are confined 
to the fums advanced to them by 
the crown ; and obliged to deliver 
in a certain yearly quantity of that 
article, in proportion to thofe ad- 
vances. It is very remarkable that 
falt-petre fhonid be made in fo 
many different climates and foils, 
from the line almoit to the frigid 
zones, and not in England. 

The feafon, which laft month fet 
in stry cold in France, changed all 
on a fudden to very hot, which fo 
affedled the conflitutions of thePa- 
rifians, that there was fcarce a fa. 
mily unaffeded in all that great 
capital. A great mortality enfuedj 
which was ftopt only by the change 
of weather. London, indeed, and 
D ublin,and other con tiguousolaces, 
were cqurilly affeded ; but the mor- 
tality was not remarkable in them. 
To afcertain the caufe of this epi* 
demy, Mr. W. Stevens, of Bayens'j 
Row, Spaw Fields, ClerkenwelJ, 
tried an experiment, of which the 
following is an account given by 
himfelf. He made a paper kite, 
\M\ 3 about 



l82] 



CHRONICLE. 



4th 



about four feet high ; fpread it over 
thinly with treacle; and flew it in 
the air about half an hour. When 
he took it down, it was covered 
very thick with infefts, fo fmall 
that the eye could not difcover their 
form, without the help of a glafs. 
THey were made much like a hedge- 
hog, covered with thick hair, ftand- 
5ng perpendicular. What is ftill 
more remarkable, when he got 
within five yards of the kite, he 
found the fmeJl very ftrong and of- 
fcnfive. But this multitudeofinfctls 
in the air might be rather a con. 
comitant efFeft with the diforder, 
than the caufe of it ; and the 
ftrong and ofFenllve fmell might be 
quite natural to them, as peculiar 
fmells are to other animals. 

His Majefty went to the 
Houfe of Peers, and gave 
the i-oyal aflent to the following 
bills, viz. 

The bill for granting an aid to 
his Majefty by a land tax. 

The bill for punifhing mutiny 
and defertion. 

The bill to enable his Majefty to 
call out and aflemble the militia in 
iill cafes of rebellion in any part of 
the Britjfh dominions, for a limited 
time. 

The bill to enable the prefent 
Vice Treafurers of Ireland ro take 
theoathsof qualification in Great- 
Britain. And alfo to fuch other 
bills as were ready for that pur- 
pofe. 

At the fulleft veftry ever known 
at Lambeth church, the propriety 
©f charging the archbifhop to the 
poor's rates, and other afTeffments 
of that parifh was taken into con- 
iideration ; when, after feveral 
hours debate, during which it was 
jproved that former archbilhops for 
feveral fuccelTive years had been 



rated, the veftry determined, by ^ 
majority of tweniy-fix', that the 
archbifhop fhould, in future, be 
charged to all parilh taxes. 
St. James's. The King 



has been pieafed to incorpo- 



5th. 



rate the governor, deputy-governor, 
and many other perlons mentioned 
in the charter, into one body po- 
litic and corporate, by the name of 
•* The Commiffioners and Gover- 
ners of the Royal Hofpital for Sea- 
men at Greenwich, in the county 
of Kent," who (hall be governors 
of the goods, revenues, rents, lands, 
tenements, and hereditaments, al- 
ready given, granted, appropriated, 
or belonging, or which (hall here- 
after be given, granted, appro- 
priated, or belonging unto thefaid 
hofpital ; and, by the fame name, 
they and their fucceflbrs fliall have 
perpetual fucceflion. 

The Norwich ftage was this 
morning attacked, on Epping fo- 
reft, by feven highwaymen, three 
of whom were fhot dead by the 
guard ; but his ammunition failing, 
he was (hot dead himfelf, and the 
coach robbed by the furvivors. 

By virtue of a warrant from Sir 
Charles Afgill, was brought before 
that magiftrate, at Guildhall, the 
clerk of an eminent hop-fa£tor 
in Goodman's-fields, upon fufpi- 
cion of being concerned with a 
perfon, not yet apprehended, in 
defrauding a lottery-office keeper, 
near the 'Change, of a large fum 
of money. This matter being un- 
dertaken by the commiffioners of 
- the lottery, the folicitor of the trea- 
fury appeared again ft the prifoner, 
and for him attended, as counfel, 
Mr. Cox. The firftwitnefs examin- 
ed was the lottery-office keeper ; he 
faid, that about a fortnight ago 
the prifoner infurcd No. 21,481 hx 



CHRONICLE. 



[t83 



times over for the fubfequent day 
of drawing ; that the converfalion 
he had with the prironer at that 
time, and the Teeming pofitivencfs 
there appeared in the latter, that 
the ticket would come up, caufed 
him to enquire at other lottery- 
offices, when he found the fame 
number infured in the prifoner's 
name, at all the principal offices 
about the 'Change ; that the ticket 
was drawn the firft hour of drawing 
the fubfequent day. This, with 
his former fufpicion, alarmed him, 
and he immediately went to Chrift's 
hofpital, and faw the boy who 
drew the ticket; that he interro- 
gated him, whether he had clan- 
dellinely taken that number out of 
the wheel, or whether he had been 
folicited fo to do, which the boy 
pofitively denied; that obferving 
he anfwered rather faintly, he im- 
portuned him to divulge the truth, 
which, after fome hefitation, pro- 
duced an acknowledgment of the 
fad. The next witnefs was the 
blue-coat boy. He faid, that about 
three weeks ago, the perfon who is 
not in cuilody, and whom he had 
known before he went into the hof- 
pital, took him to a coffee -houfe, 
where they breakfaftcd together ; 
that he wanted to know of the wit- 
nefs, whether it was poffible to get 
a ticket out of the wheel ; to which 
the latter anfwered. No ; that be- 
ing afterwards folicited for the fame 
purpofe by him to fecrete a ticket, 
he at length promifed to do it ; that 
accordingly he took two at one 
time out of the wheel, gave one to 
the perfon who called it over, and 
put the other in his pocket; that 
the perfon who induced him to do 
it was then in the gallery, and nod- 
ded his head to the witnefs to fig- 
nify when was a proper time ; that 



after the witnefs came out of the 
hall, he gave the ticket to the per- 
fon who fat in the gallery, and who 
was then waiting for the witnefs in. 
Guildhall yard; that the next time 
the witnefs drew the lottery, the 
perfon before mentioned returned 
him the ticket, which the witnef? 
put in the wheel, and drew out the 
fame day; that he did this three 
feveral times, and received from 
the perfon for whom he did it, fe- 
veral half guineas; that he has 
heard the prifoner's name men- 
tioned by him, but never heard 
the latter acknowledge any connec- 
tion between them in infurance; 
and never before faw the prifoner. 
The prifoner acknowledged he in- 
fured the ticket 79 times for 
one day. The mother of the per- 
fon who was not apprehended was 
next examined ; (he proved an ac- 
quaintance between her fon and the 
prifoner; but denied any remem- 
brance of ever hearing the latter 
mention any thing relating to in- 
furance. The prifoner was dif- 
charged. 

It is faid, that the perfon who 
abfconded got about 400 1. by the 
above fraud; and would have got 
3000 1. had he been paid in all the 
offices where he infured. 

Prince Juftiniani, from ^ , 
Venice, was introduced to 
his Majefty, and gracioufly re- 
ceived. He left Venice on a fa- 
mily difference, and came to Eng- 
land as a failor before the maftj 
but was no fooner arrived, than, 
waited on by the Venetian ambaf- 
fador, who furniihed him with 
every thing neceffary to refume his 
real charader, having received dif- 
patches for that purpofe from his 
father, who is a principal member 
of the Venetian Hate. 

[M] ^ At 



ts+l 



CHRONICLE. 



At a general court of proprietors 
bf Eaft-India flock, called together 
to deliberate on the difputes that 
have lately happened in the fu- 
-preme council at Bengal, the chair- 
man acquainted the court, that the 
directors had come to fom« refolu- 
tions on that fubjeft, which they 
Were defirous to lay before the pro- 
prietors ; but that nothing final 
could be determined till the arrival 
cf the Anfon Indiaman, which was 
daily expefled. The refolutions 
already formed Implied a cenfure 
pn the late government of Bengal j 
but, while the court were debating 
on thefe refolutions, the company's 
iecretary received a letter, with 
intelligence, faid to be communi- 
tated by thepurfer of a Dutch Eaft- 
Indiaman off JDover, That the Ma- 
j-attoes had blockaded Bengal, in 
fiich a manner, that no fhips could 
pafs or repafs; that they had ta- 
ken one of the King's (hips of 20 
guns, and had likewife taken the 
Seahprfe Indiaman with 30 lack of 
rupees. This for a while threw 
the court into great confufion ; but 
reference being had to the compa- 
py*s books, as to the time of fail- 
ing, and other particulars, it ma- 
nifeftly appeared that the whole 
was a Dutch manoeuvre to fink thfc 
^rice of ftock; and as fuch it was 
rcjDrbbated by the general court> 
who again refumed the confidera- 
tion of the bufinefs relative to the 
difpute, which it appeared, had ori- 
ginated between the new judges 
^nd the old council; the laft, in the 

§■ eneral opinion, being liiofl to 
lame. Proofs, however, were 
Wanting to fupport the fafts; fothat 
tiothing final could be concluded 
on, and the court broke up. 
^ % Orders were lately fent to 

•'"♦ the keepers pf the feveral 



gaols, throughout thekingdom> toi 
tranfmit to the fecretary of flate'j 
ofhce, a compleat lill of the con- 
victs under fentence of tranfporta* 
tion in each, mentioning their re- 
fpedlivc crimes. 

By letters from Ncw-Vork 



of this date, the afTembly of 



9th. 



Rhode Ifland had pafTed an adl, by 
which they had forfeited the real 
eflates of Thomas Hutchinfon, late 
governor of Maflachufets; Gilbert 
de Blois } Dr. MolFet ; Samuel 
Sewel; George Rome; Jahaleel, 
and Benjamin Brenton; to be fold 
for the ufe of the public : the amount 
to be applied to the defence of the 
libertyof America. The preamble 
fets forth, that the above perfons 
were traitors to the liberty of Ame- 
rica. 

Being the anniverfary , 
of the inftitution of the '^ * 
royal academy of painting, &c. a 
general afTembly of the academi- 
cians was held at Somerfet-houfe, 
for the purpofe of eleding officers 
for the year enfuing, when Sir 
Jofhua Reynolds was ele<^ed pre- 
fident ; and the premiums of three 
filver medals given this year were 
adjudged as follows: one, for the 
befl drawing of an academy fi- 
gure, to ^r. F. StepanofF; one, 
for the belt model of an academy 
figure, to Mr. William Huggins ; 
and the third, for the bell draw- 
ing of architecture, being the front 
of Somerfet-houfe, to Mr. William 
Mofs. 

There was an interefting , 
difpute at Guildhall, be- 
tween the meal-weighers and the 
bakers, concerning the price of 
wheat, which the former delivered 
in to the lord-mayor and aldermen 
to fix the price of bread by. The ba» 
kers aiferted, that the meal-weighers 

do 



CHRONICLE. 



ti8j 



do not deliver in the beft price ; the 
others admitted that they did not, 
becaufe the beft wheat was fold to 
the diftillers to draw fpirits from, 
and not for making of bread; but 
they affirmed that they always de- 
livered in the higheft price the ba- 
kers gave for what they ufed, and 
did not think themfelves bound to 
deliver in the price given by the 
diftillers. The lord-mayor and al- 
derman Wilkes were of the fame 
opinion, and therefore bread was 
ordered to continue at its former 
price. What a pity it is the beft 
grain of the beft kind ihould be 
thus wafted, or rather proftituted 
to the purpofe of making a flow but 
fure poifon, for the fouls as well as 
bodies of that fo ufeful part of the 
community, the working poor! 

A dreadful fire broke out fo fud- 
denly in a houfe on Ex-bridge* 
Exeter, that a number of travelling 
poor, who lodged in the upper part 
of it, perifhed in the flames; ten 
of their bodies were found, and the 
remains of fome others; but feve- 
ral were burnt to aihes. In a few 
hours the fire was cxtinguiftied, af- 
ter burning two houfes only, and 
damaging fome others. 

1 A feizure of money, to 

^ * the amount of 8000 1. (be- 
ing (hipped for America on board a 
man of war, at Spithead, contrary 
to law) was made by Mr. Miles, 
comptrollerof Portfmouth; and, af- 
ter fome fmart oppofition, brought 
on (here, and fecured in his Ma- 
jefty's warehoufe in that port. 

The Abby, Herbert, from Virgi- 
nia to Liverpool, laden with tobacco 
and ftaves, having lately gone to 
pieces, on the ftags near Kenrule, 
in Ireland, the captain, mate, and 
two common men, who alone ef- 
caped of all the crew and paften- 



gers, were caft'upon the lower ftags, 
which are walhed over every tide 
when the fea runshio;h. The cap- 
tain, therefore, fenfible that they 
muft foon perjfh in that fituation, 
determined to endeavour to reach 
fome of the adjacent rocks. He 
accordingly plunged into the fea^. 
and very providentially got fafe to 
a high one, where he could ftand 
dry, and be feen at a great diftance, 
which proved the means of faving 
his own life, and the life of his, 
companions :— an inftance of cou- 
rage and prefence of mind worthy 
of being recorded, were it only to 
fuggeft the fame condudl in fimilar 
critical circumftances of diftrefs. 

At the public office in Bow-ftreet, 
before Sir John Fielding, and the 
reft of the magjftrates, an apothe- 
cary from Dublinvwas put to the 
bar, charged with attempting to 
defraud the county of Middlefex of 
373 guineas. Sir John then or- 
dered the prlfoner's information to 
be read, which was to the follow- 
ing purpofe, viz. That laft Satur- 
day, as he was coming to town 
from Highgate, he was flopped 
near Kentifti-Town, by three foot- 
pads, and robbed of 373 guineas. 
In the defcription of the features, 
drefs, and behaviour of the robbers, 
he was very accurate. During the 
reading of the above information, 
however, he feemed greatly affeft- 
ed, and immediately acknowledged 
the whole of what he had faid ia 
his information to be falfe; owned- 
who he was; faid, that being ob- 
liged to leave Dublin for debt, his 
friends advifed him, when he got 
to England , to concert fome fcheme 
like the above, in order to raife a 
fum of money. He begged for 
mercy, and faid he would not have 
been guilty of fuch an iniquitous 
proceeding. 



j86] 



CHRONICLE, 



proceeding, but " that h6 was ig- 
norant of the English laws." On 
the whole, he feemed a mixture of 
low craft and ignorance. How- 
ever, as his fraudulent intentions 
were timely difcovered, and there 
appeared a thorough contrition in 
him, he was difcharged, 

Monf. Kerguelin has been ap- 
pointed, by the French King, to the 
command of a fine new man of war, 
of feventy-four guns, in order to 
make difcoveries in the South Seas ; 
and is to be accompanied by two 
frigates of 32 guns each. They are 
to put to fea the beginning of next 
month, 

, The feffions ended at the 

^^ 14th. Qjj Bailey, when twelve 
capital convifts received fentence 
of death, viz. one, for murdering 
lier baftard child; two, for treafon, 
in counterfeiting the current coin; 
' five, forhoufe-breaking; three, for 
robbing on the highway ; and one, 
for robbing his mafter* The un- 
happy wretch, who murdered her 
child, was executed as the law di- 
3*efts, immediately. And, on the 
J 7th of January, 1776, the two 
coiners; two of the houfe-break- 
ers ; one of the highwaymen ; with 
the unfortunate brothers, Robert 
and Daniel Perreau, were likewife 
executed, all at Tyburn. At this 
feflions. Captain David Roche, and . 
Mrs. CarolineMargaretRudd, were 
jikewife tried and acquitted. [We 
already promifed to give fome ac- 
count of the latter in the Appendix 
to this article; and we (hall like- 
wife fay fomething of the Captain's 
cafe, under the fame head.] 

, , War-office. Jt is his Ma- 

jefty*s pleafure, that from 

the date hereof, and during the 

continuance of the rebellion now 

fubfifting in Ncrzl^-Amejica, every 



perfon, who (hall enlift as a foldier 
in any of his Majelly's marching 
regiments of foot, fhall be entitled 
to his difcharge at the end of three 
years, or at the end of the faid re- 
bellion, at the option of his Ma- 
jelty. 

Maximilian, Baron de , 

Rodt, brother to the late '^ • 
prince and cardinal of that name, 
has been unanimouflyeleiled Prince 
Bifhop of Conftance. 

By letters from Naples of , 
this date. Mount Vefuvius " 
had for fame days thrown out fire, 
and feemed to indicate an ap- 
proaching eruption, which had 
drawn thither a great number of 
foreigners. The Margrave of Ba- 
reith, with his whole retinue, was 
already arrived there. And by let- 
ters from Vienna of the 2 ill, they 
had in Croatia a continual fucceflion 
of earthquakes for two months, par- 
ticularly in the town of Bedekave- 
fima, and in the mountainous parts 
near the city of Waradin. 

By the lall advices from Phila- 
delphia, the committee of that pro- 
vince, appointed to draw inilruc- 
tions for the delegates in congrefs 
aflembled, did not feem willing to 
carry things to fuch lengths as ma- 
ny other provinces have done; for, 
among other things, they fay, 
** Though the oppreffive meafures 
of the Britifh parliament and ad- 
miniftration have compelled us to 
refill their violence by force of 
arms, yet we ilriftly enjoin you, 
that you, in behalf of this colony, 
dilTent from, and utterly rejetl, 
any propofitions, (hould fuch be 
made, that may caufo, or lead to, 
a feparation from the mother coun- 
try, or a change of the form of this 
government.*' 

The 



CHRONICLE. 



[187 



joth, 



The dividend on Eaft-India 



flock was declared to be 3 
per cent, for the half year tnding 
ac Chriilmas. 

, The attorney-general was 

^ * attended at his chambers at 
Lincoln'sinn, bycounfelon behalf 
of the Duchefs of Kingfton, to fup- 
port an application made to him for 
granting a noli prof equi, to flop all 
proceedings againlther in the affair 
expeded to be heard before the 
Lords. The ground of the appli- 
cation was the fentence obtained in 
the fpiritual court; but, it is faid, 
the attorney-general was of opinion 
that he had not authority to grant 
the writ on this occafion, as the 
offence for which her graceisindift- 
ed, was created by a penal ftatute; 
and the Bill of Rights in exprefs 
words fays, penal laws muft not be 
fufpended ; and that the King's 
, fign manual would not juflify him 
if he iffued the writ, and any fu- 
ture miniftry were to call hira to 
an account; as no command (hould 
induce a fervant of the crown to a6l 
in his official capacity illegally, 

1 His Majefly^went to the 

^ * Houfe of Peers, and gave 
the royal aflent to the following 
bills, viz. 

The bill to prohibit all trade and 
intercourfe with the North-Ameri- 
can colonies, now in aftual rebel- 
lion, viz. New Hampfhire, Maffa- 
chufet's Bay, Connedicut, Rhode 
Ifland, New York, Penfylvania, 
the three Lower Counties on Dela- 
war, Maryland, Virginia, North- 
Carolina, ijouth Carolina, and Geor- 
gia, during thecontinuance thereof. 

The bill for the better regula- 
tion of his Majefty's marine forces 
while on Ihore. 

Thebiil to encourage adventurers 
to make a difcovery of a northern 
|)airagefrom Europe,byBritiilifuh- 



jeds only, to the weftern or fouih- 
ero ocean of America, and for pe- 
netrating to the North Pole. 

The bill to explain and amend 
an ad for widening certain paf- 
fages, and for better paving the 
parifh of Shoreditch. 

And alfo to fuch other private 
bills as were ready. 

At night, the Rockingham tranf- 
port was loft, by miftaking (as is fup- 
pofed) Robert's Cove, about ten 
miles from Corke, for the Cove of 
Corke, it blowing a gale of wind, 
and being thick weather. There 
were on board three companies of 
the 32d regiment. Lieut. Marfh and 
his wife, Enfign Sandiman, Lieut. 
Barker's wife, and upwards of 90 
foldiers, befides the Captain and 
crew, were drowned. Five officer* 
and twenty foldiersfaved themfelves 
in the flat-bottomed boat. By a 
fimilar miftake, during the Isll war, 
the Ramilies, of ^D guns, and 850 
men, (taking the Bolt-head for the 
Ram, near Plymouth) periftied, 
with all on board, except twenty 
feamen, • and one midfhipman, 
Thefe, among innumerable other 
inftances, fhew the great neceflity of 
fea-lights, particularly diftindive 
ones. 

About forty Americans, among 
them Col. Nathan Allen, taken 
prifoners in Canada, arrived, as 
fuch^ in England, on board the 
Adamant. They were lodged in 
Pendennis caftle, and, by the belt 
accounts, well treated, But,whilil 
their friends in London were pre- 
paring to bring them up by habeas 
corpus y to have the legality of their 
confinement difcu/red, they were 
fent back to North-America to be 
exchanged. A few days afieJ-, the 
Liberty, Thompfon, arrived at 
Briftol from Quebec, brought over 
one of the American riflemen^ who 

was 



CHRONICLE. 



i88] 

was taken prifoner there ; but, be- 
ing carried before the mayor to be 
examined, he was dilcharged, as 
no crime was alledged againft him, 
of which his worlhip thought he 
could take cognizance. 

This night his lVIajefty*s pro- 
clamation, for the diftribution of 
fuch prizes as fliall be taken from 
the Americans, during the prefent 
rebellion in America, appeared in 
the London Gazette; and on the 
28th, is was, by order of the Lord- 
Mayor, read at the Royal Exchange 
and at Holborn Bars, by the Com- 
mon Cryer. The divifion is to be 
made in the fame proportion with 
that of the prizes taken from the 
French and Spaniards during our 
late wars with them. 

The French King having thought 
proper,among many other reforma- 
tions, in the military department 
of his dominions, fuggefted by his 
new minifter of war, the Count de 
St. Germain^ to fupprefs the Mouf- 
quetaires, that well-known body, 
as being entirely compofed of young 
gentlemen, of the bell families in 
France, one of the commifTaries of 
the war-office went this day to fig- 
nify to them, aflembled for that 
purpofe, his Majefty's pleafure. 
Monfieur de la Chaife, Com. 
mander of the Grey, fainted away 
upon theoccafion, and all of them 
appeared overwhelmed with grief, 
at the thoughts of being thus torn 
afunder. From this mX)ment they 
weredifpenfed from going as ufual 
every day to Verfailles, to take the 
King's orders. A few days after, 
they put up their fine horfes to 
fale; and the hotels they occupied 
^re, it is faid, dcftined as follows : 
that of the grey, to be converted 
into a market ; and that of the 
black, to be a prifon for debtors. 



Gen.Burgoyne arrived in v 
town from Bofton, which he ^5^"- 
left the 5th inftant: the troops at 
that time were well fupplied. 

Ayoung man of ?ood family , . 
was carried before Sir Charles 
Afgill, ( who fat for the LordMayor) 
for attempting to put off to a Qua- 
ker fome counterfeited bills, drawn 
on Alderman Plomer for 700I. 
But on the Quaker's refufmg to 
make oath of the affair, he w»s 
only ordered to go into the Eaft- 
India company's fervice; and bail- 
ed out till a proper ftaiion in it 
could be procured for him. 

The money-bill lately , 

framed by the Houfe of ^"^"' 
Commons in Ireland, having been 
altered in England, was, on its re- 
turn, unanimouflyrejeded, bywhich 
there was at this time no law in 
Ireland to colleft what is called the 
additional duties on rum, tobacco, 
and other goods imported into that 
kingdom; in confequence whereof 
feveral gentlemen came from Dub- 
lin, &c. to Whitehaven, purchafed 
large quantities of tobacco, fhipped 
them this day, and the vefiels fail- 
ed with the evening tide, in hopes 
of reaching Ireland, to fave the faid 
duties, before the new bill, formed 
immediately on rejeifling the one 
before fent over, could arrive, to re- 
ceive the aflent in Ireland. Some- 
thing fimilar happened in Decem- 
ber, 177 1. 

At forty-two minutes af- , 

ter ten in the morning, the ^ 
SieurMaflier, aUronomcr atCorbeil, 
near Paris, felt a fhock of an earth- 
quake. It lafted but one moment. 
Its diredlion was from nortli-weft to 
fouth-eaft. And on the fame day, 
at the fame time, a fmall fhock was 
felt in Paris. The fame morning, 
an earthquake was felt at Caen, at 
3 thirty^ 



CHRONIC L E, 



[189 



thirty-two minutes after ten in the 
morning ; and therefore was pro- 
bably the fame, allowing for fome 
miftake in point of time. At this 
laft place, the fhocks were preceded 
by a noife which refembled the 
hafty driving of carriages ; this 
noife lafted about two or three fe- 
conds, and was followed by three 
violent ihocks, which all toge- 
ther lafted five or fix feconds : 
their direftion was from the fouth- 
weft to the north-eaU ; and while 
they lafted, a noife was heard in 
every houfe, as if they were going 
to fall, and every body was very 
much alarmed. 

The greateft danger was to the 
fouth-weft; feveral public edifices, 
and other buildings, were much 
damaged ; a crofs of ftone, which 
was on the portal of the church of 
the Vifitaiion, fell down, and above 
.200 chimnies were thrown down, 
and almoft every houfe has received 
fome damage. One perfon was 
wounded by the fall of a piece of 
ftone. The fteeple of pormelles, 
a parifti at about half a league to 
the fouth of this city, was thrown 
down. At Ouflieres, a parilh in 
the fame direction, the fhocks fplit 
fome rocks in the neighbourhood. 
Thisearthquakewaslikewifefharp- 
Jy felt at the abbey of Fontenay, 
and at Trouaru, where it was faid 
that fome houfes were damaged. 

The fame day, about eleven in 
the morning, a fourth fhock was 
felt; but it was a very flight one, 
and did no damage. 

a The Americans before 

' * Quebec niifcarried, with 
great lofs, in a coup de main on 
that place ; owing partly, it is faid, 
to the defedion of a great number 
of Canadians, who had at firft 
joined them, in confcquence of ;hc 



impolitic rudenefs of the latter to 
the priefts of the former, &c. and 
partly by the latter's having fufFer- 
ed themfelves to be deceived by 
falfe intelligence and falfe promifes 
from within the place. By the befl 
accounts fhat had arrived at the 
going of this iheet to the prefs, all 
from and through the hands of the 
Americans themfelves, the com- 
munications between Quebec and 
every navigable part of the Ameri- 
can feas being quite ftopt up, the 
lofs of the Americans on this occa<- 
fion confifted in about fixty killed 
and wounded, and three hundred 
taken prifoners. Among the flaitt 
were General Montgomery, his 
Aid-de-camp, Captain John Mac 
Pherfon, two other Captains, and 
two or three Lieutenants; amongft 
the prifoners were. Colonel Arnold> 
wounded; one Lieutenant-colonel, 
two Majors, and feveral Captains 
and fubaltern ofiicers. The pri- 
foners were treated with great 
humanity, and every poffible mark 
of diftinftion was fhewn to the corpfe 
of Gen. Montgomery, who was in- 
terred in Quebec the fecond day af* 
ter theaftion. And it was faid, that 
the continental congrefs had ordered 
a magnificent cenotaph to be ereded 
to his memory, with the following 
infcription : 

Montgomery falls ! let no fond breaft re- 
pine 
That Hampden's glorious death, brave 
chief! was thine. [name. 

With bit fhall Freedom confecrate thy 
Shall date her rifing glories from thy fame^ 
Shall build her throne of empire on thy 

grave j 
•— What nobler fate can patriot virtues 
crave ! 

During the courfe of the prcfent 
month, the court of fefTionsin Scot- 
land^ decided an interefting quef- 

tiofl; 



i9o] 



CHRONICLE, 



tion ; by which it appears, that 
perfons, whofe refidcnce is in Eng- 
land, cannot be arrefted in Scot- 
land on fummary warrants for debts 
contra£led in England, and due lo 
perfons in that kingdom ; fo that 
by this decifion it fhould feem, that 
Scotland is now an afylum for Eng- 
lilh debtor?. 

The following are fome of the 
particulars of the dreadful fire, 
which almoil entirely dellroyed the 
town of St, George, the capital of 
the ifland of Grenada, the ift ult. 
/^bout three o'clock in the morning 
a lire was difcovered in the fhop of 
a negro carpenter in the windward 
part of the town ; and every poffible 
means were ufed to extinguiih it, 
but without efFeft. In the fpace of 
three hours from its beingperceived, 
the whole town was in one conti- 
nued blaze. The houfes being in 
general built of wood, the flames 
raged with fuch amazing rapidity, 
that it was with difficulty any ef- 
caped with their lives. It is fup- 
pofed, that the lofs cannot be much 
Jefs than five hundred thoufand 
pounds. It is particularly unfor- 
tunate, that thofe, who were the 
principal fufFerers in the fire of 
177 1, were the perfons who fufFered 
mod by the prefent great calamity; 
which, it was feared, would occa- 
iion maay failu/es, as few or no 
goods were faved, and few of the 
iotferfi's had the precaution to co- 
ver themfelves by in fu ranee. 

Some pages back, we mentioned 
lie govern tneni's having con traded 
for a great number of oxen and 
flieep, and a great quantity of por- 
ter and potatoes ; the fheep to be 
fent abroad alive, along with the 
porter and potatoes, for the ufe of 
the troops fliut up in Bofton. To 
the fhecp, we ihould have added 
t 



hogs ; and to the potatoes, cab- 
bages, made into four-croUt, a 
kind of pickle, but ufed, in lieu of 
common food, in fome parts of 
Germany, &c. where the earth is 
fo bound up by the froft during fe- 
veral months of the year as not to 
afford any frefh vegetables, and 
what animal food the poorer inha- 
bitants can get at, is almoft entirely 
of the fait kind; notwithftanding 
which, fuch is the virtue of the Cab- 
bages, and the vinegar and fpices 
combined with them, the fcurvy 
makes much lefs havock in thefe 
countries than in fome others where 
frefh fle(h and fifh are in almoft all 
feafons to be had by the loweft 
ranks. 

Much about the fame time, two 
fubfcriptions were opened ; one, 
for the relief of the common men 
of the fame troops, and particularly 
the widows and orphans of fuch 
among them as had perifhed by 
ficknefs or the fword; another, for 
that of feveral clergymen of the 
church of England, in North- 
America, who had fufFered feverely 
in confequence of their attachment 
to government: and both fubfcrip- 
tions were attended with the great- 
eft fuccefs. But fome of the Ihips 
carrying the live fheep and hogs, 
&c. to Bofton, were taken by the 
Americans; very few of thofe ani- 
mals on board the ftiips which ef- 
caped outlived the paftage ; and 
what did, efpecially the fheep, 
were fo wafted by the time they ar- 
rived, as, in the language of the 
failors, to be fit only to make Ian- 
thorns of. A great deal of the 
oxen contracted for on this occafion 
was at about 34s. per hundred. 
At 35s. it would be jutl three-pence 
and one half farthing per pound ; 
from which, and the ftatute price of 

bread 



CHRONICLE. 



[191 



bread In London, at the conclufion 
of harveIlfasgiven,p.i5o] thecon- 
dition of the working poor, by ta- 
king the rate of wages and frequen- 
cy of employment into the account, 
may be pretty well afcertained, 
efpecially for the capital. 

There were fome other (hips ta- 
ken by the Americans during the 
fame period, loaden by the govern- 
ment willi military ftorcs for Bof- 
ton, &c. particularly one, whofe 
cargo was laid to be worth 30,000!. 
and withal as well aflbrted, as if it 
had been done by the fpecial di- 
re£lion of the continental congrefs. 

In the courfe of this month, a 
new mufeum, under the title of 
Speftacle Mechanique, was opened 
inKing-ftreet, Covent-Garden, of 
fo wonderful a nature, that we 
thought it due to the fingular merit 
of the artift, and the natural curio- 
fity of our readers, to lay a (hort 
accountof it before them. It con- 
{il\s of three capital mechanical fi- 
gures, and a palloral fcene, with 
hgures of an inferior fize.— The 
figure on the lefr-hand fide (a beau- 
tiful boy as large as life) writes 
any thing that is didlated to him in 
a very fine hand. — The fecond on 
the right-hand (of the fame fize) 
draws various landfcapes, &;c, &c. 
which he finiflies in a moft accurate 

and mafterly ftik. The third 

figure is z beautiful young lady, 
who plays feveral elegant airs on 
the harpfichord, with all the bafs 
accompanyments; her head grace- 
fully moving to the tune, and her 
bofom difcoveriog a delicate refpi- 
ration : during her performance, 
the palloral fcene in the center dif- 
covers a variety of mechanical fi- 
gures, admirably grouped, all of 
which feem endued with life. — The 
lall curioiity is a canary-bird in a 
cage, that hops to and fro upon its 



perch, and then whiflles two or 
three airs in the moil natural man- 
ner imaginable.— Upon the whole, 
no exertion of art ever perhaps trod 
fo clofe on the heels of nature. The 
ingenious artill is a young man, a 
native of Switzerland. 

It may be gathered from authen- 
tic papers. 

That our ilage-coaches generally 
drive with eight infide, and often 
ten outfide paffengers each. 

That there are now of thefe ve- 
hicles, flies, machines, and dili- 
gences, upwards of 400 ; and of 
other four - wheeled carriages, 
17,000. 

That 12,300,000 news-papers 
are now annually printed. 

That the number of packs of 
cards, ftampt lafl year, amounted to 
428. coo; and of dice, to 3000. 

That there has been coined, at 
the Tower of London, fince the 
year 1772, about 13,000,000!. in 
gold. 

That the public pays theBank of 
England 50,000!. a year for ma- 
nagement ; and that the proprietors 
do not divide more than 240,000!. 
a year. 

Jn Account of the Value o/*Corn /w 
ported into England and Scotland 
Jince the Commencement cf the Corn 
Regirter-A<ft, in 1770, the Value 
o/Corn exported in each Year bf- 
ingfirji deduced, • 

Balance paid ^. 

for Corn in 1771 — 105,20© 
' in 1772 - 84,400 

i° '773 - - 569»^2<> 
in 1774 1,022,230 

The year 1775 is likely to ex- 
ceed 1774, from the very large 
quantities itr ported fince Chriftmas 
laft. The 



192] 



CHRONICLE. 



The imports into Great-Britain 
from Virginia and Maryland, be- 
fore the war, were 96,000 hogf- 
heads of tobacco, of which 13,^00 
were confumed at home; and the 
duty on them, at 26I. is. each, 
amounted 1033 1,675!.; the remain- 
ing 82,500!. were exported by our 
merchants to different parts of Eu- 
rope, and brought a great deal of 
jnoney into the kingdom. This 
fingle trade conflanrlv employed 
330 lliips, and 3,960 failors. 

Died, the 7th inltant. Admiral 
Sir Charles Saunders, Knight of 
the Bath, Member for Heydon in 
Yorklhire, Admiral of the Blue 
Squadron, Lieutenant-General of 
the Marines, and 'Elder Brother of 
the Trinity-Houfe, in Spring- Gar.- 
dens. [For a more particular ac- 
count of this great feaman, fee our 
article of Characters.] 

The 13th, at Hahwhiftle, in 
Northumberland, Dr. Alexander 
Maxwell, aged 103. 

The 20th, in Queen*fquare, Or- 
mond-ftreet. Dr. Campbell, author 
of many valuable works. 



A General Bill of all the Chrijienings 
and Buriahy from December 13, 
1774, to December 12, 1775. 



Chrillened. 
Males - 8,876 
Females 8,753 



In all 17,629 



Buried. 
Males 10,134 
Females 10,380 



In all 



20,514 



fncreafed m the \ Decreafed in the 



Chriftenings 
this year 631 

Jiaftyear'sChrif- 
jenlngs 16,998 



Burials this 
year 370 

Laft year's Bu- 
rials .20,8.8^ 



Of thofe nuho died this year, there 



Under 2 years 


7,406 


Between 2 and 5 


1 ' T7 
2,087 


5 and 10 — 


T^S 


10 and 20 


67s 


20 and 30 — 


i'?35 


30 and 40 


1,7^2 


40 and 50 


1,824 


50 and 60 


1,589 


60 and 70 


1,291 


70 and 80 ■ -— 


1,025 


80 and 90 — 


418 


90 and 100 -— 


IZ 


JOO -.-^ 


I 


106 -_ 


I 



The kind and manner of cafualties 
ainong the foregoing deaths ^jjere as 
follonjos : 

Bit by mad dog 

Broken limbs — 

Bruifed 

Burnt — . _^ 

Choaked . 

Drowned — « 

ExcclTive drinking — 

Executed — — . 

Fradured — — 

Found dead r-. -^ 

Killed by falls, and feveral 

other accidents -.^ 

Killed ihemfelves — . 
Murdered —- .— 

Overlaid — — . 

Poifoned — -^ «, 

Scalded • . 

Smothered — -. 

Stabbed , 

Starved ^-^ -- 

Suftbcate4 ^^ «-*. 



2 
o 
I 
8 
o 
104 
2 
24 
o 
2 

64 
29 

3 
4 
o 
I 
o 
o 

2 

4 



Total 250 

We fhould likewife give the kin^ 
and numi>€r of difcafes, but that 



CHRONICLE. 



C'93 



the accounts of thefe particulars, 
published in the London Bills of 
Mortality, have been long given 
up as altogether erroneous by the 
bed judges. 

The births at Paris for 1775, 
were 19,650, of which thera were 
10,247 boys, and 94.03 girls; the 
deaths, 18,490; and the marriages, 
5016; 6505 children were brought 
into the Foundling Hofpital. The 
deaths of 1775 exceeded thofe of 
1774 by 2601 ; the births of 1775 
thole of 1774, by 299; the mar- 
riages of 1775 were fewer than 
thofe of 1774, by 98; and 178 
foundlings were received more this 
year than the laft. 

By the Amfterdam annual bill it 
appears, that this year proved very 
unhealthy, 1246 more deaths hav- 
ing happened in that city than ia 
the preceding year. 

The depopulation caufed within 
thefe few years in Poland, by fire 
and fword, and their conftant at- 
tendants, famine and ficknefs, may 
be better conceived than exprefled. 
The accounts of this calamity, and 
of the diftrefs of great numbers of 
the furviving inhabitants, are truly 
fhocking. To remedy thefe evils, 
efpecially by eriw/«ging perfons ia 
gooii clrcumftances to fettle in her 
provinces, that unhappy republic 
has made a law, in the courfe of 
the prefent year, to allow her na- 
tive fubjefts of the middle rank, 
except Jews, peafants, and thofe 
fubjeft to particular lords, to pur- 
chafe eftates, for ready money. The 
fame indacemcnt has been held out 
to foreigners ; but, though they 
are promifed every kind of fecu- 
rity, they are not to cxpcfl the 
right of Hobleffc. 

Vol. XVIII. 1775, 



BIRTHS for the Year 1775. 

Jan. 4. The Queen of the Two 
Sicilies, of a prince, at 
Caferta, in Italy. 
Lady Charlemont, of a foil 
and heir, at Caltle-Caul- 
field, in Ireland. 
9. The Hon. Mrs. Fielding, 
Lady of Capt. Fielding, 
of a daughter. 

28. The Duchefsof Argyle and 
Hamilton, of a daughter, 
in Argyle-buildings. 
Feb. I. The Lady of Sir Richard 
Wolfeley, Bart, ofafon, 
in Dublin. 
Lady Tovvnfhend, of a 
daughter, in Portman- 
fquare. 
March i. The Lady of Thomas 
Pitt, Efq; Member for 
Old Sarum, of a fon and 
heir, at Mr. Pitt's feat 
in Cornwall. 

28^. The LadyofMajor-General 
Scott, of a daughter, at 
Bellveu, near Edinburgh. 
April 16. The Couatefs of Cavan, 
of a daughter, in Sack*, 
vtlle-ftreet. 
The Countefs of Galloway, 
of a fon, in Duke-ftreet, 
St. James's. 

20, The Countefs of Donegall, 
of a fon, in St. James's- 
fquare. 

25. HerRoyalHighnefsthePrin- 
cefsof Afturias, ojTa prin- 
cefs, at Aranjuez. The 
infanta was immediately 
chriftened by twenty-four 
names, the firil of which 
was Charlotte. 

29. The Countefs of EfTey, of a 
fon, in Stanhope-ftreet, 
May-fair. 

{N} May 



194] 

May 



CHRONIC 

Aug. 6 



L E. 



13' 



I. The Princefs of NalTau 
Wielburg,of a prince, at 
Kircheim, Poland. 
The Archduchefs of A uftria, 
Confort to the Archduke 
Ferdinand,Governor-ge- 
Reral of Aulhian Lom- 
baidy, of a prince, at 
Vienna. 
22. The Lady of Sir Sampfon 

Gideon, Bart, of afon. 
24. Lady Stanley, of a Ton and 
heir. 
June 3. The Lady of Sir Rowland 
Wynn, Bart, of a fon 
and heir, in St. James'* 
fquare.' 
Mrs. Montgomery, Lady of 
the Lord Chief Baron of 
Scotland, of a fen. 
The Lady of the Hon. 
Henry Erflcine, Efq; of 
a daughter ; at Edin- 
burgh, 
The Duchefs of Chartres, 

of a prince, at Paris. 
The Countefs Dowager of 
Rothef, Lady of tHe Hon. 
Patrick Maltland, of a 
di4Ughter, at Hatton, in 
Sco:!?ind, 
9. The Duchefs of Beaufort, 
of a daughter, in Grof- 
venor-fquare. 
i6. The Lady of Sir William 
Wake, Bart, of a fon, in 
Chefterfield-rtrect. 
The Marchionefs of Lothian, 

of a fon, in Park-lane. 
Lady Mountftewart, of a 
fon, in Hiil-itreet, Berk- 
ley-fquare: 
The Marchionefs of Cacr- 
marthen, of a fon, in 
Grofverior-fquare. 
26. The Lady of Sir Beaumont 
Hoiham, of a daughter, 
inNorfolk-Street,Sirand. 



5' 
'July 1 

3- 
6. 



19. 



21 



Her Royal Highnefs the 
Comtelie d'Artois, of a 
prince, the Due d'An- 
gouleme. 
1 1. The Lady of his Excellency 
the Portuguefe Ambafia- 
dor, of a daughter, in 
South-Audley-itreet. 
23. Lady Mary Hogg, of a fon, 
at Hatton, the feat of the 
Earl of Lauderdale. 
Sept. 12. The Hon. Lady Betty 
Delme, of a fon, in Grof- 
venor-fquare, 
1 3. The Lady of Sir John White- 
ford, Bart, of a fon, at 
Edinburgh. 

26. Vifcountefs Grimfton, of a 

fon and heir, in Grofve- 
nor-fquare. 

27. The Landgravine of Hefie 

Homburg, of a prince, 
Oa, 3. The Duchefs of Portland, 
of a daughter, in Picca- 
dilly. 
9. The Lady of Sir Watkin 
Williams V/ynne, Bart. 
. of a fon, at Winftay, in 
Denbighfhire. 
13. The Lady of Sir Alexander 
M^Donnald, of a fon, at 
Edinburgh. 

19. The Duchefs of Grafton, 

of' a daughter, in Albe- 
marle-ftreet. • 

20. The Lady of the Honour- 

able Archibald Douglas, 
of Douglas, of a fon, at 
London. 
26. The Lady of Sir Stanler 
Porter, of a fon, St. 
James's Place. 
Nov. 3. Vifcountefs Beauchamp, of 
a fon, in Upper Brook- 
llreet. 
5. The Duchefi of Athol, of a 
daughter, in Grofvenor- 
Mews. 

15. Hcf 



CHRONICLE. 



C«95 



15. Her Sicilian Majelly, of a 
princefsjatCiiferta. The 
private baptifm was im- 
mediately performed, and 
the names of Marianna- 
Guifeppa - Guiovanna- 
Antonia-Tcrefa-Ameiia- 
Gaetana - Clementina, 
were given to the infants 

±3. Lady Hinchinbroke, of a 
daughter, in Manfell-ilr. 
Dec. 14. Lady Cochrane, of a fon, 
at Annsfieldi near Ha- 
milton. 



MAR RI A G ES, 1775. 

Jan. 5. The Hon. and-Rev. Charles 
Digby, brother to Lord 
Digby, to Mifs Mellier, 
daughter of the late Wil- 
liam Mellier, Efq; at 
Caftie-Cary, in Somer- 
fetihire. 
William Hope, Efq; muf- 
ter - mailer - general for 
Scotland, to Mifs So- 
phia Gorrie, daughter of 
Mr. Jofeph Corrie, of 
Dumfries. 

7. Col . Fleming, of the guards, 
to Mifs Mills, daugh- 
ter of William Mills, 
Efq; of Richmond, in 
Surry. 

9. Francis Wadman, Efq; gen- 
tleman ulher to her royal 
highnefs the Princcfs 
Amelia, toMifsComyns, 
of Northfleet in Kent. 
12. The Right Reverend Dr. 
Thomas, Lord Bilhop of 
Rocheiler, to Lady Eli- 
zabeth Yeates, relift of 
Sir Jofeph Yeates, Knt. 
late one of the Judges bf 



the Court of King's 
Bench ; at WeftminlTer 
Abbey, by a fpecial li- 
cence. 
The Right Hon. Sir John 
Shelley, Bart, treafurer 
of his raajelly's houihold, 
to Mifs Woodcock, only 
daughter of Edw. Wood- 
cock> Efq; of Lincoln's 
Inn ; at Stoke Nevving- 
ton. 

15. Nafti, Efq; fon to the late 
NaOi, Efq; Lord Mayor 
of the city of London, 
to Mifs Darker* daughter 
of John Darker, Efq; 
treafurer of St. Bartho- 
lomew's hofpital, 

18. Stephen Sayer, Efq; banker 
in Oxford-ilreer, to Mifs 
Noeli daughter of the 
hon. William Noel, Efq; 

20. The hon. Clotworthy Row- 
leyj Efq; of the fifth re- 
giment of dragoons, to 
Mifs Major Crolbie, of 
Kildare-ftreet. 

27. Sir Philip Hales, Bart. 

member of parliament 
for Downton, in Wilts, 
to Mifs Smith, of Shrewf- 
bury 5 at St. George's 
Hanover- fqu are. 

28. JofephVanderMeulen,Efq; 

St. Alban's, in the county 
of Hertford, to Mifs 
Sufanna Hitch, daugh- 
ter of John Hitch, Efq; 
iheriif of the county of 
Cambridge 5 at Mel- 
borne. 
John Grey, Efq; brother 
to Sir Henry Grey, Bart, 
of Howick, in Northum- 
berland, toMifs Wikett, 
of Dorfet-court, Weft- 
miniler. 
[N] 2 The 



156] 



CHRONICLE, 



The Rev. John Cayley, 
re^lor of Terrington, in 
Yorkfliire, to Mifs Fan- 
ny Cayley, youngeft 
daughter of Sir George 
Cayley, of Brompton, in 
the fame county, Bart. 
•— Efdaile, Efq; fon to Sir 
James Efdaile, alderman, 
to Mifs Hadfield, of 
Manchefter, 

March I. Alexander Leith, Efq; 
member for Tregony, in 
Cornwall, to Mifs Cope, 
of Grafton. ftreet, only^ 
daughter of the late lieu- 
tenant-general Sir John 
Cope, Knt. of the Bath ; 
at St, George's, Hano- 
ver-fquare. 
2. Mr. Mervin Dillon, to Mifs 
Goddard.the onlydaugh- 
ter of Parke Goddard, 
Efq; and niece to Sir 
Henry Parker, Bart, of 
Talton, in Worceiler- 
Ihire ; at Marybone. 
5, Sampfon Carter, Efq; to 
Mifs Sophia Copple- 
Itone, daughterof the late 
Sir William Coppleftone, 
of Bafingftoke, in Hamp- 
fiiire; in North- Audley- 
ftrcet. 
7. Thomas Frankland, Efq; 
» member for Thirlk, to 
Mifs Smelt, niece to 
Leonard Smelt, Efq; 
fub' governor to his royal 
highnefs the Prince of 
Wales. 
24. Colin Wallace, Efq; to Mifs 
Briggs, daughter of Sir 
Jofeph Briggs, of Woo- 
born in Bedfordfiiire ; in 
Portman-fquare. 

April I i. Sir Stair Agnew,ofLoch- 
naw, Bart, to Mifs Peggy 



Nafmith, daughter to 
Thomas Nafmith of 
Drumblair, Efq; at Glaf- 
gow. 

12. Henry Lafcellcs, Ord, Efq; 
to Mifs Duff", a near re- 
lation of Lord Fife; at 
Berwick. 

14. Ifaac Guedes, Efq; fon of 
Baron Guedes, to Mifs 
Moore, ofBethnal-green, 
daughter of the Reverend 
Dot'lor Moore, 

16. The Hon. George Gren- 
ville, Efq; nephew to 
Earl Temple, to the Hon. 
Mifs Nugent, daughter 
to Lord Clare. 

18. Sir John Gordon, of Earl- 
rtowH, in Scotland, Bart, 
to Mifs Anne Mylne, 
youngell daughter to the 
deceafed Mr. Thomas 
Mylne, of Powder-hall. 

26. Sir John Eykin, of Ecklc- 
ton, Sliropihire, to Mifs 
Browning, of Smithfield- 
bars. 

30. Hon. Geo. Sempill, brother 
to Ld. Sempill, to Mrs. 
Jodrell, of Yeardfley, 
Chefhire. 
May I. Charles Baldwyn, Efq; 
knight of the (hire for 
the county of Salop, to 
Mrs. Palmer, reliiftof the 
late Benjamin Palmer, 
Efq; of Alton, in the 
county of Warwick. 

6. Governor Bouchier, to Mifs 

Foley^ daughter to Tho. 
Foley, Efq; member for 
Here ford (hi re. 

7. William Gooch, Efqj fe- 

cond fon of Sir Thomas 
Gooch, Bart, of Benacre 
Park in Suffolk, to Mifs 
Villa Real, only daugh- 
ter 



CHRON.ICLE. 



['97 



ter and heirefs of the late 
William Villa Real, Efq; 
of Edwinftow, in Not- 
tinghamfhire, and niece 
to Lady Vifcouniefs Gal- 
way. 
9. At Redbraes, Major Ge- 
neral Henry Campbell 
of Boquhan, to Mifs 
Mary Crawfurd, eldeft 
daughter of Sir John 
Crawfurd, of Jordanhill, 
Bart. 

10. Brackley Kennet, Efq; al- 
derman ofCornhill Ward, 
to Mrs. Smith, near 
Cheltenham, Glouceller- 
fhire. 
Angus, Efq; to Mifs Tread- 
way, niece to Sir Andrew 
Lindfay, Bart. ; at The- 
obalds, Hertfordfhire. 

J5. The hon. Frederick Irby, 
eldeft fon to the fight 
hon. Lord Bofton, to 
Mifs Methuen, the only 
daughter of Paul Me- 
thuen, Efq; of Corftiam 
houfe, Wilts. 
The Rev. John Arden, of 
Longcrofts, ir.- Stafford- 
Ihire, to Mifs Hamar, 
only child of the late Ad- 
miral Hamar, of Hamp- 
ftead. 

«5. The Earl6f Lincoln, eldeft 
fon of the Duke of New- 
caftle, by a fpecial li- 
cence, to the honourable 
Mifs Conway, daughter 
of the Earl of Hertford; 
in Grofvenor-ftreet. 
Nathaniel Gundry, Efq; 
of Dorfetlhire, to Mifs 
Palmer, a relation of 
the Duke of Northum- 
bprlaiid* 



June 2. Earl Cowper, to Mifs 
Gore, of Southampton. 
3. Robert Stewart, Efq; of the 
county of Downe, in 
Ireland, to the hon. Mifs 
Pratt, daughter to Lord 
Camden ; at Lambeth 
chapel. 
$, Lord Algernon Percy, fC' 
cond fon of his grace the 
Duke of Northumber- 
land, to Mifs Burrell, 
daughter of Peter Burrell, 
Efq; of Beckenham, in 
Kent; at Sion houfe. 

10. Sir Robert Tilfon Deane, of 
Dromore, Bart, to Mifs 
Fitzmaurice, fole hcirefs 
to tie Ute John Fitz- 
maunce, of Springfield, 
in the county of Lime- 
rick, in Ireland, Efq; 

15. Robert Mayne, Efq; mem- 
ber for Gatton, to Mifs 
Otway, one of the co- 
heireffes of the late 
Francis Otway, Efq; 

17. The Earl of Rofebcry, 
to Mifs Vincent, only 
daughter of the late Sir 
Francis Vincent, Bart. 

21. Sir Alexander Purvis, 3art. 
to Mifs Mary Home, 
daughter to Sir James 
Home, Bart, of Colding- 
ham, in Scotland. 

25. Monf. de Fitte, at Langac- 
doc, lieutenant of the 
marftials of France, to 
Mifs Nancy Edgecumbe, 
fecond daughter to lady 
Fenoulhet, and niece to 
Lord Edgecumbe. 
July I. Charles Brown Moftyo, 
Efq; brother of Sir Pyers 
Moftyn, of Talacre, in 
FJintfliire, Bart, to Mifs 

[iST] 3 E. Withtro, 



193] 



CH RONIGLE, 



E.Witham, fitter of Wil- 
liam Witham, of Clifre, 
.Efq; 
10. Sir James Tylney Long, of 
Draycot, in Wiltihire, 
Bart, to the hon. Mifs 
Harriot Bouverie, young- 
eft daughter of the Jate 
lord vifcount Folkitone, 
and filler to the earl of 
Radnor. 

13. Alexander Grant, Efq; eld- 

eft fon of Sir Ludovick 
Grant of Dalvey, Bart, 
to Mifs Sarah Gray, eldeft 
daughter of John Gray, 
Efq; of Ibbley. 

14. Capt. M*B ide, ofthenavy, 

10 Mifs Folkes, fifter to 
Sir Martin Folkes, Bart, 
of Hiilington-hal), Nor- 
folk. 

16. Sir Thomas Lang, to Mifs 

Hannah Turner, niece to 
William Turner, Efq; 
N and commiffioner Han- 
more. 

17. The Hon. Capt. Herbert, 

of the royal navy, to 
Lady Carolina Monta- 
gue, fifter to his grace the 
Duke of Manchefter. 

18. Kev. Mr. H iilam, Canon of 

Windfor, to Mifs Roberts, 
daughter of the late Ri- 
chard Roberts, Efq; of 
Abergavenny. 

27. The hon. Edward Percival, 
brother to the Earl of 
Egmont, to Mifs Ha- 
worth, daughter of John 
Haworth, Efq; of Man- 
chefter. 

3^. Rev. Mr. Wodehoufe, fon of 
Sir Armire Wodehoufe, 
to Mifs Nourfe, of Wood- 
JiaioD, Norfolk. 



Aug. 4. Charles Pigot, Efq; to 
Mifs Cope, fifter to Sir 
Charles Cope, Bart. 
15, Charles Hotchkin, Efq; 
Mayor of Briftol ; to 
Mrs. Fiftier; at Briftol. 

Sept. 2. Capt. John Barlow, of the 
loth regiment of dra« 
goons, to Mifs Knott, 
daughter of the late 
Fettiplace Knott, Efq; 
high fteward of Litch- 
field, in Stafford (hire. 
4. Sir Brownlow Cuft, Bart, 
to Mifs Bankes, the only 
daughter of the late Sir 
Henry Bankes. 

6. George Rogers Efq; an 

Eaft-lndia gentleman, to 
Mifs Efther Coombes, 
niece to Lady Cornwal- 
lis 
His Royal Highnefs the 
Prince of Piedmont, el- 
deft fon to the King of 
Sardinia, to her Royal 
Highnefs, the Princefs 
Clotilda, of France, fifter 
to his moft Chriftian Ma- 
jefty ; at Paris, by proxy. 

7. The right hon. the Earl of 

Belvedere, toMifsBloom- 
field, fecond daughter of 
the late J(hn Bloomfield, 
of Redwood, Elq; at 
Dublin. 

9. John Hart, Efq; ftierifF of 
London and Middlefex, 
to Mifs Spencer, daughter 
of John Spencer, Efq; 
of Upper Holloway ; at 
Aldenham, in Hertford- 
ftiire. 

12. The Rev. Mr. Mofs, arch- 
deacon of St. David's, to 
Mils Roberts, of Great 
Plumftcad. 

Captain 



CHRONICLE; 



[^99 



Captain M^Donogh, inhii 
moft Chriflian maje(]y*s 
fervice, to Mifs Rofe 
PI unket,youngeft daugh- 
ter to Lord Dunfany. 

i6. Captain Parke, of Cork, to 
Mifs Browne, grand- 
daughter to the Lord 
Archbifhop of Tuam. 
The hon. Alexander DufF, 
brother to Lord Fife, to 
Mifs Mary Skene, eldeft 
daughter of Geo. Skene, 
Efq; 

i8. The Earl of Ely, of the 
kingdom of Ireland, to 
Mils Bonfoy,daughterof 
the late Hugh Bonfoy, 
£fc]; a captain in his 
majefty's navy. 

19. John Hancock, Efq; prefi- 

dent of the continental 
congrefs in America, to 
Mifs Q^iincy, daughter 
of Edmund Quincy, Efq; 
of Bofton. 

20. Hugh Owen, Efq; of Oriel- 

ton, in Pembrokefhire, 
knight of' the fhire for 
that county, to Mifs Col- 
by, of Blethefton. 

Sir' Richard Worfley of 
Pilcwell, in Hamplhire, 
Bart, member for New- 
port, in the ifie of Wight, 
to Mifs Seymour Flem- 
ing, daughter of the late 
Sir William Fleming, of 
Rydal, in W^ilmoreland, 
Bart. 

Sir Alexander Douglas, 
Bart, phyfician in Dun- 
dee, to Mifs Barbara Car- 
nagy, daughter to the 
deceafed James Carnagy, 
Efq; of Finhaven. 

CharlesAugullujLouis Fre- 



derick Baron de Bode, 
an officer in the French 
fervice; to Mifs Mary 
Kynncrfley, filler to Cie- 
ment Kynnerfley, Efq; 
of Loxley, Stafford fhire. 
Oft. I. The marquis of Spinola, a 
noble Genoefe, and the 
ficheflfubjed in Europe, 
to the youngeft daughter 
of Count Jofeph de Stah- 
rcnberg. 
2, The right hon. Sir Arthur 
Brook, Bart, of Clogher, 
in Ireland, to Mifs Foord, 
filler to Bernard Foord, 
Efq; of Weft Hefterton, 
in Yorklhire. 
7. William Baker, Efq;. of 
Bagfordbury, in Hert-. 
ford fhire, to Mifs Sophia 
Conyers, third daughter 
to the late John Conyers, 
Efq; knight of the flpre 
for the county of ElTex. 
10. Abraham Bracebridge, jun. 
Efq; to Mifs Holte, 
daughter of Sir Charles 
Holte, Bart; at Litch- 
field. 
14. The Rev. Dr. Samuel Hali- 
fax, Regius profeffor of 
Law, in the Univer- 
fity of Cambridge, and 
one of his majefty's 
chaplains in ordinary, to 
Mifs Cooke, daughter of 
the Rev. Dr. Cooke, pro- 
voll of king's college ir; 
that Univerfity. 
16. T^e reigning Prince of 
Saxe-Welmar, to the 
youngeft of the prin- 
ceffes of HefTc-Darm- 
ftadt. 
26. William Surtees, Efq; to 
Mifs Lcwis,eldeft daugh- 



200] 



CHRONICLE. 



tcr of the Dean of Of- 
fory; in the county of 
Northumberland. 

30. The reigning prince of 
S&lmSaIm,at Liege, in 
FIaaders,to Maria-Anna, 
Countefs of Horion. 
Kov. 1. The Dukeof Lainfter, to 
the hon. Mifs St. George, 
daughter to the late right 
hon. Lord St. George. 
Edward Gould, Efq; of 
Woodham Mansfield, in 
Nottinghamfhire, of the 
4th regiment of foot, to 
Lady Barbara Yelverton, 
only child of the Earl of 
Suflex. 
7. Aftley Palmer, of Bury St. 
Edmunds, Efq; to Mifs 
Cullum, fifter of Sir 
John Cullum of Hard- 
wick, Bart. 

14. Patrick Heron, of Heron, 
Efq;toLady Betty Coch- 
ran, daughter of the Earl 
of Dundonald; at Edin- 
burgh. 

34. John Milbank, Efq; to Mifs 
Cornelia Chambers, el- 
deft daughter of Sir Wil- 
liam Chambers. 

30. John White Efq; to Mifs 
Mary Heathcote, filler of 
Sir Gilbert Heathcote, 
Bart. 
Dec. 2. John Belfches, Efq; advo- 
cate in Fifeftiire, Scot- 
land, to Lady Jane Lef- 
lie, eldeft daughter to the 
Earl of Leven and Mel- 
vil. 
4« William Roe, Efq; to Mifs 
Thomas, daughter of Sir 
William Thomas, B rt. 
of Yapton, in the county 
of Suflex. 

I a. Sir William Seton, of Pit- 



meden, Bart, to Mifj 
Margaret Ligert wood , el- 
deft daughter of James 
Ligertwood, Efq; of Til- 
lery ; at Aberdeen. 

15. Thomas Lloyd, Efq; of 
Gray*s Inn, toMifsMary 
Whitwonh, third daugh- 
ter of Sir Charles Whit- 
worth. 

18. Peter Auriol Drummbnd, ^ 
Efq; fecond fon to his 
grace the Archbifhop of 
York, to Mifs Milnes, 
only daughter of Pem- 
broke Milnes, Efq; of 
Wakefield. 

22. John Betterfworth, Efq; of 

Eaft-Hade, in Bedford- 
Ihire, to Mifs Reynolds, 
fifter to Lord Ducie. 

23. The Rev. Dr. Mufgrave, 

Vicar of Barking, Eflex', 
brotherto Sir Philip Muf- 
grave, Bart, to Mrs. Par- 
feft, of Hatton Garden. 

26. Marquis of Granby, toLady 
Mary Ifabella Somerfet, 
youngeft fifter to the 
Duke of Beaufort. 

28. Sir Martin Folkes, Bart, of 
Hillington Hall, Nor- 
folk, to Mifs Turner, 
youngeft daughter of Sir 
John Turner, of War- 
ham, in the fame county, 
Bart. 
Francis Dugdale Aftley, 
Efq; high ftierift'of Wilt, 
fhire, to Mifs Mary Buck- 
ler, youngeft daughter of 
William Buckler, Efq; 
of Borehara. 

31. Lately, the Right Hon. Sir 
John Blaquiere, Knt. of 
the Bath, to Mils Elinor 
Dobfon, heirefs of Robert 
Dobfon, Efq; of Ann- 
Grove, 



C H R O N I C L 



Grove, in Yorkfhire; at 
Dublin. 
Lieutenant Ball, of the 
marines, to Mifs Ann 
Hamilton, niece to Sir 
Henry Hamilton, Ban. 



Principal Promotions for th( 
Tear 1 77 5, from the London Ga- 
zette, dfc. 

January. The Reverend Dr. 
Hurd, to the fee of Litchfield and 
Coventry. — The Rev. Dr. Moore, 
to the fee of Bangor.— His Grace 
the Duke of Gordon, created a 
Knight of the moft ancient and 
moft noble Order of the Thiftle.— 
John Cookfon, John Soley, Tho. 
Nuthall, Richard Capper, and 
William Moreton Pleydell, Efqrs. 
to be his majefty's commiffi: ners 
for licenfing hackney-coaches ^nd 
chairs within the cities of London 
and Wcltminrter, and fuburbs 
thereof. — George Rofe, Efqj to the 
office of furveyor of his majelly's 
revenue arifing by all and all man- 
ner of fines, forfeitures, and fums 
of money, commonly called green 
wax monies. 

February 3. William Gordon, 
Efq; his majelty*s Minifter Pleni- 
potentiary to the court of Brudels, 
created a Knight of the Bath, 

— 13. Captain John Gunning, 
of the 43d regiment, to be Depu- 
ty Adjutant General in North- 
Britain, with the rank of Lieute- 
nant-Colonel, vice Lord Napier, 
deceafed. 

— 28. Lately, the Rev. Mr. 
George Watfon Hand, Prebendary 
of Warminfter, Salifbury. 

William Blair, John Kenrick, 
James Bindley, William Baillie, 



E. [lot 

Waller, Efqrs, 



and William wauer, iiiqrs. to 
be his m:.jerty*s Commlffioners for 
managing the duties on Itamped 
vellum, parrhmeni, and paper, 
^c.— John Biettcl, Efq; to be Se- 
cretary, or Chief Cle»k 10 the f iid 
Commiffioners. — P ul Henry Gur- 
ry, Efq; to be one of the Comrrtif- 
fioners, in quality of a principal 
officer of his majefty's navy, for the 
affairs of his majefty's yard at Ply- 
mouth.— Edward Toms, Efq; to 
the office of Serjeant of all Trum- 
pets, Drums, and Fifes. 

March 27. Charlf^s SheriiF, to be 
Fort At'juiant and Barrack Mafter 
of Fort St. Auguftine, in North- 
America. — Surgeon Jonathan Mal- 
let, to be Purveyor to ihp Hofpital 
at Bofton, in North- America.— 
Doftor Michael Morris, to be Phy- 
fician ; Alexander Grant, Surgeon ; 
Robert Roberts, Apothecary ; John 
Jones, Chaplain ; John Charlton, 
Surgeon ; tothe hoipitalsin N< rth- 
America.— Colonel Robert Wat- 
fon, to be Lieutenant Governor of 
Portsmouth.- Lieutenant Colonel 
Edward Matthews, to be Aide de 
Camp to the King. 

— 31. Admiralty Office. Thif 
day, in purfuance of the King's 
pLeafure, the following flag officers 
of his majefty's fleet were pro- 
moted, viz. SirThomas Frank- 
land, Bart, his Grace the Duke of 
Bolton, Admirals of the Blue, to 
be Admirals of the White. — Fran- 
cis Geary, Efq; Vice- Admiral of 
the Red, to be Admiral of the 
Blue.— James Young, Efq; Sir 
Piercy Brett, Knt. Sir John Moore, 
Bart, and Knt. of thf^ Bath, Vicc- 
Admirals of the White, to be- 
Vice-Admirals of the Red. — Sa-, 
muel Graves, Efq; William Par- 
ry, Efq; Hon, Auguftus Keppel, 
Vice-Admirals of the Blue, to be 

Vice- 



ioi] 



CHRONICLE. 



Vice- Admirals of the White. —Sir 
PeterDennis,Bart.MatthewBuckle, 
Efq; Robert Man, ETq; Rear- Ad- 
mirals of the R.ed, to be Vice- Ad- 
mirals of the Blue. — Clark Gay- 
ton, Efq; John Barker, Efq; Sir 
Richard Spry, Knt. Rear- Admirals 
of the White, to be Rear- Admirals 
of the Red» — John Montagu, Efq; 
Sir Robert Harland, Bart. James 
Sayer, Efq; Rear-Admirals of the 
Blue, to be Rear-Admirals of the 
Red.— The' Right Hon. Richard 
Lord Vifcount Howe, Rear-Ad- 
miral of the Blue, to be Rear- Ad- 
miral of the White And the 

following Captains wwre alfo ap- 
pointed flag-officers of his majelly*s 
fleet, viz,— -The Right Hon.Wafh- 
ington. Earl Ferrers ; Hugh Pigot, 
Efq; Molineux Shuldam, Efq; Sir 
Jofeph Knight, Knt. John Vaug- 
han, Efq; to be Rear-Admirals of 
the White.-^ John Lloyd, Efq; Ro- 
bert Duff, Efq; John Reynolds, 
Efq; Sir Hugh Pallifer, Bart. Hon 
John Byron; Right Hon. Auguf- 
tus John Earl of Briftol, to be 
Rear-Admirals of the Blue. 

Lately, the Right Reverend Dr. 
Browne, Billiop of Eldhin, to the 
Archbifhoprickof Tuam, with the 
united Bilhoprick of Enoghdoen, 
and the Bilhoprick of Ardagh, Ire- 
land.— -The right Reverend Dr. 
Dodgfon, Bifhop of Offory, to the 
Biihoprick of Elphin.— The Right 
Reverend Dr. Newcome, Bifhop of 
Dromore, to the BiOioprick of 
Oflbry. The Rev. Dr. Haw- 
kins, Dean of Elmy, to the Bifhop- 
rick, of Dromore. — The Rev. Mr. 
John Hallam, to the place and 
dignity of a Prebendary of his Ma- 
}efty*s free Chapel of St. George, 
in the caftle of Windfor. — The 
Rev. Dr. Warren, to the Archdea- 
conry of Worceller.— -The Right 



Hon. George, Earl of Dalhoufie, 
to be one of the Commifrioncrs of 
Police in that Part cf Great-Bri- 
tain, called Scotland. — Alexander 
Lockhart, Efq; to be one of the 
ordinary Lords of his Majefty's 
Sefiion in Scotland.— ——Samuel 
Tooker, Efq; to be Recorder of 
Doncafter. — Dr. Noah Thomas, to 
the honour of Knighthood, and to 
be one of his Majefty's Phyficians 
in ordinary. — Jacob Reynardfon, 
Efq; to be a Commiffioner for licen- 
fing hackney-coaches and chairs. 

April 1. Sir Hugh Pallifer, Bart, 
to be one of the Lords of the Ad- 
miralty, in the room of the prefent 
Earl of Briftol, who refigned.— 
Captain Suckling, of the r<:>yal na- 
vy, tofucceed Sir Hugh, as Comp- 
troller of the Navy. 

— 4. Thomas Graves and Robert 
Digby, Efqrs. to he Colonels of 
his Majefty'5 Marine Force5, in the 
room of Hugh Pigot, Efq; and the 
Right Hon. the Earl of Briftol, ap- 
pointed Flag-officers of his Majef- 
ty's Fleet. 

—7. The Right Hon. Lord Vif- 
count Weymouth, to be Groom of 
the Stole, in the room of the late 
Earl of Briftol ; and the Hon. CoK 
Gordon, to be Groom of the Bed- 
chamber, in the room of the Hon-> 
Augullus John Hervey. 

—8. The Right Hon. the Earl 
of Hertford, to be Lord-lieutenant 
of the county of Montgomery.—. 
The Right Hon. Lord Clive, to be 
Lord-lieutenant of the county of 
Salop. 

— 24. Robert Duff, Efq; Rear- 
Admiral of the Blue, to be Gover- 
nor and Commander in Chief in 
and over the iHand of Newfound- 
land, and its dependencies. 

— 30. The Rev. James Corn- 
wallis, LL. D. to be Dean of Can- 
terbury ^ 



C H R O N I C L E, 



[203 



terbury.— The Rev. Dr.Wetherell, 
to be a Canon of St. Peter, Weft- 
minfter. 

May 2. Adjutant James Webb, 
of the 8th regiment of foot, to be 
Deputy-Comraiffary of the Mufters 
in North- America. 

— 12. His Grace the Duke of 
Chandos, Tworn of his MajcUy*s 
Privy Council. — The Right Hon. 
Stephen Earl of Ucheller, to be 
Comptroller of the Army Ac- 
counts.r—OwenSalufburyBrereton, 
Efq; to be Conltableof the Caftle 
of Flint, and the office of Keeper 
of the Gaol of the Caftle of Flint, 
and the officeof Comptroller of the 
Records within the counties of 
Chefterand Flint, and the office of 
Comptroller of the Pleas Fines, 
and Amerciaments of North Wales, 
in the county of Caernarvon j in the 
room of Other Lewis Windfor, 
Earl of Plymouth deceafed. 

— 16. Lieut. Col. William Eger- 
ton, to be Lieutenant-Governor of 
the iflands of Scilly, vice George 
Bofcawen, deceafed. 

—31. The Rev. Dr. Fothergill, 
to be a Canon of Durham. — The 
Rev. Mr. Henry Bathurft, to be a 
Canon of Chrift-Church, Oxford. 
— The Rev. Mr. Smallvvell, to be a 
Canon of Chrift-Church, Oxford, 
— Lieutenant-General fohnlrwine, 
to be Commander in Chief of all 
his Majelly's Land Forces in Ire- 
land ; and alfo to be Governor of 
Londonderry and Culmore Fort, in 
the faid kingdom, and a Privy- 
Counfellor.— Beaumont Ho ham, 
Efq; to the honour of Knighthood, 
and to be one of the Barons of the 
Exchequer. — JohnBorlaceWarren, 
Efq; and John Boyd, Efq; to the 
dignity of Baronets of Great-Bri- 
uin»— William Lee, Efq; late one 



of the Sheriffs of this city, to be 
Alderman of Aldgate Ward. 

June 10. Hugh Owen, Efq; 
Knight of the Shire for the county 
of Pembroke, to be Lieutenant and 
Cuftos Rotulorum of the faid coun- 
ty, in the room of Sir William 
Owen, Bart, who refigned, 

— 16. Cavin Ddane, Efq; tobc 
Serjeant at Arms in Ordinary, to , 
attend hisMajelly*s Royal Perfon, 
with all fees, &c, belonging to the 
faid office. 

— 30. Lately the Rev. Mr, 
Francis Le Breton, to the Deanry 
of the Ifland of Jerfey. — The Rev 
Mr. Richard Lucas, to be a Canon 
of the -Metropolitan Church of 
Canterbury. — Sir Watkin Williams 
Wynn, Bart, to be Lieutenant of 
the county of Merioneth, and to 
be Cuftos Rotulorum of the faid 
county.— James Monigomery,Efq; 
to be Chief Baron of his Majefty's 
court of Exchequer, in Scotland.— 
Henry D'jndas, Efq; to be his Ma- 
jefty's Advocate in Seotland. — 
Alexander Murray, ETq; to be his 
Majefty's fole Solicitor, in Scot- 
land. — Stamp Brookftjank, Efq; to 
be one of the Commiffioners for the 
Receipt of his Majefty's Revenue of 
Excife. 

July II. Col. Hugh Earl Percy, 
to be Major-General in America 
only. 

— 13. William Beard, Efq; of 
the Middle Temple, to be a Welck 
Judge. 

— 31. Lately, the Rev. Dr. 
Montagu North, to be a Pre- 
bendary of Windibr. The 

Rev. Dr. Matthew Lamb, to be a 
prebendary of Worcefter. Robert 
Byres, Efq; to be Conful at 
Memel.— John Wallace, Efq; to 
be Conful at Bergen. 

Auguft 



204] 



CHRONICLE, 



Auguft 5. The Right Hon. Ch. 
Jenlcinfon, Eiq; to be Clerk of the 
pells in Ireland. 

All Captains, Lieutenants, and 
Bnfigns, reduced with their corps, 
at the laft peace, and ftill remain- 
ing on half-pay on the Engliih tfta- 
bliihment, who defired to be again 
employed in their prefent rank, 
weredireded from the War-office, 
to fjgnify the fame to the Secretary 
at War. * 

.^15. Walter Fletcher Gafon, 
oflhefecond troop of Horfe-guards, 
to be Sub-Brigadier and Qornet. 

—31. Lately, the Right Hon. 
Sir John Blaquiere, to be Aulna- 
ger, and Colledor of the Subfidies 

of Aulnager, Ireland. Mariot 

Arbuthnot, Efq; to be one of the, 
Commiffioners for the Naval Affairs 
in North- America. 

Septemb. 2. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Richard Burton Phillipfon, of the 
:6rft regiment of Draijoons, to be 
Aid-de-Camp to the King. — Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel James Murray, of 
the third regiment of Foot- Guards, 
to be Governor of Upnor Caftle. 

•^20. Robert Ainflie, Efq; to 
be his M?jefty*s AmbafTador to the 
Ottomon Porte,in the room of John 
Murray, Efq; deceafed. 

30. Lately, the Rev. Mr. Car- 
rington, to be a Prebendary of Exe- 
ter Cathedral. — Daniel Bomeerter, 
to be hiG Majefty*s Conful in Sicily, 
Malta, and the adjacent iflands. — 
John Sharrart, Efq; to be Conful 
at Carthagena, in Spain. — Jofeph 
Curtoys, Efq; to be Conful at Bar- 
celona. 

Odob. The Right Hon. Robert 
Lord Vifcount Clare, the Ri^ht 
Jion.Welbore Ellis, and the Right 
Hon. Kcnpy Flood, th» office or 
offices of his Majefty** Vice-Trea* 



furcr and Receiver-General and 
Pay-Mailer General of all his Ma- 
jefty's Revenues, Profits, and Ca* 
fuaities whatfocver, in the King- 
dom of Ireland. — The Right Hon. 
Edward Lord Clive, tobe Recorder 
of Shrewfbury.— The Rev. Mr. 
Clarke, to the Deanry of the Bief- 
fed Virgin Mary, in Tuam, Ire- 
land.— The Rev. Mr. Thurlowe, 
to the Deanry of the Bleffed Vir» 
gin Mary, in Rochefter. 

Nov.y.Lieuienant- Colonel John 
Douglas, of the fecond Regiment 
of Dragoons, to be Aid-de-Camp 
to the King.^^Lieutenant Colonel 
Alexander Leflie, of the 64th regi- 
ment of Foot, to be Aid-de-Camp 
to the King. 

— 10. The Right Hen. Wil- 
liam Earl of Dartmouth, to be 
Keeper of the Privy Seal. — The 
Right Hon.ThomasVifcountWe; « 
mouth, to be one of his Majelly'« 
Principal Secretaries of State.— — 
The Right Hon. Lord George 
Sackville Germaine, to be one of 
his Majefty's Principal Secretaries 
of State. 

— 1 1. Alexander Leith, of Burgk 
St. Peter, in Norfolk, Efq, a Baro- 
net fif Great-Britain.— «--Henrv 
Etherington, of Kingfton upon 
Hull, Efq; a Baronet of Great- 
Britain. 

—17. Rigjit Hon. Thomas Lord 
I^ytteUon, to be of his Majclly*s 
Privy Council ; and Warden and 
Chief Juftice in Eyre of all his Ma- 
jeilv's'Forefts, &c. beyond Trent. 

— 18. The Right Hon. the Earl 
of Athburnham, to be Groom of 
the Stole and Flril Gentleman of 
the Bed-chamber.to his Majefty.r- 
The Right Hon. Thomas Lord 
Pel ham, to be Keeper of the Great 
War^i'obe. — GeorgeColman,Efqi 

to 



CHRONICLE. 



[205 



to be Serjeant at Arms in Ordinary 
to his Majerty, and to attend tne 
vSpeaker ot the Houfe of Commons 
in Time of Parliament. 

— 28. Charles Blagd-'n, Efq; to 
be Phylician ; John Mtrvin Nooth, 
Efq; Purveyor and Phyfician Ex- 
traordinary j — Field, and Thomp- 
ion Forller, Surgeons; James Jame- 
fon, and ■. — Paine, Apotheca- 
ries ; to the hofpital in North- Ame- 
rica. — Col. Charles Rainsford, to 
be Governor of Cheller, vice James 
Cholmondeley, deceafed. 

• — 30. Lately, the Right Hon. the 
Earl of Galloway, created a Knight 
of the Thillle. — Sir John Stepney, 
Birt. to he Envoy Extraordinary at 
the Court of Drefden. — The Rev. 
Dr. Farmer, Mafter of Emanuel 
College, to be Vicc-Chancellor of 
Cambridge. — The Rev. Dr. Buck- 
worth, to be a Canon or Preben- 
dary of Canterbury.— —George 
Payne, Efq; to be Keeper of the 
Lions, in the Tower of London. 

Dec. 1. George Hall, Efq; to 
be Comptroller of his Majeity's 
S lit Duties, in the room of Francis 
Burton, Efq; — fFrancis Bartlam, 
Efq; to be Clerk of the Wardrobe. 
— Matthew Lewis, Efq; to be the 
Deputy of Lord Harrington, Secre- 
tary at War, in the room of Anthony 

Chamier, Efq; The Hon. Mr. 

Sackville, to be private Secretary to 
Lord George Sackville Germaine, 
Secretary of State for the American 
Department. 

— 15. The Right Hon. Lieute- 
nant-General Sir John Irvin, cre- 
ated Knight of the Bath. 

— 31. Lately, John St. John, 
Efq; to be Surveyor-General of 
all his Majefty*s Honours, Caftles, 
Lordlhips, Manors, &c. in Eng- 
land and Wales.— The Right Hon. 



Sir George Macartney, Kat. of th 
Bath, to be Caprain-Gencral and 
Governor in Chief of his Majefty's 
iflandsof Grenada, the Grenadines, 
and Tobago, in America. 



DEATHS, 1775. 

Jan. I. The Marquis de Botta 
d'Adorno, Field Marftral of their 
Royal and Apoftolic Majefties Ar- 
mies, Imperial Vicar of Italy, &c, 
at Pavia. 

2. Lord St. Geor^, Baron of 
Hatley St. George, m the king- 
dom of Ireland, at Nice, in Ita^. 
His Lordfliip was created Baroa 
of Hatley St. George on -the 
I9:h of April 1763, and married 
Elizabeth daughter of Chrif- 
topher Dominick, Efq; by whoiu 
he had iffue one fon and a daugh- 
ter, the former of whom died in 
December 1765. 

10. Major-General Laurence, in 
Bruton-ftreet. He was the firfl of- 
ficerwho introduced military difcU 
pline into India, where for 20 yeara ' 
he commanded the Company'i 
troops. 

Edward Codrington, Efq; bro- 
ther to Sir William Codrington, 
Bart, in the South of France. 

11. Monf. le Due d'Urfell, 
Knight cf the Golden Fleect, Lord 
of the Bed-Chamber, Lieutenant- 
General, and Governor of Bruflels, 
at Brufl'els. 

The Rev. Richard Webb, A. M.. 
Vicar of Downton, Wilts, and Pre- 
bendary of Salifbury and Lincola 
cathedrals. 

19. The Rev. Dr. Powell, Maf- 
tcr of St. John's College, iri Cam- 
bridge, Archdeacon of Colcheft^r, 

and 



ao6] 



CHRONICLE. 



and Reflor of Frefliwater, in the 
Ifle of Wight. 

20. The Hon. Thomas Hervey, 
fccond fon to the late, and uncle to 
the prefent Earl of Briltol, in Old 
Bond-ftreet, aged 77. 

21. Sir John Brown, Bart, at 
Sunning, near Reading. 

26. Dame Mary J anc B uckworth, 
reliftof Sirjohn Buckworth,Bart. 

30. The Hon. Mrs. Bellenden, 
at Southampton. 

Feb. I. The Hon. Nicholas Her- 
bert, brother to the late, and uncle 
to the prefent Earl of Pembroke, 
member for Wilton in this and fe- 
veral other parliaments, and fe- 
cretary of the illand of Jamaica, at 
Great Glenham, Suffolk. 

~ Myer, Efq; Governor 
of Senegal. 

2. Cardinal Ferdinand Maria de 
Roffi, at Rome. 

Don Angelo Gabrielle, Prince 
of Prafiedi, at Rome, He has 
left a fum towards portioning the 
daughters of the poorefl of his vaf- 
fals. 

3. The Right Hon. Lady Vif- 
countefs Primrofe, at her houfe in 
Clarges-ttreet. 

4. The Rev. Dr. John Ryder, 
Archbifhop of Tuam, in Ireland^ 
in the 78th year of bis age, at Nice, 
in Italy. He was created Biihop 
of Killaloe, in 1741 ; was iranfla- 
ted from thence to the fee of Dcwn 
and Connor, in 1743; and from 
thence to the Archbilhoprick of 
Tuam, in 1752. 

Sir George Francis Hampfon, 
Bart, of the ifland of Jamaica. 
- Lately, the Hon, Archibald 
Campbell, Efq; eldell fon of Lord 
Stonefieid, in France, where he 
went for the recovery of his health. 

5. Lieutenant-Colonel Charles 



W^illiam Pearce, the oldeft office^ 
in his Majelly*s fervice, in Ire- 
land. 

6. The Right Hon. William 
Dowdefwell, Efq; one of his Ma- 
jelly's moft honourablePrivy Coun- 
cil, and Knight of the Shire for the 
county of VVorcefter, at Nice, in 
Italy, where he went for the reco- 
very of his health, 

9. Mifs Elizabeth Johnfon, el- 
delt daughter to SirWilliam John- 
fon, Bart* in the 1 8th- year of her 
age, at Aberdeen. 

10. Capt. £d\vard Cauldvvell, of 
the royal navy. 

14. Lady Cuft, widow and relifl 
of Sir JohnCuft, Barr. late Speaker 
of the Houfe of Commons, in 
Upper Brook-flreet, Grofvenor- 
fquare. 

Alexander Coldcn, Efq; eldefk 
fon to the Honourable Lieutenant- 
Governor Coldenj Poil-mafter and 
Surveyor-General of New-York, 
at Nevy-York. 

iS. The Right Hon. William 
Lord Napier, at Bath. 

20. Sir George Oxenden, Bart, 
at Dean, near Wingham, in Kent. 
Sir George fucceeded his brother. 
Sir Henry, in the title, in 1720; 
and the title and family eilate now 
defccnd to his fon. Sir Henry Ox- 
enden, of Broome, Barr. 

21. Edward Denny, Efq. mem- 
ber for Tralee, in the county of 
Kerry, in Ireland. 

22. Capt. John Murray, Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of the Gairlfon at 
Portfmouth- 

Alexander Frafer, Efq; of Stri- 
chen, in Scotland, one of the Se- 
nators of the College of Judice, 
and General of the Mint in Scot- 
land, at Strichen Houfe. 

23. LadvChriIlianBruce,daugh- 

ter 



.#■ 



C H R O If I ,C L E. 



[207 



tcr of the late Earl of Kincardine, 
at Balgonie, in Scotland. 

Jean Francois Ogier, Honorary 
Prefident of the Parliament of Pa- 
ris, at Pari?. 

24. The Hon. Charles Nugent, 
brother to ihe Earl of Wellmeath, 
in France. 

26. The Right Hon. the Coun- 
teJ5 of Leicelter, at her feat at 
Ilolkham, in Norfolk. 

28. Lately, John Sydenham, 
Efq; only furviving grandchild 
of the celebrated Dr. Syden- 
ham. 

March i. Arthur Connell, Efq; 
late ProvoU of Glafgow. 

4. DameElizabeth T^vifden, re- 
lid to the late and mother to the 
prefent Sir Rog'?r Twifdcn. 

5. Richard Barvvell, Efq; late 
High Sheriff of the county of 
Surry. 

6. Wm. Lowndes, Efq; one of 
the Auditors of his Majelly's Ex- 
chequer, in Duke-Iheet, Wellmin- 
ller. 

Dunbar Maxwell, Efq; yoiingeft 
fon of the late Sir William Max- 
well, of Monrcith, Bart, and bro- 
ther of the Duchefs of Gordon, at 
Edinburgl^ 

Mrs. Blair, Lady of William 
Blair, Efq; Firft Clerk of the Privy- 
Council, at St. Jamcs'5. 

7. The Right Hon. John Earl 
of Glafgowjathis feat of Kelbourn, 
in Scotland. His Lordihip fuc- 
ceeded his father in 1740. He 
married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Lord Rofs, by whom he has left 
illue c>c fon and three daughters. 

12. The Rev. Dr. Richardfon, 
late Mafter of Emanuel College, 
Cambridge. 

^ The Moll Hon.William-Henry 
Kerr, Marquis of Lothian, Knight 



of the Thiftle, Colonel of the 17th 
Regiment of Dragoons, and Gene- 
1 al of his Majelly's Forces, at Bath. 
His Lordihip is fucceeded, in titles 
and eilate, by his elded fon, th« 
Earl of Ancram, Lieutenant Colo- 
pel of the fecond troop of Grena- 
dier-Guards. 

13. The Right Hon. Sir Joha 
Rufhout, Bart, a Member of his 
Majelly's Moll Honourable Privy- 
Council, and many years Repre- 
fentative in Parliament for the bo- 
rough of Evefnam, in Bloom Ibury- 
fquare, aged upwards of 90. He 
is fucceeded, in title and eltate, by 
his only fon, now Sir John Rulhout, 
Member in the lall and prefent 
Parliaments for the fame borough. 

Mrs. Erikine, relid of 

Admiral Erikine. 

Thomas Lehunte, Efq; Repre* 
fentative in Parliament for the bo- 
rough of Newnton, and one of the 
oldefl Members in the Irifh Houfe 
of Commons, at Dublin. 

16. Richard Price Thelwall, 
Efq; a near relation of the Lord 
Vifcount Eulkeie)r, at Rulace, ia 
Merionethfhire, 

Her Royai Highnefs the Princefs 
Carolina-Augulla-Maria, youngeft 
daughter of the Duke and Duchefs 
of Glouf^fter, aged eight months, 
at London. 

20, George William Hervey, 
E -rl of Briltol, of an apoplectic fit, 
in the 53d year of his age, at Bath. 
His Lord iliip was born Auguft 31, 
1721; fucceeded to the title in 
1750^ was one of the fupporters of 
the pall the next year at the funeral 
of his Majelly's father; was no- 
minated Ambaflador to Spain in 
175 1 ; and foon after his return 
was appointed Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland; afterwards. Lord Privy- 
Seal; 



208] 



CHRONICLE, 



Seal ; and then. Groom of the 
Stole to his prefent Majefty. Ha* 
ving never been married, he is fuc- 
ceeded by his brother, the Hon. 
Auguftus Hervev, Commander in 
the Navy, to whom he has left an 
cllate cf 20,oool. a year. 

21. Penn, Efq; one 

of the proprietors cf Pt- nnfylvania, 
of New-ftreet, Spring-gardens* 

Mr. Samuel Boyce, originally 
an engraver, author of feveral, pret- 
ty poetical pieces. 

George Wilmot, Efq; father to' 
Sir Robert Wilmot, Bart, and Firft 
Clerk in the Lord Chamberlain's 
office, at Briftol, where he went 
for the benefit of the waters. 

24.The Right Hon. LadyMilton, 
daughtertothelateDukeof Dorfet, 
andfiilertoLordOecrgeGermaine, 
in Tilney-ftreet, May-fair. 

25. The Marquis Hubert Palla- 
vicini, at Parma, in Italy, Grand 
Chamberlain to the Infant Prince 
of Parma. 

31. The Right Hon. William 
Lord Boflbn, Baron of Bofton, in 
the county of Lincoln, at London. 
His Lordfhip was born in 1707, 
created a Peer by his prefent Ma- 
jefly in 1761, and alfo appointed 
Lord Chamberlain to the Princefs 
Dowager of Wales, having been 
her Royal Highnefs's Chamberlain 
from the time of her marriage. 
His Lordfhip married Albinia, 
daughter of Henry Selwyn, Efq; 
by whom he had iffue Frederick, 
now Lord Bofton, William-Henry, 
and Augufta Georgina Elisiabeth, 
Jharried to Thomas de Grey, Efq; 
fon of the Right Hon. Lord Chief 
Juftice de Grey. 

April I. The Lady of Jofeph 
Dacre, Efq; daughter of the late 
Sir George Fleming, Bart, Bilhop 
of Carlille, 



Ogilvie 



5. The Lady of Mr. Bafoii 
Gr^nt, of the court of Exchequer 
of Scotland, and daughter of Lord 
Milton, in Dean-ftreet, Soho. 

The Right Hon. Lady Margaret 
fpoufe to Sir John V/ed- 
derbufne, of Ballendean, in Scot- 
land, atBallendean aforefaid. 

— — Cocks, Efq; Clerk of the 
Patents, a near relation to the'Earl 
of Hard wick. The reverfion of his 
office goes to Robert Willmot, Efq; 
fon of Robert Willmot, Efq; Se- 
cretary to the Lord Chancellor, 

Mrs. Catharine Herbert, relifl 
of the late Arthur Herbert, Efq; 
and fifter to Sir Rowland Watts, 
aged 96. 

1 1 . Charles James Downall, Efq; 
a member of the Irifh Houfe of 
Commons, in Bolton-row. 

The Rev. Dr. Roger Moftyn, 
reclor of Chriftleton, Chefliire ; 
prebendary of Windfor and Chef- 
ter, tncle to Sir Roger Moftyn, 
Bart, at Chriftleton aforefaid, 

14. Lady Fowler, relift of Sir 
Hans Fowler, Bart, of Richmond- 
buildings, Soho. 

16. Sir Anthony Thomas Abdy, 
Bart. ofAibynCj in Eftex, and Cob- 
ham, in Surry, Member of Parlia- 
ment for Knarefborough in York- 
fliire. He is fucceeded in title and 
eftate by his brother, now Sir Wil- 
liam Abdy, Bart, a Captain in his 
Majefty *s navy. 

Mifs Sophia Mawbey, daughter 
of Sir JoTeph Mawbey, Bart, at 
Vauxhall. 

Cary Creed, Efq; of CafJ*?- 
Cary, aged 88 ; leavinpr the bulk 
of his fortune to charitable ufes. 

17. Lady Gertrude Hotham, 
fifter to the late Earl of Chefter* 
field, in New Norfolk-ftreet. 

ao. Mrs. •— — — Stukcley, aunt 



CHRONICLE. 



[209 



to Sir George Pocock, Knt. a 
widow lady of fortune, in Bennet- 
llreet, St. James's, 

25. The Rev. Dr. Daniel Bur- 
ton, Canon of Chrift-Church, Ox- 
ford, and Re6tor of St. Peter le 
Poor, London. 

25. Mrs. Geary, relifl of Ad- 
miral Geary, in Chapel-ftreec, 
Grofvenor-fquare. 

26. The Hon. Henry Grimftone, 
of a paralytic difoder. 

The Rev. Peter Boehler, a Biftiop 
of the Brethren's Church in Fetter- 
lane. 

28. The Rev, Dr. Thomas 
Curteis, one of the Prebendaries of 
the Cathedral at Canterbury, Rec- 
tor of Sevenoaks in Kent, Reftor 
ofSt.DionisBackchurch, London, 
and one of the Proftors in Convo- 
cation for the Diocefe of Rochefter. 

29. The Hon. Arthur Dawfon, 
late one of the Barons of his Ma- 
jefty's Court of Exchequer in Ire- 
land, at Dublin. 

May 2. Her Grace the Duchefs 
of Montague, in Privy-Gardens. 

3. The Hon. George Bofcawen, 
Lieutenant-GeneralofhisMajerty's 
Land-forces, Colonel of the 24th 
Regiment of Foot, and brother to 
Lord VifcountFalmouth, in York- 
ftreet, St. James's. 

The Hon. George Hamilton, in 
King'srmead-ftreet, Bath. 

4. The Rev. Samuel Holcombe, 
M. A. Prebendary of Worceller, 
and Re6tor of Severn, in that 
county. 

Mrs. Saintloe, relidl of John 
Saintloe, Efq; a Rear-admiral of 
his Majefty's Navy. 

5. Col. John Blenerhaffet, of 
Balliferdy, in the county of Kerry, 
in Ireland, which county he repre- 
fented in parliament. 

Vol. XVIIL 1775. 



7. The Right Hon. Lady Sophia 
Lambert, cfdeH daughter of the 
Earl of Cavan, in Sackville-ftreer. 

Lady Williams, of Gwernwell 
Lodge, in Brecknocklhire. 

9. Mifs Elizabeth Mill, fifter of 
Sir Thomas Mill, Bart, at Edin- 
burgh. 

10. Her Majefty Carolina Ma- 
tilda Queen of Deumark and Nor- 
way, filter to his M3Jefty,of a ma- 
lignant fevcTf at Zell, aged 23 
years and 10 months. [See our 
article of Charafters.] 

George Quarme, Efq; one of his 
Majefty's Commiflionersof Excife. 

12. Her mort Serene Highnefs, 
Frederica, Duchefs Dowager of 
Saxe WeifTenfels, aged 60. 

13. The Rev. Mr. Nott, one of 
the Minor Canons of Worceller 
cathedral, Re«n.or of St. Martin ia 
that city, and Chaplain to theLord 
Bilhop of Oxford. , 

14. The Hon. W. Leybourne 
Leybourne, Efq; Governor of the 
ifland of Grenada. 

17. The Right Hon. Lady Bla- 
ney, in Ireland. 

19. John Shakefpeare, Efq; Al- 
derman of Aldgateward, and She- 
riff in 1769, at Mile-End. 

20. The Hon. Mr. Montagu, 
uncle to the Earl of Sandwich, in 
Hill-ftreet, Berkley-fquare. 

The Hon. Mifs Johnfon, one of 
the Maids of Honour to her Ma- 
jefty. 

22. Sir Francis Vincent, ofStoke 
D'Aberton, near Cobham in Surry, 
Bart. Knight of the Shire for the 
faid county, in Lower Grofvenor- 
ftreet. He is fucceeded in title and 
ellate by his eldeft fon, now Sir 
Francis Vincent, Bart. 

23. The Rev. Dr. Crufius, Pre- 
bendary of Worgefter and ofBreck- 

[0] nock. 



aio] 



CHRONICLE. 



nock, Re^or of Shopdon in 
Here ford ill ire, and of St. John's 
near Worcellcr, in Charter-houfe- 
fquare. 

Count Lafberg, an officer in the 
Hanoverian fervice, in the Stable- 
yard, St. James's. 

27. Her Royal Highnefs the 
Princefs Dowager of Conti. 

Sir Archibald Seton, of Pitmed- 
den, Bart, at Aberdeen, 

28. Lady Letitia Trelawney, in 
Portman-ilreet. 

June 2. The Rev. Francis Payne, 
LL, D. and F. R. S. in the Ifland 
of Jerfey, Dean of the faid Ifland, 
and Reftor of the Parilh of St. 
Martin there. 

Barlow Trecothick, Efq; who 
fome time ago refigned his gown as 
Alderman of the ward of Vintry, at 
his country houfe, near Croydon^ 
10 Surry, 

5. Sir Charles Burton, Bart. 
fenior Alderman, and Father of the 
city of Dublin. 

6. Fettiplace Nott, Efq; High 
Steward of the city of Litchfield. 

7. The Right Hon. the Coantefs 
of Kelly, at Drumlheugh, near 
Edinburgh, 

8. The Hon. Mifs Vernon, 
daughter of Lord Vernon, in Park- 
place, St. James's, 

10. Sir John Thorold, of Cran- 
well, in the county of Lincoln,Bart. 
on his return from Bath. 

12. The Lady of Sir Edmund 
Head, Bart, at Charles-Town, 
South Carolina. 

20. The Right yt3^:Ann,Coun- 
tefs Winterton, at Simlrftglee Park, 
in Suflex. 

22. His moH Serene Highnefs 
th^ signing Prince of NaffauUfin* 
gen, near Mentz. 

The Hon. Edward Seymour, 

9 



Erq;of Uniyerfity-college,Oxford, 
eldelllonof Lord Seymour, Dean of 
Wells, and nephew to his Grace 
the Duke of Somerfet. 

25. Hugh Mackay, Efq; Lieu- 
tenant-Geiieral, and Colonel of a 
Scotch regiment, in the fervice of 
the States-General, at Breda. 

26. Finnes Eddowes, Efq; Sur- 
veyor-General of the Cuftoms for 
Hants and Porfetlhire, at Portf- 
mouth. 

37. The Right Hon. Francis 
James Lefly, Lord Lindores, near 
the Tay, in Fifefhire, Scotland. 

28. Eleanora Oglethorpe, wi- 
dow of Eugene Marie de Bethify, 
Marquis de Mezieres, Lieutenant- 
General of the French King's ar- 
mies. Governor of the town and 
citadel of Amiens, Sec. &c. at the 
feat of the Marquis de Mestieres, 
her fon, in France. 

The Lady of the Right Rev. Dr. 
Cumberland, late Lord Bifhop of 
itilmorc, and mother of Dr. Cum- 
berland, author of the Weft-Indian, 
Brothers, and feveral other drama- 
tic pieces. 

The Right Hon. Lord Vifcount 
Maynard, upwards of ninety years 
old, at MuchrEafton, in Effex. 
He is fucceeded in title by Sir 
Charles Maynard, His Lordfliip 
is faid to have expended 3000 1- a 
year in adls of chariLy. 

July 4. The Right Hon. Henry 
Lord Willoughby,of Parh3m,aged 
feventy-nine, in Frith-Iireei, Soho. 
His Lordlhip took his feat in the 
Houfe of Peers, in confequence of 
their Lordihips order on the hear- 
ing of his claim to the title, in 
March, 1767. His honours and 
fortune devolve on his only nephew 
George Willoughby, Efq; iacc of 
Queen's College, Cambridge. 

7. Col, 



I 



CHRONICLE. 



[ill 



7. Col. Thomas Gardner, of 
Cambridge, in America, of the 
wounds he received in the battfe at 
Bunker's Hill, near Bofton. 

John Holwall, Efq; Commander 
of his Majcfty's fhip Refolution, a 
guardfhip at Portfmouth. 

Rev. John RatcliiFe, D.D. up- 
wards of thirty-feven years Mailer 
of Pembroke College, in the uni- 
verfity of Oxford. 

15. The Right Hon. Lady Erne, 
at Dublin. 

Thomas Bayles, Efq; Mayor of 
Colchefler. 

18. The Hon. and Rev. Am- 
brofe St. John, reftor of Blctftow, 
in the county of Bedford. 

20. John Delaval, Efq; in the 
20th year of his age, fon to Sir John 
Hufley Delaval, Bart. atBriftol. 

21. The Hon. Mifs Maria Con- 
flantia Howard, daughter to the 
Earl of Suffolk, in the ninth year 
of her age, at Sunbury. 

Col. Demetrius James, late of 
the 43d regiment of foot, at Hy the, 
in Kent. 

Robert Pratt, of Cofcomb, in 
Gloucefterftiire, Efq; one of the 
Mafters in Chancery, and nephew 
to Lord C^mbden^ 

Simon Boerum, Efq; of Long 
Ifland, New-York, one of the re- 
prefentatives in the General Aflem- 
bly for King's county, and one of 
the delegates to the Continental 
Congrefs. 

22. The Lady of the Bifhop of 
Kildare, at Holyhead, on her way 
to Dublin. 

The Rev. Dr. Benjamin New- 
combe, Dean of Rochefter, and 
Reftor of St. Mildred, in the Poul- 
try, at Rocheller. 

24. .John Pollen, Efq; late one 
of the Welch Judges, at Andover. 

Ralph Warburton, Efq; only fcQ 



of the Right Rev. the Lord Bifhop 
of Gloucefter, in his nineteenth 
year, at the Hot Wells, Brif- 
tol. 

30. Mrs. Barnett, relift of the 
late Curtis Barnett, Efq; Com- 
raanc^er of his Majefty's fquadron, 
in India. 

3 1 . The Hon. Mrs. Helen Gray, 
fpoufe of William Stirling, Efq; at 
Calder. 

Augufta. Major-GeneralDeane, 
in Thrift-ftreet, Soho. 

Robert Lennox, Efq; many years 
Chief of Bencoolen in the EalU 
Indies, in Southampton-ftreet. 

9. His Excellency John Murray, 
Efq;. his Britannic Majefty's Am- 
baftador to the Ottoman Porte, at 
Venice. 

10. Col. Boifrond, of the Ma- 
rines, at Portfmouth. 

12. The youngeft fon of the 
Right Hon. Lord Mountcafhell, ia 
Ireland. 

Sir Gregory Page, Bart* aged 
near 90. He has left the bulk of 
his immenfe fortune to Sir Gregory- 
Turner, Bart. 

15. Sir Lynch Salufbury Cotton, 
Bart, who reprefented the county 
of Denbigh in the three laft parlia- 
ments, in an advanced age, at his 
feat at Combermere, in Chefhire, 
The title and family eftate of about 
9000I, per annum, defcend to his 
eldert fon, now Sir Robert Saluf- 
bury Cotton, Bart. 

16. His Highnefs Prince Mi- 
chael CzartorilkijGreat Chancellor 
of Lithuania, &c. &c. at War- 
faw. 

Gerald Fitzgerald, Efq; one of 
the reprefentativcs ifi parliament 
for Harriftown, in Ireland. 

The Rev. Dr. Latablere, Dean 
of Tuam, &c, in Ireland. 

[0] 2 JMy 



ais] 



CHRONICLE. 



Lady Dyer, wife of Thomas 
Dyer, Efq; at Kenfmgton. 

20. Michael Obrien Dilkes, 
Efq; General, and Colonel of the 
50th regiment now at Jamaica, at 
Dublin. 

Col. Macdonal, at Harro- 
gate, in Yorklhire. 

Mifs Helen Ogilvie, eldeft 
daughter of Sir John Ogilvie, of 
Inverquharity, Bart, at Kinnardy, 

22. Lady Gordon, at Inver- 
Gordon Caflle, in Rofsihire, Scot- 
land. 

The new-born daughter of Lord 
Vifcount Weymouth. 

24. The Hon, Mrs. Bridget 
Flamilton, relict of the late Hon. 
GeorgeHamiIton,inKing's-Mead- 
flreet, Bath. 

27. Mrs, Frances Newman, 
daughter of the late Sir Richard 
Newman, of Prefton Deanery, 
Nonhamptonfliirc, Bart. 

30. The Hon. Col. Beauclerk, 
late of the 3d Regiment of Guards, 
and Governor of Pendennis Caftle. 

Lately, George Dyndon, LL.D. 
Regifter of the diocefe of Dublin. 

The Rev. Dr. Francis Corbett, 
Dean of St. Patrick'5, Dublin, aged 
92. He fucceeded the celebrated 
Dr. Swift, 

Sept. 2. The Right Hon. Lady 
Mary Herbert, only furviving 
•laughter of the late Duke of Powis, 
in her ninetieth year, at Paris. 

Walter Biddulph, Efq; uncle to 
the prefent Sir Theophilus Bid- 
dulph, Bart, at Barton under Need- 
wood, in Stafford (hire. 

4. TheRev.Dr.Cholwich, Vi- 
car of Ermington and Holbeton, in 
Devonfhire, and Prebendary of the 
cathedral of Exeter. 

8. Sir Jofeph Knight, Rear-Ad- 
miral of the White, at Harwich. 

9. The Right Hon. Wm. Earl of 
Glencairne, Major-General in his 



majefty's fervice ; at FlnlayftowH, 
Renfrewfhire. He is fucceeded by 
his eldeft fon, James Lord Kil- 
maurs. 

12. The Hon. Charles Colvil, 
Lieutenat- General, and Colonel 
of his majefty's 69th regiment of 
foot, in the eighty-fifth year of hit 
age, at Fountain-Bridge, near 
Edinburgh. 

The Hon. Lady Yonge, relift of 
Sir William Yonge, Bart. Knight 
of the Bath, and mother of the 
prefent Sir George Yonge, Bart. 
at Waltham-Houfe, in Eflex. 

16. The right hon. Allen, Earl 
Bathurft, member of the privy 
council, and father of the prefent 
Lord Chancellor, aged 91 ; at 
Cirencefter, Gloucefterlhire. [See 
our article of Characters.] 

Monf. Strube, vice-chancellor of 
the eleflorate of Hanover, in his 
eightieth year. 

Dr. John Stevenfon, Profeflbrof 
Philofophy in the Univerfily of s 
Edinburgh. i 

The Right Hon. Canftantine 
Phipps, Baron Mulgrave, of the 
kingdom of Ireland; at the Spa, 
in Germany. His Lordfhip is fuc- 
ceeded by his eldeft fon, the Hon. ^ 
Conftantine Phipps, now Lord ■ 
Mulgrave. 

The Hon. James Haberfham, 
Efq; prefident of his majefty*s 
council of Georgia, in America. 

The Rev. Mr. Meredith, Reftor 
of Rofs, in Hereford fhire, brother 
to Sir William Meredith, Bart, at 
Briftol. 

17. Charles Allanfon, Efq; mem- 
ber of parliament for Rippon; at 
Bramhambiggen, in Yorklhire. 

Captain Thomas Forbes, aged 
102 years; at Harwich, 

18. John Conyers, Efq; mem- 
ber for Effex; at Copped Hall, in 
that county. 

Thf 



CHRONICLE, 



[213 



« 

r 



The Hon. David Falconer, bro- 
ther to Lord Halkerton; in Bury- 
Court, St. Mary Axe. 

Mifs Temple, only daughter of 
Sir Richard Temple, Bart, one of 
the commiflioners of his majeily*s 
navy; at Hackney, 

21. The Rev. Mr. Malet, Rec- 
tor of Combflory, Somerfet, and 
of Maiden Newton, Dorfet, and 
Prebendary of Gloucefter. 

23. The Hon. Captain John 
Bentinck, of his majefty*8 navy, 
fon of the late Count Bentinck, 
and grandfon of the Earl of Port- 
land. 

24. Her ferene highnefe the 
Princefs Amelia, of Mecklenburg 
Schwerin, youngell filler to the 
reigning duke. 

Sir Thomas Reynell, Bart, far 
advanced in years; in Q^een*s- 
Row, near Buckingham-Gate. He 
married in Aoguft, 1730, Sarah, one 
of the daughters of Mr. Richard 
Righton, of Chippingnorton, in 
Oxfordfhire, by whom he has left 
two fons, Richard, who fucceeds 
him in his title, now Sir Richard 
Reynell, Bart, and Thomas, a 
Lieutenant in his majeily's 62d 
regiment. 

26. The right hon. Don Anto- 
nio Lopez Suaflb, Baron and Lord 
of Auvernes le Grafs, in Brabant; 
at the Hague. 

Lady Whitmore, relift of the 
Hon. Sir Thomas Whitmore, Knt. 
of the Bath ; at Bath. 

29. Mr. Steven Winton, aged 
99, Windforforeft. 

Oaober 3. Cardinal Francis 
Koenraed, Baron von Radt, and 
Prince Bilhop of Conftance. 

4. The Hon. Mifs Mary Falco- 
ner, daughter of David, and filler 
CO the pre fen t Lord Falconer, of 



Halkertoun ; at Edinburgh, in 

Scotland. 
6. Richard Lowndes, Efq; late 

member for Bucks; at Hillefden, 

in the fame county. 

8. The right hon. the Countefs 
Dowager of TankerviJle ; at her 
houfe, in Kenfington-Square. 

10. The hon, James Cholmon- 
deley, uncle of the Earl of Chol- 
mondeley. General of his majefty's 
land forces, and Colonel of the 
6th regiment of dragoons; atRoe- 
hampton. 

Louis Nicholas Vidlor de Felix, 
ComtedeMuy, Marrtial of France, 
Knight of the French King's Or- 
ders, Governor of Ville Franche, 
Minifter and Secretary of State in 
the department of War. 

11. The Hon. Mrs. Hay, lady 
of his Excellency the Governor of 
Barbadoes; in Barbadoes. 

12. Nicholas Bonfoy, Efq; Ser- 
jeant at Arms to the Houfe of 
Commons; at his feat near Hun- 
tingdon. 

14. Monfieur de MafTow, mini- 
fter of ftate, in the revenue de- 
partment, to his Pruffian majefty. 

Scudamore Winde, Efq; one of 
theAffiftant Judges of the Supreme 
Court of Judicature, and member 
of the Affembly, in Jamaica. 

Mifs Elizabeth Gordon, eldeft 
daughter of the Hon. Alexander 
Gordon, and the Right Hon. the 

CountefsDowager of Dumfries and 
Stair; at Perth, in Scotland. 

15. Lieutenant-General Water- 
fleben, in the fervice of his Pruf» 
iian majefty; at Berlin. 

16. The Rev. David Durell, 
D. D. principal of Hertford col- 
lege, Oxford; Prebendary of Can* 
terbury, and V ice-Chancellor of 
Oxford in I765, 1766, and 1767. 

[Q] 3 --iSaundcr*, 



ai4l 



CHRONICLE, 



— — Saunders, Efcp late gover- 
nor of Madras; in Upper Brooke- 
flreet. 

Lady Murray, at Kenfington. 
20. The Right Hon. Alexander 
M'Donnel, Earl of Antrim, one 
of the Lords of his Majefty's moft 
Hon. Privy Council in Ireland, and 
governor of the county of Antrim ; 
in Granby-Row, Dublin. He is 
facceeded in title and eftate by his 
only fon, the Hon, William Ran- 
dall M*Donnel, commonly called 
Lord VifcountDunluce, now Earl 
of Antrim. 

. 23. William Parry, Efq; deputy 
comptroller of his majefty*s mint, 
and clerk in the navy-office. 

25. The right hon. the Countefs 
Dowager of Kerry ; in Wigmore- 
ilreet, Cavendilh Square. Her 
lady(hip was daughter to the Earl 
of Cavan. Her Lady{hip*s iirft 
hufband was the Earl of Kerry, by 
whom (he had ifTae the prefent 
Earl, and Lady Anne married to 
Maurice Fitzgerald, Efq. She 
married fecondly, James Tilfon, 
Efq; by whom Ihe had ilTue, one 
daughter, Mrs. Mahon, to whom 
fhe has bequeathed the refidue of 
her fortune. 

The Rev. Dr. Robert Trail, 
ProfefTor of Divinity, at Glafgow. 

27. Sir Francis Whichcote, Bart, 
at Grantham, Lincoln/hire; he is 
fucceeded in title and ellate by his 
cldeft fon Chriftopher Whichcote, 
now Sir Chriftopher Whichcote, 
Baronet, of Afwarby, in the county 
of Lincoln. 

The Baron Rotwell, in New 
Bond-ftreet. 

31. Lately, Sir John Molef- 
worth, Bart, member in the pro- 
fent parliament for Cornwall, and 
Colonel of the Cornilh regiment 



of militia; at Pencarrow, in Corn- 
wall. 

November 6. Peter Burrell, Efq; 
furveyor of his majefty's crown 
lands, father to the Lady of Lord 
Algernoon Percy, fecond fon to 
the Duke of Northumberland. 

7. James Coke, Efq; great* 
uncle to the prefent LordVifcount 
Grimfton. 

10. Stephen Penny, Efq; comp- 
troller of the Excife in Scotland. 

Mrs. Peachey, filler to Sir J, 
P.eachey, Bart. 

13. His moH ferene highnefs 
Chriftian IV. Prince Palatine of 
Deux-Ponts, at his palace of Peter- 
fheim. His highnefs is fucceeded 
by his nephew. Prince Charles of 
Deux-Ponts. 

Henry Forrefler, Efq; firft ge- 
neral accomptant of the revenue of 
excife, in Great Kirby-ftreet, Hat- 
ton-Garden. 

Dr. Henry Seafon, Phyfician and 
Aftronomer, and writer of the Al- 
manack under his name; atBrom- 
ham, in Wilt?. 

James Smollet, of Bonhill, Efq; 
one of the commifTaries of Edin- 
burgh. 

14. John Smith, Efq; member j 
in parliament for the city of Bath. 1 

16. The Hon. Mrs. Ofborn, 
only daaghter of the Admiral Lord 
Viicount Torrington, and grand- 
mother to Sir George Olborn, 
Bart. 

Adam Hay, Efq; member of 
parliament for the fliire of Peebles, j 
in Scotland. ' 

21. Lieutenant General Cad- 
waliader; in Ireland. j 

The Right Hon. Lord Blaney, ^^ 
Colonel of the 38th regiment oif 
Foot, in Ireland. 

Sir John Hill, Knt. of the Polar , 
Star, 



CHRONICLE. 



[215 



Star, a Swedifh order ; in Golden- 
fquare. [See our article of Cha- 
rafters for this yekr.] 

28. Roger Hope Elletfon, Efq; 
late Lieutenant-Governor of Ja- 
inaicaj at Bath. 

The Right Kon. Thomas Earl 
of Caflilis, one of the fixteen Peers 
for Scotland in the prefent Parlia- 
ment, at Callean. His Lordihip is 
fucceeded in titles and dilate by his 
only brother, David Kennedy, Efq; 
of Newark. 

Lately, Sir George Hr.wkinfon, 
Knt. Phyfician to King George the 
Firft. 

Dec. 3. Cardinal Vincent Mal- 
vezzi, at Cento, in Italy. 

7. Admiral Sir Charles Saun- 
ders, Knt. of the Bath, Member 
for Hcyrlon, in Yorkfhire, Ad- 
miral of the Blue Squadron, 
Lieutenant-General of Marines, 
end Eider Brother of the Trinity 
Houfe, in Spring-j{:.rdens. [See 
our article of Charaders for this 
year.] 

Lauy Elizabeth Vanaxe Sam- 
brock-, rcli«^ of Sir Samuel Vanaxe 
Sa:nbro( ':, Bart, and mother of the 
late Sir J -ere my, aged 94. 

8. Cardinal Fabricio Serbelloni, 
Bifhop of Ollia, it Rome. 

12. TheRight Honourable Lady 
Dowager Martha Chedworth, in 
Leicefter. fields. 

15. Louis Cafimir, Sovereign 
Count of YfembergjBudingen, 6£c. 
at Budingen. '' 

18. Robert Dods, Efq; March- 
mont Herald at Arms, at Edin- 
burgh, 

19. Sir Richard Spry, Rer.r- 



Ad.riral of the White, in De« 
vonfhire. 

20. John Scott, Efq; Major-Ge- 
neraj of his Majefty's Forces, Co- 
lonel of the 26th Regiment of Foot, 
and Member of Parliament for the 
county of Fife, at Balcomie, in 
the fai.^ county. 

Lord Hobart, only fon of the 
Right Hon. the Earl of Buckings 
hamlhire. 

21. The Hon. Mr«. Parker, Lady 
of John Parker, Efq; one of the 
Reprefentatives for the county of 
Devon, and fifter to Lord Grant- 
ham, at prefent Ambaflador at 

.Madrid, at Saltram, in Devon- 
Ihise. 

22. The Hon. Peyton Randolph, 
Efq; Speaker of the Houfe of Bur- 
gefl'es in Virginia, and latePrefident 
of the Continental Congrefs, in 
Virginia. 

23. Lady Lowager Dering, at 
Den[on, Kent. 

John Owen, Efq; Lieutenant- 
General of his Majefty's Forces, 
and Colonel of the 59ih Regiment 
of Foot, at Bath. 

The Rev. Erafmus Saunders, 
Reclor of St. Martin in the Fields, 
and one of the Prebendaries of the 
Cathedral of Rochcfter, at Briftol. 

30. Mrs. Monk, fifter to the late 
General Bligh, and aunt totheEarl 
of Parniey, jn Cecil-llreet, 

31. Charles Milborne, of Wone- 
(low, in Monmouthlhire, Efq; bro- 
ther-in-law to the Earl of Oxford. 

Lady Irwine, mother to the pre- 
fent Lieutenant-General Sir John 
Irwine, K» B. 

Cardinal Vegch]s, at Rome, 



[0]4 



A P P E N- 



[ ^i6 3 



APPENDIX to the CHRONICLE. 



Some Account of the nenxj Entertain* 
ment, called a Regatta, introduced 
from Venice into England, in the 
Courfe of the Tear 1 77 5. 

ON Friday the 23i of June, 
preparations vvtre made in 
the morning for the celebration of 
this long-expeded fhow. Before 
noon feveral of the companies* and 
great numbers of pleafure-barges 
were moored in the river, with 
flags, &c. Haifa guinea was alk- 
ed for a feat in a common barge. 

Early in the afternoon, the whole 
river from London bridge to the 
Ship tavern, Milbank, was covered 
with veHVls of pleafure, and there 
feemed to be a general combination 
to make a gay evening.— Above 
1200 flags were flying before four 
o'clock; and fuch was the public 
impatience, that fcores of barges 
were filled at that time. — Scaffolds 
were ereded on the banks and in 
veffcls ; and even on the top of 
Weflminfter-hall there was an erec- 
tion of that kind. — Veffeis were 
moored in the river, for the faleof 
liquors, and other refrelhments. 

Before five o'clock, Weftminfter 
bridge was covered wiih fpeftators, 
in carriages and on foot, and men 
even placed themfelves in the bo- 
dies of the lamp-irons. Plans of 
the regatta were fold from a (hil- 
ing to a penny each, and fongs on 
theoccafion fung, in which Regatta 
was the rhyme for Ranelagh, and 
Rojal Family echoed to Liberty* 



The tops of the houfes were cover- 
ed, and the fafties of many win- 
dows taken out; and perhaps iherii 
was not one boat difengaged whofe 
owner chofe to work. Before fix 
o^clock it was a perfedl fair on both 
fides the water, and bad liquor, 
with (hort meafure, was plentifully 
retailed. The bells of St. Martin's 
were rung in the morning, and 
thofe of St. Margaret's during the 
afternoon. 

The whole river formed a fplen- 
did fcene, which was proportion- 
ably more fo nearer to Weltminller 
bridge, A river barge, ufed to 
take in ballaft, was, on this occa- 
fion, filled with the finell ballaft in 
the world— above 100 elegant la- 
dies. — The avenues to the bridge 
were covered with gambling-tables. 
Occafional conftablesguardedevery 
paffiige to the water-fide, and took 
money for admiflion, from half a 
crown to a penny. Soon after fix, 
drums, fifes, horns, trumpets, &c. 
formed feveral little concerts under 
the feveral arches of the bridge. 
This was fucceeded by firing of 
cannon from a platform before the 
Duke of Richmond's, who, as well 
as his Grace of Montague, and the 
Earl of Pembroke, had fplendid 
companies on the occafion. At 
half paft feven, the Lord Mayor's 
barge moved, and falling down the 
fi:ream made a circle towards the 
bridge, on which 21 cannon were 
fired as a falute ; and jull before it 
reached the bridge the wager-boats 
ftarted. 



APPENDIX to the CHRONICLE. [217 



I darted, on the fignal of firing a 
fingle piece of cannon. They were 
abfent near 50 minutes; and on 
their return, the whole proceflion 
moved, in a pifturefque irregulari- 
ty, towards Ranelagh. TheThamcs 
was now a floating town. All the 
cutters, failing-boats, &c. in ihort, 
every thing, irom the dung-barge 
to the wherry, was in motion. 

The company landed at the flairs 
about nine o'clock, when they 
joined the aflembly which came by 
land, in the Temple of Neptune, 
a temporary oftagon kind of build- 
ing, erefted about 20 yards below 
the rotunda, lined with ftriped linen 
of the different coloured flags of the 
navy, with light pillars near the 
centre, ornamented with flreamers 
of the fame kind loofely flowing, 
and lullres hanging between each. 
—It happened, however, that this 
building was not fwept out, or even 
finifhed, when the company af- 
fembled, which prevented the co- 
tillion dancing till after fupper. 
This room difcovered great talle; 
but we cannot reconcile the temple 
of Neptune's being fupplied with 
muficians in Sylvan habits. 

At half after ten the rotunda was 
opened for fupper, which difcovered 
three circular tables, of different 
elevations, elegantly fet out, iho* 
not profufely covered. The ro- 
tunda was finely illuniinaied with 
party-coloured lamps, and thofe 
difplayed with great tafte and de- 
licacy ; the centre was folely ap- 
propriated for one of the fulieft and 
fineft bands of mufic, vocal and 
inftrumental,evercollededin thefe 
kingdoms ; the number being 240, 
in which were included the firft 

^ mafters, led by Giardini; and the 
whole direfted by Mr. Simpfon, in 
a manner that did him great credit. 



It was opened with a new grand 
piece f ompofed for the occafion, af- 
ter which various catches and glees 
were admirably fung by MefTrs. 
Vernon, Reinhold, &c. &c. But 
the illumination of the orchedra 
had been unfortunately overlooked, 
which gave that part of the defiga 
a gloomy appearance. 

Supper being over, a part of the 
company retired to the temple, 
where they danced minuet*, cotil- 
lions, &c. without any regard to 
precedence ; while others enter- 
tained themfelves in the great 
room. Several temporary llruc- 
tures were erefted in the gardens, 
fuch as bridges, palm-trees, &c. 
&c. which were intended to difco- 
ver fomething novel in the illumi- 
nation ftyle, but the badnefs of the 
evening prevented their being ex- 
hibited. 

The company confifted of about 
2000, among whom were the firfl 
perfonages of diftinftion, viz. their 
Royal Highnefies the Dukes of 
Gloucefterand Cumberland, Duke 
of Northumberland, Lords North, 
Harrington, Stanley, Tyrconnel, 
Lincoln, their refpedive Ladies, 
&c. alfo Lords Lyttelton, Coleraine, 
Carlifle, March', Milbourne, Chol- 
mondeley, Peterfham, &c. the 
French, Spanilh, Pruffian, Ruflian, 
and Neapolitan ambafTadors, &•€• 
&c. 

His Royal Highnefs the Duke of 
Gloucefter, accompanied by Lord 
Cholmondeley, theDuchefs of Bol- 
ton, and her filter, went on board 
his Royal Highnefs's barge, at So- 
merfet Stairs, to fee the regatta. 

The Duke of Cumberland, ac- 
companied by the Hon. Mifs Lut- 
trell, theLadies Ferrers, Ranelagh, 
&c. went on board his Royal High- 
nefs's barge, at Somerfet Stairs, 

and 



si8] 



APPENDIX TO 



and was rowed to Weftminftcr 
bridge to fee the regatta. The 
royal ftandard was hoifted on board 
the barge. 



A State of the Difpute bet<ween the 
Count </(? Guines, Amhajfadorfrom 
the Court of France, againjl his 
late Secretaries the Si ears Tort 
and Roger, and the Sieur Delpech, 
<with theDecifion of the Judges *. 

ne Count* s State of the Matter. 

/-Tp-> jjE Count, on being ap- 
J[ pointed ambafTador to the 
court of London, at the commence- 
jnent of the difpute between the 
courts of London and Madrid re- 
fpeding Falkland's Iflands, em- 
ployed the Sieur Tort as his chief 
iecretary for private affairs, and the 
Sieur Roger as his deputy. The 
former of thefe, with one Delpech, 
and a teacher of French in London, 
he declares to have been concerned 
together in fraudulently fmuggling 
goods into England, under his 
name. But this trade, however 
beneficial, was not, it feems, fuffici- 
ent togratifytheavariceof the Sieur 
Tort. He prefently formed an ac- 
quaintance with a woman, who af- 
fumed the title of Countefs of Mo- 
riencourt, and who was intimately 
conneAed with Mr. Salvadore the 
Jew, and with a number of itock- 
jobbers. To them, and to the 
Sieurs Herziiello and Morphy, the 
Sieur Bordieu, the Sieur Chollet, 
the Sieur Theluffon, and others, he 



offered to communicate his Excel- 
lency's difpatches, on condition of 
being allowed a third of the pro- 
fits which might accrue from their 
fpeculations ; and he even fcrupled 
not to affure them, that the ambaf- 
fador was not only privy to this 
proceeding, but was alfo to reap a 
feparatc emolument from it him- 
felf. 

It was by an anonymous letter, 
received by Prince MaiTerano in 
March, 1771, that the Count firft 
obtained intelligence thatTorthad 
the fmallefl connexion with the 
public funds: in which clandeflinc 
practice, be it at the fame time re- 
marked, the Sieur Roger, and one 
Vauchon, who alfo belonged to the 
ambaffador's fuite, were concerned 
with him ; in the belief, as they 
protefted, that it was not without 
his excellency'* approbation. 

From this period, theSieurTort 
was denied all accefs to the ambaf- 
fador*s difpatches ; and, from this 
period, all his tranfadions in the 
Alley, and thofe of his aflbciates, 
were fo abfurdly conducted, that 
they could not poifibly have been 
direded by one in his fecrets. The 
obje<5l of their fpeculations was, to 
lower the funds, when they ought 
to have raifed them : inftead of 
gaming on the certainty of a peace, 
they gamed on the certainty of 
a war; and the 19th of April 
convinced them of their error, by 
bringing events to light, of which 
the Count, in his public charader, 
had received authentic information 
a confiderable time before. Stocks 
rofe confiderably; and, on the 20th, 



* From M moire pour Ic Comte df Gulncg, et Mcm«ire centre \t Comtc, 
publifhed iatel) at Paris* 

the 



THE CHRONICLE. [iip 



the Sieur Tort, having obtained 
leave feme time before to pafs a 
few days in the country with cer- 
tain merchants of his acquaintance, 
eloped to France. On the 21ft, the 
Countefs of Moriencoart waited 
upon his Excellency, to whom ihe 
was an utter ftranger, and, with 
great agitation, begged to know if 
he could inform her where the Sieur 
Tort was; adding, that doubtlefs 
he could not be ignorant of the vaft 
fums, which, by Tort*s orders, Mr. 
Salvadore had funk for his Excel- 
lency in the Alley. This vifit of 
the Countefs opened the whole fcene 
ofimpoilure; and as it then ap- 
peared, that the Sieurs Roger and 
Vauchon wer^ acceffary to it, the 
,ambafladorinftkntly difmifled them 
both. 

His Excellency omitted nomea- 
fure which might remove a pofii- 
bility of doubt of his own inno- 
cence, and bring to juftice the of- 
fender Tort, whofe guilt appeared 
every day more flagrant. The firft 
intelligence received of him was, 
that hewasatMontreuil,where Sal- 
vadore, by appointment, prefently 
joined him. There they had a 
Jong private conference together; 
and from Montreuil they wer« tra- 
ced to Chantilly, where a fecond 
conference took place, and where 
Salvadore left Tort, and fetout for 
Paris. From Chantilly, the latter 
wrote a letter to his Excellency, 
exprcfling, among other things, his 
contrition for what was palt, and 
his hopes of meriting forgivenefs, 
by his future conduct. 

In order to facilitate the appre- 
hending of him, the Ambaflador 
immediately tranfmitted the con- 
tents of this letter to the Duke de 
^a Viilliere, then minifter for fo- 



reign affairs. As for Salvadore, on 
his arrival in Paris, he fentfor the 
Sieur Boyer, the Count's hotnme d* 
affaires, and told him, that the 
Count de G nines owed him 85,000 
livres, which, by his Excellency's 
private directions, he had funk for 
him in the Englifh funds; that he 
was well affured the Sieur Boyer 
would reimburfe him ; and that, 
for particulars, he referred him to 
M. Tort, at Chantilly. The Sieur 
Boyer accordingly went thither ; 
and Tort, thinking to intimidate 
him, complained aloud of the Am- 
baffador, and faid, he had facrificed 
hinjfelf to his interefts. Borne 
away oy paffion, hovvever, he inad- 
vertently ndded, that, if his Excel- 
lency gave him a Jiab before his face, 
he nx'ould give his Excellency a fab 
behind his back, ivhich he little ex- 
peSed. 

At length an order was ifTued by 
the D uke de Vrilliere to arreft Tort; 
of which, receiving information 
from Delpech, who then relideJ at 
Paris, he ftole away from Chantilly 
to the capital ; where, from a coun- 
ter information of the fame Del- 
pech, he was apprehended on the 
28th of April, and committed to 
the Ballille. On the 30th of June 
the Duke de la Vrilliere wrote to 
the Ambaflador,requeftinghis opi- 
nion, whether the baniftiing Tort 
from Paris, to the dillance of 20 
leagues, would be a proper punifti- 
mentfor himr — His Excellency in- 
filled on more feverity ; and, while 
matters were in this uncertainty, 
the Duke d*Aguillon fuccefded to 
the department of foreign affairs. 
From this minifter the Count un- 
e^pedtedlyreceived letters of recall, 
at the end of Auguft ; and, on his 
return, was informed, to his utter 
allonifh- 



220] 



APPENDIX TO 



aftonifhment, that the fecret objeft 
of this recall was, an accufation 
"brought againft him by Tort, the 
very man whomlie had himfelf ac- 
cufed, and delivered into the hands 
of government. 

Though the Sieur Tort produced 
'HO proof of his charge, yet the 
Count thought it his duty, in fe- 
veral memorials, prefenied to the 
King in council, to make it appear 
that the whole was an abfurd and 
contradidory piece of calumny. 
This he could not but fuppofe he 
had done efFedlually ; as it was the 
condition on which he was to be 
reinftated in the embafly. On the 
loth of January, 1772, he returned 
to England. Tort left the Baftille 
a few days after ; and the firfl ufe 
he made of his liberty, was to fpread 
a report, that he had been juftified 
by his Majefty's council. This 
falfehood the Count contradifted, 
in a fpirited letter to the Sieur 
ThelufTon, one of the perfons with 
whom Tort had fpeculated in the 
funds; which being tranfmitted to 
the French miniilry, ferved as a 
pretext for the criminal profecution 
to which he is now expofed. By 
command of his Majefty, however, 
a (lop was put to the proceedings 
till the 4th of June, 1773, the King 
of England's birth-day, when his 
Excellency afked and obtained 
leave to return, and vindicate his 
character in perfon. 

Though it was not till fome days 
after the ftipulated time, that the 
letters of recall arrived, yet his 
Excellency found, that the Sieur 
Tort had already lodged a criminal 
information againft him at Calais; 
and, on that account, in order to 
preferve the reprefentative of his 
Majefty's perfon from indignity, 
he found himfelf under the humi- 



liating ncccffity of returning t© 
France by way of Dieppe. 

7he Sieur Tort'j State. 

HE maintains, that, in all his 
tranfaftions in the Alley, he was 
nothing more than an agent of the 
Count de Guines. On his arrival 
in London, fays the Sieur Tort, his 
Excellency retained in his pay no 
lefs than fourfcore domeftics, be- 
fides a dozen valets de chambre, and 
a bandof muiicians. By a letter of 
unlimited credit on Walpole, the 
banker, he was enabled to fupport 
fo expenfive a retinue, till about 
the end of December, 1770; when, 
that refource failing, he was re- 
duced to the neceffity of either 
living with lefs fplendor, or fpecu- 
lating in the funds. The latter 
alternative he adopted; and, as fe- 
crecy was neceffary, he employed 
in that fervice, as every AraafTador 
ought to do, a man in whom he 
could confide. 

That his tranfafiions in the Al- 
ley wer6 fo unfortunate, adds the 
Sieur, there can be little caufe to 
wonder; from his utter ignorance 
of what was going forward between 
the courts of London and Madrid, 
till the 19th of April, when it was 
publicly anounced to the whole 
kingdom, that, the mifunderftand- 
ing being adjufted, there would be 
no war. It was by his Excellency's 
orders, given to him in private, 
that he left London on the 20th, 
He was not even allowed to delay 
his departure a moment, his Ex- 
cellency being every minute afraid, 
that fome of the perfons, who had 
fpeculated fo deeply on his account, 
fhould appear before him as his 
creditors, and that he fhould not 
have the confidence to declare, to 

his 



THE CHRONICLE, 



[221 



Kis face, that Tort was not his 
agent. The Count had afferted, 
that theSieurTort eloped to France, 
under the pretext of paffing a few 
days in the country, with certain 
merchants of his acquaintance, to 
which he had obtained his Excel- 
lency's confent fome days before. 
The prefent Memorialill refers to 
the AmbaiTador's letter, of the 
24th of June, 1 77 1, to the minif- 
ter; in which he exprefsly fays, 
that, on the ZOth of Aprils at nine in 
the mornings he gave him lea*ve to 
pay a 'vijit to the Count e/s of Morien- 
court*. 

His meeting with Salvadore at 
Montreuil, he infinuates, was per- 
feftly accidental. He even de- 
clares, that, though he had an in- 
terview with him at Chantilly af- 
terwards, yet the only motive he 
had for feeking that interview was, 
to communicate to him in confi- 
dence what had happened to his 
Excellency, and to requefl his ad- 
vice upon it. He owns his having 
written a letter to the Ambaflador 
fromChantilly, though by no means 
a penitential one, or at all the fame 
with that alluded to by his anta- 
gonilh On the particulars of his 
interview with the Sieur Boyer, he 
is rather referved ; though he ex- 
culpates Delpech from the charge 



of betraying him into the hands of 
government; and afTerts, that Boyer 
fent this man thither, in order to 
prevail with him to leave France f. 

I'he Decijion of this Difpute, 

ON the 2d day of June, 1775, 
the criminal chamber of theChate- 
let paiTed fentence in the caufe be- 
tween the Count de Guines and the 
Sieurs Tort and Roger, his fecrf u- 
ries. It is in fubrtance as follows : 

* The complaint of the Sieur 
Tort againft the Count de Guines, 
refpefting his gaming in the Eng- 
lifti funds, is declared calumnious, 
and he is condemned to make repa- 
ration to the Ambaffador, accord- 
ing to a procefs to be drawn up; 
he is further condemned in a fine 
of 300 livres far damages, to be 
given, with the confent of the 
Count, to the prifoners in the Cha- 
telet. 

« With refpeft to the complaint 
of the Count againft Tort and Ro- 
ger, for having betrayed the fecrets 
of the ftaie, the two latter are ex- 
pelled from the court. The Sieor 
Tort is to pay five fixths of the 
expence of the procefs, and the 
Count the other Cxth. The other 
parties are to pay their own ex- 
pences.* 



• As a proof of the Ambaflador's delinquency, the Sieur Tort aflerts, that 
on the morning after liis departure, when the Countefs of Morlencourt, full 
of alarm and apprehenfion, waited upon him to know if he could give her any 
tidings of the Sieur, his Excellency confefTed to her he was ruined in London, 
fqueezed her by the hand, and conjured her, in the name of God, not to [peak fit 
loud, 

t It would be a great pity to omit, on this occafion, the very honourable 
teftimony the Count de Guines gives of three French merchants, MefTieurs 
Beaumont, Darnauld, and Fagan. He fays that thcfe honelt men, being 
offered by Tort a (hare in his dealings, vrcjc fo fhocked at the iniquity of the 
plan, on which they were founded, that they refufed to have any concern ia 
them. 

f: AH 



222] 



APPENDIX TO 



All the memorials publiihed by 
Tort are ordered to be erafed, 
fupprefled, and cancelled, with a 
ilrift admonition to Mr. F. his ad- 
vocate, never to publifh any fuch 
memorials on fuch pains as fhall 
appertain. Tort, Roger and Del- 
pech, are not cleared from the ac- 
cufation made by Count de Guines 
againft them, of having abuTcd his 
name and difpatches, and for other 
jnioifterial objefts; they are only 
pat out of the Court by the Chate- 
2et upon thefe points. 



Some Account of the apprehending 
and trying ^Robert Perreau, of 
Golden -fquaref Apothecary, Daniel 
Perreau, of Harley-Jireet^ and 
Margaret Caroline Rudd, for 
divers Forgeries t &c, 

ON Saturday evening, March 
the nth, a gentleman came 
to the Public Office, in Bow-ftreet, 
in company with a woman elegantly 
drcifed, ard inquired for one of 
the Magi ftraies. William Adding- 
ton, E(q; being then in the par- 
lour, the parlies were introduced, 
when the man, after a Ihort pre- 
face, in which he acquainted the 
juftice, that his name was Robert 
Perreau, and that he had lived as 
an apothecary, for {bme time in 
Golden-fquare, in gieat reputa- 
tion, faid he was come to do him- 
felf juftice, by producing the per- 
foD, who had given him a bond 
for 7500I. which was a forgery. 
The woman denying the circum- 
ftance, and the parties mutually 
upbraiding each other, Mr. Ad- 
ciDgton thought proper, as there 
was great appearance of an iniqui- 
tons combination, to commit them 



both to Tothill-fields Bridewell, 
for further examination. 

On the next day, from a variety 
of circumftances, there being a 
llrong foundation to believe Rooert 
Perreau's brother Daniel was alfo 
concerned in the forgery, he was 
detained inTothill-fieldsB ride well, 
upon his going to pay Robert a 
vifit. 

The Wednefday following, they 
were all three examined before the 
bench of Magiftrates at Guildhall, 
Weftminiler; but nothing material 
appeared at this, or any of the 
fubfequent examinations previous 
to their trials, but what appeared 
again at the trials in a more fatis- 
fadory light ; except fome few 
fads, which have been fince found 
to be falfe ; and fome others, the 
truth of which there is, on that, 
and many other accounts, all the 
reafon in the world to difbelieve : 
we fiiall therefore proceed to the 
trials, jull taking notice, that, at 
the above-mentioned examination 
at Guildhall, Mrs. Rudd was, on 
making the ufual declarations, ad- 
mitted an evidence for the crown. 

Robert's trial fifft came on, on 
Thurfday, the firft of June, at 
eight in the morning, before Mr. 
Juftice Afton, Barons Burland and 
Hotham, &c. at the Seffions-houfe, 
in theOld-Bailey. Hewasindifted 
for uttering a bond of 7500I. under 
four counts, the firll: with an intent 
to defraud William Adair, Efq; 
the fecond to defraud Henry and 
Robert Drummond, Efqrs. and the 
other two for uttering and publifh- 
ing it, knowing it to be forged. 

"Mr. Howarth, counfel for the 
profecution, opened the trial, by 
barely recounting the charges laid 
in the indiftment; he was, follow- 
ed by Mr. Lee, on the fame fide, 

who 



THE CHRONICLE. 



[223 



who expatiated more fully on the 
nature and circumftances of the of- 
fence ; at the fame time remarking 
to the Jury, that as public jujiice 
was alone the objeft of the profe- 
cution, they were entirely to be 
guided as the favourable or unfa- 
vourable circumftances appeared to 
them. 

Mr. Henry Drummond was the 
firft witnefs called, who depofed, 
that about the 15th or 16th of lall 
January, the prifoner at the bar, 
whom he had known from being 
apothecaryin feveral families hewas 
conne<^ed with, came to him to 
borrow 1500I. to aflift him in per^ 
feiflinga purchafe, hehadjuftmade, 
which would come to 14 or 15,000!. 
that he offered to give him as fecu- 
rity the bond of a man, whom he 
would hereafter name, who was 
very rerponfible. To this Mr. 
Drummond made anfwer, that the 
tide deeds of fuch an ellate would 
alone be ample fecurity; but this 
the prifoner objefted to, as the 
bufincfs was to be tranfaded in the 
country. However, as he wanted 
the money but for ten days, he 
would give him as fecurity the leafc 
of a houfe in Harley-ftrcet, Ca- 
vendifli-fquare, wi^h his own note 
for the proper execution of the af- 
fignment. This Mr. Drummond 
accepted of. 

On the 7ih of March following, 
the prifoner came to him, and after 
apologizing to him for not being 
pon^lual to his time of payment, 
told him he had a further favour to 
beg of him, which was to borrow 
the fum of 7500 1. more on a bond 
of 'VV^illiam Adair, Efq; out of 
which he would pay Mr. Drum- 
mond his firft demand" of 1500]. 
Mr. Drummond defired to fee the 
bondf which the priibner produced* 



On Mr. Drummond's infpcftion of 
it, he expreffed his doubts of its 
being Mr. Adair's fignature ; the 
prifoner replied, there could not 
be the leaft doubt of it, for that it 
was witneffed by two of Mr^ 
Adair's domcftics, Jones and Stark ; 
that he then talked much ofMr. 
Adair's friendfhip for him, and he 
belie'ved, he faid, that this bond 
was given him by Mr. Adair as the 
balance of his account. Mr. Drum- 
mond's brother and partner com- 
ing in on this converfation, was 
fliewn the bond, who likewife be- 
lieved it not to be Mr. Adair's; 
they therefore told the prifoner to 
call the next day, and they would 
confider of it. The prifoner at 
the bar then went away, but re- 
turned about two hours afterwards, 
who faid he faw Mr. Adair juft go- 
ing out airing; that he told him 
the circumftance, and that Mr, 
Adair obferved the only reafon he 
could account for Mr. Drummond^s 
thinking it not to be his hand-writ- 
ing, was the difference of twenty 
years (much about the time Mr. 
Drummond had laft feen his figna- 
ture). This, however, did not fa- 
tisfy Meffrs, Drummonds; they flill 
doubted, and defired he would call 
next day. In the evening of that 
day, however, MefTrs. Drummond 
being refolved to be fatisfied, wait- 
ed on a friend of Mr, Adair, 
who afTured them it was not his 
hand-writing. 

About eleven o'clock next day 
the prifoner called; and, as a con- 
firmation of the fignature's being 
genuine, produced a leiter from 
Mr. Adair, figned only with the 
initials W. A. to that purpofe. 
This, however, would not faiisfy 
MefTrs. Drummonds; they there- 
fore propofed to the prifoner going 

donA* 



224] 



APPENDIX TO 



down to Mr. Adair's to put an end 
to their doubts; to this he, at firft, 
made a flight objedion, by faying. 
Perhaps he is gone out; but the 
others aiking it a fecond time, he 
very chearfully confented, and Mr. 
H. Drummond and he flept into 
the 1 itter's carriage, and drove to 
Mr. Adair's. When they arrived, 
Mr. Adair not only denied the 
whole circumftance, but even 
knowing any of the name of Per- 
reau. This feemed to aftonifh the 
prifoner, as well as the reft of the 
parlies, which made the former 
reply, ** Surely, Sir, you are jo- 
cular.'* However, on Mr. Adair's 
perfifting in the contrary, the pri- 
foner feemed to be agitated, and 
faid, '« Send for Mrs. D. Perreau, 
and Ihe will explain this matter." 
Mrs. D. Perreau (Mrs. Rudd) was 
accordingly fent for; who, upon 
being preffed to tell what (he knew 
about it, confefTcd herfelf to be 
the perfon who forged the bond, 
,and that fhe made this difcovery 
fooner than let an innocent man, 
with a large family fuffer. Mr. 
Drummond then faid, he did not 
fee her till the Saturday following 
at Sir John Fielding's, along with 
the prifoner and his brother. 

Mr. G. Wheatly (Clerk to MefT. 
Drummondsbank)circumftantially 
corroborated the above evidence, as 
did Mr. Drummond's brother, with 
this further circumftance; that 
when the latter doubtedMrs.Rudd's 
powers to forge Mr. Adair's name, 
Ihe took up a flip of paper, and 
wrote the name in every refpedl 
fimilar to that at the bottom of 
the bond. 

Sir Thomas Frankland depofed, 
that the prifoner was his apothe- 
cary for fifteen years ; he always 
believed him to be an honeft man. 



and had lent him, at different 
times, feveral fums of money on 
bonds, particularly one of Mr, 
Adair's, for 4000I. on the 24th 
December, 1774, which was to be 
paid the 29th March laft. 

Mr. R. Wilfon depofed, he filled 
the bond attempted to be paffed to 
Meflrs. Drummond; that he had 
it from the prifoner at the bar, 
with a minute in his own hand- 
writing, direding him to fill it up 
as a debt due from W. Adair, Efq; 
to R. Perreau, Efq; which minute 
he afterwards defired him to burn, 
the prifoner at the bar firft croffing 
it with a pen. 

Mr. Oglevie depofed, that he 
was in a familiar acquaintance with 
Mr. Adair's hand-writing, and that 
T^at at the bottom of the bond was 
RO way like it. 

Mr. J. Adair depofed the fame ; 
and Mr. Jones, one of the fuppofed 
fubfcribing witnefles, declared his 
name to be a forgery. 

Thefe evidences being all gone 
through, the prifoner ehtered on 
his defence, which he read from 
his notes, Mr. Juftice Afton having 
previoufly pointed out tohim^wi^^r* 
It was neceflary for him to be par- 
ticular. The prifoner was an hour 
and twenty minutes reading it, 
whTch principally confifted in a de- 
tail of the many artifices made ufe 
of by Mrs. Rudd to engage him to 
get thofe bonds difcounied. — That 
Ihe was conftantly converiing about 
the intereft flie had with Mr. Wil- 
liam Adair. — That, among other 
things, Mr. Adair had, by his in- 
tereft with his majefty, obtained a 
promife of a baronetage for Mr. 
Daniel Perreau, and was about pro- 
curing him a feat in parliament; — 
That Mr. Adair had promifed to 
open a bank, and to take the two 
Perreaus 



THE CHRONICLE. 



[225 



Perreaus into partnerfhip with him. 
—That he received many letters 
figncd William Adair, which he 
did not doubt really came from 
William Adair.—That, Mr. Wm. 
Adair had promifed to give them 
a very confiderable part of his for- 
tune during his life; and was to 
allow Mr. Daniel Perreau two thou- 
fand five hundred pounds per ann. 
for his houlhold expences, and fix 
hundred pounds per ann. for her 
pin-money. — That Mr. Daniel Per- 
reau purchafed a houfe in Harley- 
ftreet for four thoufand pounds, 
which money Mr. William Adair 
was to give them.— That when 
Daniel Perreau was prefled by the 
perfon he bought the houfe of for 
the money, the prifoner underftood 
they applied to Mr. W. Adair, and 
that his anfwer was, That he had 
lent the King Teventy thoufand 
pounds, and had purchafed a houfe 
tn Pall-mall at feven thoufand 
pounds to carry on the banking 
bufincfs in ; therefore could not 
fpare the four thoufand pounds at 
that lime. And that Mrs. Rudd 
told him, (the prifoner) that Mr. 
Adair defired that he would get a 
bond for five thoufand three hun- 
dred pounds filled up> as he had 
done once before, and Mr. Adair 
would execute it. — That after Wil- 
fon had filled up the bond, he de- 
livered it to Mrs. Rudd, who gave 
it to the prifoner, a day or two af- 
ter, executed. — That he borrowed 
the four thoufand pounds upon this 
bond, which was dated the 20th 
of December, of Sir Tho. Frank- 
land, and delivered Sir Thomases 

draught to Mrs. Rudd That 

abont the loth of March he told 
Mrs. Rudd, that Mr. Adair's bond, 
that he had given to Sir Thomas 
Frankland in November, was nearly 
VgL.XVlII. 1775. 



due; and Mrs. Rudd told him, the 
next day, that Mr. Adair defircd 
he would once more borrow for 
him five thoufand pounds. — That 
he made many objedions to being 
employed in fo difagreeable a bufi- 
nefs ; but at laft, fuppofing he 
ftiould oblige Mr. Adair, he con- 
fented, and accordingly got a bond 
filled up by the Stationer for fevea 
thoufand five hundred pounds, 
payable to himfelf.— -That he deli- 
vered it to Mrs. Rudd, on Satur- 
day the 4th of March, in the pre- 
fence of his wife, his brother, and 
Mr. Caffadey.— That Mrs. Rudd 
returned it him executed on the 
Tuefday following. And that he 
never had the leaft fufpicion but 
that the bonds were really executed 
by Mr. William Adair. — That 
when he took the bond to Mr. 
Drummond's, he did not fay that 
he had himfelf feen it executed by 
Mr. Adair, but that he knew it 
was Mr. Adair's hand-writing, as 
he had often feen letters from Mr. 
Adair to Mr. Daniel Perreau and 
his wife. — That when he informed 
Mrs. Rudd of the obfervaiions Mr. 
Drummond had made upon the fig. 
nature to the bond, Ihe went our, 
and upon her return Ihe told him 
(he had feen Mr. Adair juft as he 
was going out a riding; and that 
Mr. Adair told her, that the alter- 
ation in the lignature was merely 
the difference between age and 
youth, and that it was his hand- 
writing, and that he told Mr. 
Drummond fo ; and that he knew 
nothing of its being a forgery till 
the interview with Mr. Adair. 

All thefecircumftances, he grant- 
ed, made again II his underjiandingi 
but he hoped the jultice of the 
Court would judge of him by his 
intentions, which he appealed to 

{P\ God 



a26J 



APPENDIX TO 



God in the moft folemn manner, 
were not in the leaft degree cri- 
minal. 

A croud of witnefles were then 
■called to the prifoner^s charafter, 
and in particular a man and maid- 
fervantofD.Perreau's,whobothde- 
pofedjThatMrs.Ruddufed to write 
letters herfelf addreffed to D. Per- 
reau ,and defire them to fay they were 
left by Mr. Adair for him ; that a 
double rap was likewife often heard 
at the door, aid that Mrs. Rudd 
ufed to be in waiting, ftep afide, 
write a card as if from Mr. Adair, 
and carry it up flairs to Mr. Daniel 
Perreau. Amongft thewitnefles to 
his charadler were likewife many 
refpeftable perfons; fuch as Lady 
Lyttelton, Sir John More, K. B. 
Sir J. Chapman, General Trapaud, 
Caefar Hawkins, Efq; Dr. Baker, 
and a number of refpeftable Phy- 
ficians, who all were unanimous in 
giving him the bed of charafters. 

The Judge then fummed up the 
cyidence to the Jury, with an ac- 
curacy and impartiality which did 
him great honour; and the Jury, 
after retiring for about ten mi- 
nutes, brought in their verdid, 
*' Guilty of publifhing and utter- 
** ing the bond, knowing it to be 
" forged." 

Daniel Perreau was then fet to 
the bar, as charged in the indift- 
ment, with forging the above 
bond; but it not appearing on the 
trial, he was the leaft concerned in 
it, he was of courfe immediately 
acquitted. 

The next morning, Friday, 
June 2, at nine o'clock, Daniel 
Perreau was fet to the bar before 
Mr. Juftice Afton and Baron Ho- 
tham, charged on another indid- 
ment of four counts. The firft for 
forging a bond on William Adair, 



Efq; in penalty 620CI. conditional- 
ly 3100I. the fecond, publifhing 
that bond, with an intent to de- 
fraud Dr. Thomas Brooke ; the 
third and fourth for uttering and 
publifhing it, contrary to laws 
made and provided for that pur- 
pofe. 

Mr. Howarth, Counfel for the 
profecution, opened the cafe to the 
Jury, and, after briefly ftating to 
them the particular circumflances 
of the forgery and publication 
chargeable on the prifoner, obferv- 
ed, that from the long and familiar 
intimacy the profecutor, Doftor 
Brooke, had with the prifoner, it 
was with great pain of mind he 
was neceffiiated to appear againfl 
him ; and that, as nothing but the 
love of public Juflice could induce 
him thus to appear, all he wifhed 
by it was, that it fhould operate as 
it ought ; he therefore f^id he 
would urge nothing further for 
their confideration than the evi- 
dences which fhould be laid before 
them. 

Dr. Thomas Brooke was there- 
fore called upon, who depofed, that 
he had a very great intimacy with 
the prifoner ; that, on the firft of 
November, 1774, he applied to 
him to borrow a fum of money for 
a little time; the Doctor told him, 
he had not then any money at his 
banker's, but what would be only 
fufficient for his own private ufe ; 
upon which the prifoner at the bar 
replied, ** Have you not got fome 
" Air bonds? (bonds belonging to 
<' the late bank in Air) Let me 
" have them, and I will give you 
*» asfecurityabond of Mr. Adair's, 
** the late agent in Pall-mall." 
This theDoftor confented to, anil 
accordingly gave him (taking Mr. 
Adair*s bond, payable to Daniel 
Perreau, 



THE CHRONICLE. 



[227 



Perreao> witnefled by MefTrs. Jones 
and Stark, the fame two fublcrib- 
ing witncffes as to Robert Perreau's 
bond) fifteen Air bonds, each of 
the value of lool. which 1500 1, 
was to have been paid in eight 
days time. Some time after the 
expiration of the eight days. Dr. 
Brooke called on him for the piy- 
ment of the money; but the pri- 
foncr begged him to have a little 
further patience, for that he had 
lodged the bonds in Druramond's 
bank, and would take them out in 
a few days. Upon this Dr. Brooke 
was fatisfied,and never heard more 
of it till he heard of Robert Per- 
reau's being taken up for forgery, 
which led him to fufpedl, that the 
bond which he had of the prifoner 
was of the fame counterfeit fpecies, 
and which, upon enquiry of Mr. 
W. Adair, he found to be faft. 

Upon crofs-examination by Mr. 
Bearcroft, Dr. Brooke was afked his 
opinion of the prifoner before this 
charge, who anfwered, he had the 
higheft one both of his integrity 
and friendfhip, otherwife he would 
have had no dealings with him. 
He was likewife afked, whether he 
knew the prifoner had furrendered 
of his own accord, or fuffered him- 
felf to be taken? To which the 
Doftor faid, he did not pofitive- 
ly know. The bond was then 
read. 

Richard Wilfon (the fcrivener 
who filled the bond on which R. 
Perreau was the day before con- 
vidled of publilhing, knowing it 
to be forged) was next examined, 
who depofed, he had filled up the 
prefent bond, but could not poli- 
tively fwear which of the two 
Perreaus brought it to him, though 
he knew he had filled no other 
bond with the name of Adair, bat 



what was brourjht by either one or 
the other of them. 

Mr. Ogilby, who lives with Mr. 
Adair, pofitively fwore the figna- 
ture of William Adair to the bond^ 
was not Mr. Adair's hand- writing, 
nor in any literal refped like it. 

Thefe being all the evidences 
to fiipport the profecution, the 
prifoner was called upoi^ by the 
court for his defence, and inform- 
ed by them wijhere it was neceffary 
for him to be moil particular. He 
accordingly informed the Court in 
a few words, that ** He was un- 
** fortunately the dupe of an art- 
«* ful woman (Mrs. Rudd) ; and 
'* had implicitly believed thebond, 
" which he depofited with Dr. 
'* Brooke, to be a true one, and 
" really figned by Mr. Adair.*' 
This he affirmed in the moft folemti 
manner to be the real ftate of the 
cafe, otherwife he would not for 
the world be guilty of fo infamous 
an aflion. 

John Moody and Mary Browne, 
two fervants of the prifoner's, were 
then called, together with another 
maid-fervant, who all feverally re- 
lated the former circumftances 
which they had given in evidence 
on Robert Perreau's trial. 

Several refpedablcwitnefleswere 
then called to his character (amongft 
the reft General Melville) all of 
whom gave him a very good one, 
boihinrefpecl to his condudl abroad 
and at home. 

^ Mr. Juftice Afton then fummed 
up the evidence to the Jury, and 
obferved very equally on the fe- 
veral circumftances. 

The Jury withdrew for a few 
minutes, and brought in their ver- 
dift, *' Guilty of uttering and 
publifhing the bond, knowing it 
to be for pod." 

[P] 2 . But, 



2a8] 



APPENDIX TO 



But, though thefe unfortunate 
men were thus found guilty, and 
the ufual fentence accordingly paf- 
fed upon thera, they were not men- 
tioned in any report to his majefty 
till the, month of December follow- 
ing, for thofe reafons, probably, 
which we have ventured to affign 
in our Chronicle. 

In the mean time, Mrs. Rudd, 
though (he had not been called 
upon as king's evidence, at either 
of the foregoing trials, beflirred 
herfclf, to obtain the advantages of 
one. For this purpofe, on Mon- 
day, the 3d of July, ihe brought 
herfelf from Newgate, by habeas 
corpusy before the Court ci King's 
Bench, Weftminfter ; when Mr. 
Davenport fpoke as her couniel, 
and Mr, Wallace replied for the 
Crown. Mr. JulHce Afton re- 
cited what pafTed at the Old- Bai- 
ley, and Lord Mansfield gave his 
opinion of the matter as it then 
appeared. Mrs. Rudd herfelf faid 
a few words on the occafion. After 
an hour had been fpent in argu- 
ment, ihc was remanded till next 
morning, when (he was again 
brought up to the Court of 
King's Bench, Wellminfter, where 
Mr. Davenport, her Counfel, pro- 
duced an affidavit fworn to by Sir 
John Fielding, Sampfon Wnght, 
and William Addington, Etqrs. 
,This affidavit, which was read by 
the proper officer, llared the cir- 
cumilance of their admirciiig her 
an evidence for the crown againlt 
the Perreaus, as an accomplice, Mr. 
Davenport renewed his arguments 
in order to induce the Court to ad- 
mit her to bail. He was replied to 
by Mr, Wallace, Mr. Lucas, and 
Mr. Howarth, who all denied the 
authority of the Magiftraces to of- 
fer her protection, and reltcd their 



client's cafe on the illegality of the 
proceeding. Lord Mansfield then, 
in a very accurate and eloquent 
manner, delivered the opinion of 
the Court, entering into a defini- 
tion of the different modes of ad- 
miffion of felons to give evidence 
again ft their accomplices as war- 
ranted by law, in the three in- 
(lances of approvers, king's evi- 
dences agreeable to the Statutes of 
King William and Queen Anne, 
and perfons to whom a pardon had 
been promifed either by proclama- 
tion, or advertifement in the Ga- 
zette, with the King's fign ma- 
nual. His Lordfhip very clearly 
pointed out the diftinAion in each 
mode; and after having as clearly 
proved that the prifoner fell under 
neither of the three defcriptions, 
he mentioned that in fome cafes 
there arofe circumftances, which 
rendered accomplices, even though 
illegally admitted evidences, ob- 
jefts deferving mercy; and thefe 
chiefly were a regular decent be- 
haviour, and an invariable relation 
of the whole truth ; which did not, 
he faid, appear to be the cafe in the 
prefent inftance; the Court there- 
fore remanded her to Newgate. 

In confequence of this determi- 
nation, (he was next brought to 
the bar of the Old Bailey to take 
her trial, but had it put off by an 
affidavit of her own, and another 
of her attorney's,